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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Scale-Invariant Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators beyond the Two-Dimensional Limit.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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We investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) and related chiral transport in the millimeter-size (Cr_{0.12}Bi_{0.26}Sb_{0.62})_{2}Te_{3} films. With high sample quality and robust magnetism at low temperatures, the quantized Hall conductance of e^{2}/h is found to persist even when the film thickness is beyond the two-dimensional (2D) hybridization limit. Meanwhile, the Chern insulator-featured chiral edge conduction is manifested by the nonlocal transport measurements. In contrast to the 2D hybridized thin film, an additional weakly field-dependent longitudinal resistance is observed in the ten-quintuple-layer film, suggesting the influence of the film thickness on the dissipative edge channel in the QAHE regime. The extension of the QAHE into the three-dimensional thickness region addresses the universality of this quantum transport phenomenon and motivates the exploration of new QAHE phases with tunable Chern numbers. In addition, the observation of scale-invariant dissipationless chiral propagation on a macroscopic scale makes a major stride towards ideal low-power interconnect applications.
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Hydrogen photochromism in Nb2O5 powders.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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In this paper, we report on the hydrogen photochromism in Nb2O5 powders with different structures. Four different powder phases were prepared by calcining Nb2O5·nH2O powders at various temperatures, and their morphology, structure, and electronic band structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, structural analyses, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and optical spectroscopy. Nb2O5 powders with different structures and very different properties were formed after different high-temperature treatments of the polymorphous oxide. A pronounced photochromic effect was observed in the M and H phases of Nb2O5, whereas the other phases exhibited poor photochromic responses. Because photochromism arises due to the detachment of hydrogen atoms under the action of light from hydrogen donor molecules previously adsorbed on the oxide surface, the electronic band structure and the morphology have strong influences on the photochromic properties of Nb2O5 powders. For these reasons, a pronounced photochromic effect was achieved in the H phase.
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Persistent hepatitis C virus infections and hepatopathological manifestations in immune-competent humanized mice.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develops chronic infection, which causes steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, understanding HCV chronicity and pathogenesis is hampered by its narrow host range, mostly restricted to human and chimpanzee. Recent endeavour to infect a variety of humanized mice has not been able to achieve persistent HCV infection unless the essential innate immune responsive genes are knocked out. Nevertheless, such immune-compromised humanized mice still lacked HCV infection-induced hepatopathogenesis. Here we report that transgenic mice in ICR background harboring both human CD81 and occludin genes (C/O(Tg)) are permissive to HCV infection at a chronicity rate comparable to humans. In this mouse model, HCV accomplishes its replication cycle, leading to sustained viremia and infectivity for more than 12 months post infection with expected fibrotic and cirrhotic progression. Host factors favorable for HCV replication, and inadequate innate immune-response may contribute to the persistence. Lastly, NS3/4 protease inhibitor telaprevir can effectively inhibit de novo RNA synthesis and acute HCV infection of C/O(Tg) mice. Thus, chronic HCV infection with complete replication cycle and hepatopathologic manifestations is recapitulated, for the first time, in immune-competent mice. This model will open a new venue to study the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C and develop better treatments.
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The importance of the prenyl group in the activities of osthole in enhancing bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption in vitro.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Osteoporosis treatment always aimed at keeping the balance of bone formation and bone resorption. Recently, prenyl group in natural products has been proposed as an active group to enhance the osteogenesis process. Osthole has both the prenyl group and bone-protective activities, but the relationship is still unknown. In this study we found that osthole exerted a potent ability to promote proliferation and osteogenic function of rat bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, including improved cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, enhanced secretion of collagen-I, bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osteopontin, stimulated mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix, OPG (osteoprotegerin), RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand), and the ratio of OPG/RANKL, as well as increasing the formation of mineralized nodules. However, 7-methoxycoumarin had no obvious effects. Osthole also inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption to a greater extent than 7-methoxycoumarin, as shown by a lower tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and lower number and smaller area of resorption pits. Our findings demonstrate that osthole could be a potential agent to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption, and the prenyl group plays an important role in these bone-protective effects.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Lepturichthys fimbriata (Teleostei, Balitoridae, Balitorinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract Lepturichthys fimbriata is an endemic and an important commercial fish which distributes in the upper stream of the Yangtze River. In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of L. fimbriata has been first sequenced by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The mitogenome, consisting of 16,567 base pairs (bp), includes 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding control region (CR). The overall base composition of L. fimbriata is 30.4% A, 28.7% C, 16.5% G, and 24.4% T, with a relatively a slight AT bias of 54.7%. CR of 903?bp length is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence would be useful for further studies on conservation genetics and resource management in L. fimbriata.
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Polypoid colonic metastases from gastric stump carcinoma: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate polypoid colonic metastases from gastric stump carcinoma by performing a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of a patient with such a diagnosis, and by discussing other previous case studies from the literature. The patient of the present study was an 80-year-old male who had undergone a gastrectomy 48 years previously for a benign perforated gastric ulcer. A colonoscopy revealed >10 multiple polypoid lesions of 6-10 mm in diameter distributed throughout the entire colon, except in the rectum. Each lesion had either erosion or a depression at the top and several were covered with a white fur-like substance. Biopsy specimens excised from the stomach showed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with diffuse signet ring cells, and a colonoscopy-guided biopsy revealed a signet ring cell adenocarcinoma. The patient was referred to the Oncology unit (Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Beijing, China) for assessment and chemotherapy treatment, which was initiated with 1,000 mg Xeloda orally administered twice a day for two-week courses every three weeks. The patient succumbed to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and pneumonia after three months. Gastric or gastric stump carcinoma may metastasize to the colon presenting as solitary or multiple colonic polyps. Thus, it is important to consider this diagnosis as such colon metastases may mimic solitary or multiple colonic polyps, which are commonly observed. A differential diagnosis is required in this complicated situation.
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Protein competition switches the function of COP9 from self-renewal to differentiation.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is controlled by intrinsic factors and niche signals. In the Drosophila melanogaster ovary, some intrinsic factors promote germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal, whereas others stimulate differentiation. However, it remains poorly understood how the balance between self-renewal and differentiation is controlled. Here we use D. melanogaster ovarian GSCs to demonstrate that the differentiation factor Bam controls the functional switch of the COP9 complex from self-renewal to differentiation via protein competition. The COP9 complex is composed of eight Csn subunits, Csn1-8, and removes Nedd8 modifications from target proteins. Genetic results indicated that the COP9 complex is required intrinsically for GSC self-renewal, whereas other Csn proteins, with the exception of Csn4, were also required for GSC progeny differentiation. Bam-mediated Csn4 sequestration from the COP9 complex via protein competition inactivated the self-renewing function of COP9 and allowed other Csn proteins to promote GSC differentiation. Therefore, this study reveals a protein-competition-based mechanism for controlling the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Because numerous self-renewal factors are ubiquitously expressed throughout the stem cell lineage in various systems, protein competition may function as an important mechanism for controlling the self-renewal-to-differentiation switch.
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Lack of efficacy of Tai Chi in improving quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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It is controversial whether Tai Chi (TC) benefits breast cancer survivors (BCS) on quality of life (QoL). We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to assess this question.
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Brief communication: detection of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from China containing transferable quinolone resistance determinants exhibiting resistance to both aminoglycoside and ?-lactams.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Though aminoglycosides are routinely used clinically as antimicrobial agents for the treatment of severe infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, resistance to the same is an increasing problem. One such resistance mechanism is the production of 16S rRNA methylases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemology of 16S rRNA methylase genes among 43 K. pneumoniae isolates (each of which had at least one PQMR gene and ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration greater than 0.25) recovered from nine tertiary hospitals in China. Our results suggest great genetic variation in terms of 16S rRNA methylase gene of K. pneumoniae hosts containing at least one PQMR gene. This further reinforces the clinical and systemic urgency required to characterize and block their transmission routes.
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Ultrasensitive flow sensing of a single cell using graphene-based optical sensors.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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On the basis of the polarization-dependent absorption of graphene under total internal reflection, we designed a graphene-based optical refractive index sensor with high resolution of 1.7 × 10(-8) and sensitivity of 4.3 × 10(7) mV/RIU, as well as an extensive dynamic range. This highly sensitive graphene optical sensor enables label-free, live-cell, and highly accurate detection of a small quantity of cancer cells among normal cells at the single-cell level and the simultaneous detection and distinction of two cell lines without separation. It provides an accurate statistical distribution of normal and cancer cells with fewer cells. This facile and highly sensitive sensing refractive index may expand the practical applications of the biosensor.
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[Eco-physiological response of Quercus variabilis seedlings to increased atmospheric CO2 and N supply].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The effect of CO2 enhancement, nitrogen deposition and their interaction on the northern boundary (Zhuanghe in Liaoning Province) of Quercus variabilis seedlings was studied by controlling the CO2 concentration (700 micromol x mol(-1); 400 micromol x mol(-1)) and nitrogen level (non nitrogen fertilizer: CK; nitrogen fertilizer: 120 kg N x hm(-2)). The results showed that under elevated CO2 the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology, photosynthetic pigments and leaf nitrogen content tended to decrease, and the dark respiration rate decreased 63. 3% and soluble sugar increased 2.6%. Nitrogen deposition significantly promoted the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic pigments, leading to increased leaf nitrogen content, decreased potassium content, and 26.7% of increase in nitrogen to potassium ratio. CO2 and N interaction played a significant role on promoting the Q. variabilis seedlings' leaf morphology and photosynthetic. The maximum net photosynthetic and light saturation point were 1.4 and 2.6 times of the control, while dark respiration and light compensation point decreased 65.9% and 50.0%, respectively. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition had a positive effect on Q. variabilis seedlings to some degree, which might result in the movement of distribution boundary of Q. variabilis to north.
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Facile synthesis of yolk-shell structured Si-C nanocomposites as anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Yolk-shell structured Si-C nanocomposites are easily synthesized by using a new method based on alkaline etching technology, and exhibit high specific capacity, good cycling stability and rate performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
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Potent antitumor activity of HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 in adrenocortical carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The objective of this study is to investigate the expression of HSP90 and the effect of HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 in ACC. The expression of HSP90 was measured in tissue samples from 36 human sporadic adrenocortical tumors by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time PCR. The effect of AUY922 was tested on SW13 and H295R cells by evaluating cell viability and apoptosis in vitro. Transwell assay was performed to evaluate the migration of SW13 cells after different concentrations of AUY922. Western blot, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry revealed that both HSP90 mRNA and protein were obviously expressed in a higher degree in ACC tissues than ACA tissues and normal adrenal tissues (P?
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Reduction in dynamin-2 is implicated in ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias cause a large proportion of sudden cardiac deaths worldwide. The ischaemic arrhythmogenesis is primarily because of the dysfunction and adverse remodelling of sarcolemma ion channels. However, the potential regulators of sarcolemma ion channel turnover and function in ischaemic cardiac arrhythmias remains unknown. Our previous studies indicate that dynamin-2 (DNM2), a cardiac membrane-remodelling GTPase, modulates ion channels membrane trafficking in the cardiomyocytes. Here, we have found that DNM2 plays an important role in acute ischaemic arrhythmias. In rat ventricular tissues and primary cardiomyocytes subjected to acute ischaemic stress, the DNM2 protein and transcription levels were markedly down-regulated. This DNM2 reduction was coupled with severe ventricular arrhythmias. Moreover, we identified that the down-regulation of DNM2 within cardiomyocytes increases the action potential amplitude and prolongs the re-polarization duration by depressing the retrograde trafficking of Nav1.5 and Kir2.1 channels. These effects are likely to account for the DNM2 defect-induced arrhythmogenic potentials. These results suggest that DNM2, with its multi-ion channel targeting properties, could be a promising target for novel antiarrhythmic therapies.
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Effects of total lignans from Eucommia ulmoides barks prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The present study systematically investigate the in vivo and in vitro effect of total lignans (TL) extracted from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. barks on bone formation using ovariectomy rat model and primary cultures of rat osteoblasts.
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A precise chloroplast genome of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae) evaluated with Sanger, Illumina MiSeq, and PacBio RS II sequencing platforms: insight into the plastid evolution of basal eudicots.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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BackgroundThe chloroplast genome is important for plant development and plant evolution. Nelumbo nucifera is one member of relict plants surviving from the late Cretaceous. Recently, a new sequencing platform PacBio RS II, known as `SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) sequencing¿, has been developed. Using the SMRT sequencing to investigate the chloroplast genome of N. nucifera will help to elucidate the plastid evolution of basal eudicots.ResultsThe sizes of the de novo assembled complete chloroplast genome of N. nucifera were 163,307 bp, 163,747 bp and 163,600 bp with average depths of coverage of 7×, 712× and 105× sequenced by Sanger, Illumina MiSeq and PacBio RS II, respectively. The precise chloroplast genome of N. nucifera was obtained from PacBio RS II data proofread by Illumina MiSeq reads, with a quadripartite structure containing a large single copy region (91,846 bp) and a small single copy region (19,626 bp) separated by two inverted repeat regions (26,064 bp). The genome contains 113 different genes, including four distinct rRNAs, 30 distinct tRNAs and 79 distinct peptide-coding genes. A phylogenetic analysis of 133 taxa from 56 orders indicated that Nelumbo with an age of 177 million years is a sister clade to Platanus, which belongs to the basal eudicots. Basal eudicots began to emerge during the early Jurassic with estimated divergence times at 197 million years using MCMCTree. IR expansions/contractions within the basal eudicots seem to have occurred independently.ConclusionsBecause of long reads and lack of bias in coverage of AT-rich regions, PacBio RS II showed a great promise for highly accurate `finished¿ genomes, especially for a de novo assembly of genomes. N. nucifera is one member of basal eudicots, however, evolutionary analyses of IR structural variations of N. nucifera and other basal eudicots suggested that IR expansions/contractions occurred independently in these basal eudicots or were caused by independent insertions and deletions. The precise chloroplast genome of N. nucifera will present new information for structural variation of chloroplast genomes and provide new insight into the evolution of basal eudicots at the primary sequence and structural level.
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SchA-p85-FAK complex dictates isoform-specific activation of Akt2 and subsequent PCBP1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of TGF?-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cell line A549.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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A post-transcriptional pathway by which TGF-? modulates expression of specific proteins, Disabled-2 (Dab2) and Interleukin-like EMT Inducer (ILEI), inherent to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in murine epithelial cells through Akt2-mediated phosphorylation of poly r(C) binding protein (PCBP1), has been previously elucidated. The aims of the current study were to determine if the same mechanism is operative in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and to delineate the underlying mechanism. Steady-state transcript and protein expression levels of Dab2 and ILEI were examined in A549 cells treated with TGF-? for up to 48 h. Induction of translational de-repression in this model was quantified by polysomal fractionation followed by qRT-PCR. The underlying mechanism of isoform-specific activation of Akt2 was elucidated through a combination of co-immunoprecipitation studies. TGF-? induced EMT in A549 cells concomitant with translational upregulation of Dab2 and ILEI proteins through isoform-specific activation of Akt2 followed by phosphorylation of PCBP1 at serine-43. Our experiments further elucidated that the adaptor protein SchA is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues following TGF-? treatment, which initiated a signaling cascade resulting in the sequential recruitment of p85 subunit of PI3K and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The SchA-FAK-p85 complex subsequently selectively recruited and activated Akt2, not Akt1. Inhibition of the p85 subunit through phosphorylated 1257 peptide completely attenuated EMT in these cells. We have defined the underlying mechanism responsible for isoform-specific recruitment and activation of Akt2, not Akt1, during TGF-?-mediated EMT in A549 cells. Inhibition of the formation of this complex thus represents an important and novel therapeutic target in metastatic lung carcinoma.
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?-Hydroxynitrile glucosides from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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?-Hydroxynitrile glucosides (prinsepicyanosides A-E) were isolated alongside 11 known compounds from seeds of Prinsepia utilis Royle. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data. The relative configuration of prinsepicyanoside C was established by Cu-K? X-ray crystallography. Prinsepicyanoside A, osmaronin, and 4-(hydroxylmethyl)-5H-furan-2-one exhibited borderline antibacterial activity against Salmonella gallinarum, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholera with MIC values of 30.1, 20.7, and 22.8?g/mL, respectively.
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Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide from longan seed on lung cancer cell line A549 in vitro and in vivo.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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In this study, a water-soluble longan seed polysaccharide (WLSP), with a molecular weight of 57 kDa, was isolated from longan seed. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that WLSP was composed mainly of rhamnose (Rha), mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal), and glucose (Glc), with molar ratios of 2.4:1.5:2.3:5.6:6.5. The result in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that WLSP showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on the proliferation of A549 human lung cancer cells, which is consistent with the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from A549 cells. Prompted by this antiproliferative effect, we further examined its antiproliferative mechanism and in vivo anticancer effect. Our results showed that WLSP had the ability to cause cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, activation of caspases 3 and 9, and cleavage of poly[ADP (ribose)] polymerase (PARP) in A549 cells. The result of this in vivo study showed that WLSP could suppress the growth of xenograft A549 tumors and induce apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that WLSP exert an anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo and may be useful for the prevention of lung tumorigenesis.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury via regulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway in rats.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Signal transducers and activators of transcriptions 1 (STAT1) play an important role in the inflammation process of acute lung injury (ALI). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibits a specific and strong anti-STAT1 activity. Therefore, our study is to explore whether EGCG pretreatment can ameliorate seawater aspiration-induced ALI and its possible mechanisms. We detected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, lung wet/dry weight ratios, protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the histopathologic and ultrastructure staining of the lung. The levels of IL-1, TNF-?, and IL-10 and the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1, JAK1, and JAK2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly improved hypoxemia and histopathologic changes, alleviated pulmonary edema and lung vascular leak, reduced the production of TNF-? and IL-1, and increased the production of IL-10 in seawater aspiration-induced ALI rats. EGCG also prevented the seawater aspiration-induced increase of TNF-? and IL-1 and decrease of IL-10 in NR8383 cell line. Moreover, EGCG pretreatment reduced the total and the phosphorylated protein level of STAT1 in vivo and in vitro and reduced the phosphorylated protein level of JAK1 and JAK2. The present study demonstrates that EGCG ameliorates seawater aspiration-induced ALI via regulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting JAK/STAT1 pathway in rats.
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Effects of yoga training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Currently, several studies have assessed the effect of yoga training on the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but these studies involved a wide variation of sample and convey inconclusive results. Hence, the present study was performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of yoga training in COPD patients.
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HJB-1, a 17-hydroxy-jolkinolide B derivative, inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Jolkinolide B (JB) and 17-hydroxy-JB (HJB) are diterpenoids from plants and it has been reported that the presence of a C-17 hydroxy group in JB significantly enhances the anti-inflammatory potency of JB. In this study, two HJB derivatives HJB-1 and HJB-2 were generated by the chemical modification of a 17-hydroxy group of HJB. HJB-1 more effectively inhibited TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 release in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, HJB-1 reduced LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, COX-2 and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not alter IL-10 mRNA expression. LPS-induced NF-?B activation and MAPK phosphorylation were also effectively inhibited by HJB-1. These results demonstrate that HJB-1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages by inhibiting NF-?B activation and MAPK phosphorylation and modification of a 17-hydroxy group of HJB may enhance the anti-inflammatory potency of HJB derivatives.
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miRNA-940 reduction contributes to human Tetralogy of Fallot development.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a complex congenital heart defect and the microRNAs regulation in TOF development is largely unknown. Herein, we explored the role of miRNAs in TOF. Among 75 dysregulated miRNAs identified from human heart tissues, miRNA-940 was the most down-regulated one. Interestingly, miRNA-940 was most highly expressed in normal human right ventricular out-flow tract comparing to other heart chambers. As TOF is caused by altered proliferation, migration and/or differentiation of the progenitor cells of the secondary heart field, we isolated Sca-1(+) human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPC) for miRNA-940 function analysis. miRNA-940 reduction significantly promoted hCMPCs proliferation and inhibited hCMPCs migration. We found that JARID2 is an endogenous target regulated by miRNA-940. Functional analyses showed that JARID2 also affected hCMPCs proliferation and migration. Thus, decreased miRNA-940 affects the proliferation and migration of the progenitor cells of the secondary heart field by targeting JARID2 and potentially leads to TOF development.
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Nitrofurantoin enteric pellets with high bioavailability based on aciform crystalline formation by wet milling.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Abstract The aim of the present study was to grind nitrofurantoin (NF) with HPMC solution and to determine the dissolution and bioavailability of the enteric pellets prepared with the NF cogrounds and other excipients. During milling, crystalline transformation occurred - the aciform microcrystalline monohydrate II replaced the coarse crystal anhydrate ? and the particle size markedly reduced. In vitro test demonstrated that the enteric pellets prepared with NF cogrounds (4?h) revealed a faster dissolution than the commercial tablet and 50% was released within 30?min in the basic medium. Finally, an in vivo test was conducted in beagle dogs. The Cmax and AUC(0?24) of the pellets were 2.19?±?0.74??g/ml and 6.73?±?4.71??g/ml?h, respectively, while the corresponding values were 0.49?±?0.42??g/ml and 1.38?±?1.17??g/ml?h for the tablet. Thus, the bioavailability of the pellets was increased significantly. In conclusion, the wet grinding that reduced the particle size and created the microcrystalline played a major role in the acceleration of the dissolution of NF and, consequently, enhanced the bioavailability, and the wet grinding process offers an alternative approach to improve the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs with poor aqueous solubility.
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Risk profiles for metabolic syndrome and its transition patterns for the elderly in Beijing, 1992-2009.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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There have been few reports on the development of metabolic disorders, especially when they are considered as a cluster. The purpose of this study was to describe risk profiles for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly dwellers in Beijing, and to find their transition patterns over time. Data were derived from Beijing longitudinal study of aging, a community-based cohort study hosted by Xuanwu hospital. There were 3,257 elderly people aged 55 years or over recruited in 1992. MetS was assessed for the years 1992, 2000, and 2009. Finally, 363 subjects with complete information for components of MetS in the three years were included in the study. The criteria of MetS recommended by the joint interim statement criteria were adopted. Latent transition analysis was used to calculate the transition probabilities between adjacent visits. A risk typology consisting of four time-invariant groups was detected based on the components of MetS for all subjects. Low MetS risk group, BP risk group, BP-HDL risk group, and BP-FPG-TG risk group were found. The probability of staying at the same status was higher at the two intervals across 18 years. Four latent groups were extracted based on three assessments for the components of MetS, together with their transition patterns. Findings suggested various trajectories for MetS components. Different combinations of intervention strategy might be needed for MetS risk groups.
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A regulatory network of Drosophila germline stem cell self-renewal.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Stem cells possess the capacity to generate two cells of distinct fate upon division: one cell retaining stem cell identity and the other cell destined to differentiate. These cell fates are established by cell-type-specific genetic networks. To comprehensively identify components of these networks, we performed a large-scale RNAi screen in Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) covering ?25% of the genome. The screen identified 366 genes that affect GSC maintenance, differentiation, or other processes involved in oogenesis. Comparison of GSC regulators with neural stem cell self-renewal factors identifies common and cell-type-specific self-renewal genes. Importantly, we identify the histone methyltransferase Set1 as a GSC-specific self-renewal factor. Loss of Set1 in neural stem cells does not affect cell fate decisions, suggesting a differential requirement of H3K4me3 in different stem cell lineages. Altogether, our study provides a resource that will help to further dissect the networks underlying stem cell self-renewal.
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Comparison of tissue damages caused by endoscopic lumbar discectomy and traditional lumbar discectomy: a randomised controlled trial.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacies of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and traditional open lumbar discectomy (OD).
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Risk factors of CVD mortality among the elderly in Beijing, 1992 - 2009: an 18-year cohort study.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Few researchers have examined the effects of multiple risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality simultaneously. This study was to determine the associations of combined lifestyle and other factors with CVD mortality among the elderly (n = 3,257), in Beijing, China, through data mining of the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). BLSA is a representative cohort study from 1992 to 2009, hosted by Xuan Wu Hospital. Competing risk survival analysis was conducted to explore the association between risk factors and CVD mortality. The factors focused mainly on lifestyle, physical condition, and the model was adjusted for age and gender. There were 273 of the 1,068 recorded deaths caused by CVD among the 2010 participants. Living in a suburban area (HR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.410-0.921) was associated with lower CVD mortality. Increasing age (66-75: HR = 1.511, 95% CI: 1.111-2.055; ? 76: HR = 1.847, 95% CI: 1.256-2.717), high blood pressure (HR = 1.407, 95% CI: 1.031-1.920), frequent consumption of meat (HR = 1.559, 95% CI: 1.079-2.254) and physical inactivity (p = 0.046) were associated with higher CVD mortality. The study provides an instructional foundation for the control and prevention of CVD in Beijing, China.
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Determination of maximal amount of minor gases adsorbed in a shale sample by headspace gas chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In this paper, we present a novel method for determining the maximal amount of ethane, a minor gas species, adsorbed in a shale sample. The method is based on the time-dependent release of ethane from shale samples measured by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). The study includes a mathematical model for fitting the experimental data, calculating the maximal amount gas adsorbed, and predicting results at other temperatures. The method is a more efficient alternative to the isothermal adsorption method that is in widespread use today.
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New sesquiterpenic acids from Inula wissmanniana.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Eight new (1-8) and two known (9 and 10) sesquiterpenic acids featuring ?-methylene-?-carboxyl units were isolated from the whole plants of Inula wissmanniana, along with two new germacranolides (11 and 12). Their structures were elucidated based on detailed spectroscopic analysis, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and X-ray crystallography. Notably, the skeleton of 1 was firstly discovered from nature, while that of 2 was discovered for the second time. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibition against LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Compound 11 exhibited the strongest activity with the IC50 value of 1.04 ?M.
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miR-10a regulates proliferation of human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells by targeting GATA6.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cardiogenesis. The altered expression of miRNAs can result in cardiac malformations by inducing abnormalities in the behavior of cardiac cells. However, the role of miR-10a in the regulation of cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) remains undetermined. In the present study, we found that up- or down-regulation of miR-10a inhibited or promoted the proliferation of human CMPCs, respectively, without affecting their differentiation toward cardiomyocytes. miR-10a bound to GATA6 directly and reduced GATA6 expression. Over-expression of GATA6 greatly attenuated the miR-10a-mediated inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human CMPCs. Thus, our results indicate that miR-10a could effectively modulate the proliferation of human CMPCs by targeting GATA6. The finding provides novel insights into the potency of miR-10a during heart development.
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Risk factors for cerebrovascular disease mortality among the elderly in Beijing: a competing risk analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To examine the associations of combined lifestyle factors and physical conditions with cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) mortality, after accounting for competing risk events, including death from cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other diseases.
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Birth weight and overweight or obesity risk in children under 3 years in China.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of overweight and obesity in children aged 3 years and under.
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Effects of anabolic steroids on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Anabolic steroids are known to improve body composition and muscle strength in healthy people. However, whether anabolic steroids improve the physical condition and function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains undetermined. A meta-analysis was conducted to review the current evidence regarding the effects of anabolic steroids on COPD patients.
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Diagnosis of multiple primary lung cancer: A systematic review.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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A substantial percentage (8%) of all newly diagnosed cancer cases are in patients with previous tumours, with a similar trend in lung cancer. Cases of multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC) are increasing worldwide, due to improved diagnostic and surveillance mechanisms and the ageing population. Diagnosis of MPLC is complicated by difficulties in distinguishing it from lung cancer metastasis. Clinicopathological assessment, diagnosis and management have evolved, but remain severely limited by the lack of robust and dependable molecular markers for the differential diagnosis of metastasis and MPLC. This systematic review evaluates diagnostic criteria for MPLC, and the subsequent management and success rates. The incorporation of molecular biology techniques into the diagnostic process for MPLC is also discussed.
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Participation of autophagy in acute lung injury induced by seawater.
Exp. Lung Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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ABSTRACT Seawater drowning can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in seawater-induced ALI, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism and develop new methods for prevention and treatment of seawater-induced ALI. In this study, electron microscopy, western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were used to detect autophagy in lung tissues. Moreover, arterial blood gas analysis, lung weight coefficient, TNF-?, IL-8 in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), histopathology were used to detect the lung injury of seawater exposure. An inhibitor of autophagy (3-Methyladenine, 3-MA) was injected intraperitoneally before seawater exposure to further explore the role of autophagy in ALI. Electron microscopy revealed increasing autophagosomes in alveolar epithelial cell in seawater group compared with the control. The transcription and expression levels (mRNA and protein levels) of the LC3 II significantly increased in lung tissue of seawater group compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in arterial blood gas, lung weight coefficient, TNF-?, IL-8 in BALF and morphologic findings. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA partly ameliorated seawater-induced ALI, as indicated by reduced lung weight coefficient and TNF-? in BALF, as well as increased PaO2. In conclusion, seawater aspiration triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for ALI induced by seawater.
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Clinical risk factor analysis for breast cancer: 568,000 subjects undergoing breast cancer screening in Beijing, 2009.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Although there are many reports about the risk of breast cancer, few have reported clinical factors including history of breast-related or other diseases that affect the prevalence of breast cancer. This study explores these risk factors for breast cancer cases reported in Beijing in 2009.
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Piperine induces apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells via p53-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of piperine on human lung cancer A549 cells and to explore its mechanisms. Piperine was found to exert the greatest cytotoxic effect against A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no effect on WI38 human lung fibroblasts. This cell growth-inhibitory effect might be attributed to cell DNA damage and cytotoxic effects. Besides, piperine had the ability to cause cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and to activate caspase-3 and caspase-9 cascades in A549 cells. Furthermore, piperine-induced apoptosis could be blocked by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk in majority. In addition, piperine treatment decreased Bcl-2 protein expression, but increased Bax protein expression in A549 cells, which were positively correlated with an elevated expression of p53 compared to control. Taken together, these results suggested that piperine could induce p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 cascades, as well as increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Thus, piperine could be developed as an effective antitumor agent in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer without toxicity to the host.
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A systematic review of the efficacy and pharmacological profile of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and pharmacological profiles of Herba Epimedii in osteoporosis therapy. Four databases were extensively retrieved that include two Chinese electronic databases (VIP Information and CNKI) and two English electronic databases (CA and MEDLINE). Herba Epimedii has been an important traditional herbal medicine for centuries in China and other Asian countries. Recently, quite a few pharmacological effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components have been identified that include improving bone health and cardiovascular function, regulating hormone level, modulating immunological function, and inhibiting tumor growth. The anti-osteoporosis activity of Herba Epimedii and its extracts have attracted world-wide attention. The literature search has revealed that a lot of studies have recently been carried out related to the bone-strengthening activity of Herba Epimedii and some of its active compounds, such as total flavonoids and icariin. Pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies have confirmed the efficacy and safety of Herba Epimedii and its most abundant active component icariin, while only a few authors have reviewed the anti-osteoporosis properties of the plants. So we summarize the work of various investigators on the effects of Herba Epimedii, its extracts and active components against osteoporosis. The underlying mechanism of osteoprotective action, derivatives of icariin, animal models and cell lines used in the research were also reviewed in this paper.
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Holotransferrin enhances selective anticancer activity of artemisinin against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Artemisinin, also termed qinghaosu, is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine artemesia annua L. (the blue-green herb) in the early 1970s, which has been confirmed for effectively treating malaria. Additionally, emerging data prove that artemisinin exhibits anti-cancer effects against many types of cancers such as leukemia, melanoma, etc. Artemisinin becomes cytotoxic in the presence of ferrous iron. Since iron influx is high in cancer cells, artemisinin and its analogs selectively kill cancer cells with increased intracellular iron concentrations. This study is aimed to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of artemisinin on SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and determine the effect of holotransferrin, which increases the concentration of ferrous iron in cancer cells, combined with artemisinin on the anticancer activity. MTT assay was used for assessing the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells treated with artemisinin. The induction of apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation in SMMC-7721 cells treated with artemisinin were determined by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and colony formation assay, respectively. The results showed that artemisinin at various concentrations significantly inhibited growth, colony formation and cell viability of SMMC-7721 cells (P<0.05), likely due to induction of apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Of interest, it was found that incubation of artemisinin combined with holotransferrin sensitized the growth inhibitory effect of artemisinin on SMMC-7721 cells (P<0.01). Our data suggest that treatment with artemisinin leads to inhibition of viability and proliferation, and apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, we observed that holotransferrin significantly enhanced the anti-cancer activity of artemisinin. This study may provide a potential therapeutic choice for liver cancer.
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SQSTM1 mutations in Han Chinese populations with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Mutations in the sequestosome 1 gene (SQSTM1) have recently been identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, accounting for 1.11%-4.92% of familial ALS and 2.42%-4.37% of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). The mutation spectrum of SQSTM1 in Chinese patients with SALS remains unknown. Three hundred and six patients with SALS from the Department of Neurology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University were recruited for this study. From the same region, 350 healthy individuals were recruited as a control group. The encoding regions of SQSTM1 were screened by direct sequencing. Three novel nonsynonymous mutations- p. I99L, p. D337E, and p. L341V-were identified in 3 patients with SALS, none of which were found in healthy controls. The male patient carrying mutation p. I99L presented limb symptom at age of 34 and died in 34 months. Two late-onset patients carrying D337E and p. L341V mutations had bulbar and limb onset, respectively. Moreover, a c.1166-14_1166-11delTACT mutation in the intron 7 was found in a living male patient with limb onset at age of 62. None of the patients carrying SQSTM1 mutation showed clinical evidence of concomitant Paget disease of bone or mutation of the valosin-containing protein gene. The mutation frequency of SQSTM1 was 0.98% in Chinese patients with SALS, which was lower than those in other racial populations.
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Association of hematological parameters with metabolic syndrome in Beijing adult population: a longitudinal study.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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The purposes of the study were to estimate the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to systematically evaluate the relationship between hematological parameters and MetS in a 5-year follow-up of Beijing adult population. The longitudinal study included 3,180 adults, aged 20-65 years, who attended health check-ups in Beijing Tongren Hospital in 2007 and 2012. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to explore the associations between hematological parameters and MetS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of MetS in this sample was 10.82 % (14.22 % for males and 7.59 % for females). Among all the hematological parameters, white blood cell count (WBC) was positively associated with MetS for 20-35-year-old (male OR 1.482, 95 % CI 1.169-2.974; female OR 1.398, 95 % CI 1.145-3.011), and 36-50-year-old (male OR 2.012, 95 % CI 1.290-4.010; female OR 3.400, 95 % CI 1.818-4.528) male and female subjects. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly associated with the incidence of MetS for males (20-35-year-old OR 2.080, 95 % CI 1.371-3.159; 36-50-year-old OR 2.421, 95 % CI 1.335-3.412; 51-65-year-old OR 4.267, 95 % CI 1.161-6.781). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was positively associated with MetS for 51-65-year-old (male OR 3.078, 95 % CI 2.468-5.131; female OR 2.140, 95 % CI 1.524-4.359) for male and female subjects. WBC is positively associated with MetS for young adults, while LDL-C is positively associated with MetS for elderly people. ALT is positively associated with MetS for males. Our findings provide further evidence in support of using hematological markers for early detection of individuals at risk for MetS.
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[Effects of qingre xiaoji recipe on the migration, chemotaxis, and tube formation capability of human lung adenocarcinoma cell induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To study the effects of Qingre Xiaoji Recipe (QXR) on the migration, chemotaxis, and tube formation capability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by human lung adenocarcinoma cells (SPC-A-1).
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Interrelationship of circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9, TNF-?, and OPG/RANK/RANKL systems in COPD patients with osteoporosis.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Previous studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its cognate inhibitor TIMP-1, inflammatory cytokine TNF-?, and the OPG/RANK/RANKL system may each play individual roles in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in patients with COPD. In the present study, we investigated the interrelationships of these factors in male COPD patients with and without osteoporosis. The serum levels of MMP-9, MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio, TNF-?, RANKL, OPG, and the RANKL/OPG ratio were higher in COPD patients with osteoporosis than in individuals with normal or low bone mineral density (BMD) (N = 30, all P < 0.05 or < 0.01). The lung function FEV1%Pre and the BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were found to be negatively correlated with MMP-9 serum level (r = -0.36, P < 0.05, r = -0.58, P < 0.001, and r = -0.62, P < 0.01, respectively), RANKL serum level (r = -0.21, P < 0.05, and r = -0.25, P < 0.05, and r = -0.26, P < 0.05, respectively), and RANKL/OPG ratio (r = -0.23, P < 0.05, r = -0.33, P < 0.05, and r = -0.38, P < 0.05, respectively). However, they had no correlation with TIMP-1, TNF-?, OPG, or RANK. The MMP-9 serum level was found to be positively correlated with TNF-? level (r = 0.35, P < 0.05) and RANKL/OPG ratio (r = 0.27, P < 0.05) but not associated with RANKL. These results suggest that MMP-9, TNF-?, and the OPG/RANK/RANKL system may be closely interrelated and may play interactive roles in pathogenesis of osteoporosis in COPD.
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A novel method for the determination of adsorption partition coefficients of minor gases in a shale sample by headspace gas chromatography.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A novel method has been developed for the determination of adsorption partition coefficient (Kd) of minor gases in shale. The method uses samples of two different sizes (masses) of the same material, from which the partition coefficient of the gas can be determined from two independent headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) measurements. The equilibrium for the model gas (ethane) was achieved in 5h at 120°C. The method also involves establishing an equation based on the Kd at higher equilibrium temperature, from which the Kd at lower temperature can be calculated. Although the HS-GC method requires some time and effort, it is simpler and quicker than the isothermal adsorption method that is in widespread use today. As a result, the method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for shale gas-related research and applications.
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Does roflumilast improve dyspnea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? A meta-analysis.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Although several large studies showed roflumilast (Rof) has demonstrated efficacy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the efficacy of Rof in dyspnea remains unclear. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of Rof in dyspnea for COPD patients.
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Oral treprostinil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients receiving background endothelin receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy (the FREEDOM-C2 study): a randomized controlled trial.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Treprostinil is a stable prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) as parenteral or inhaled therapy. Treprostinil diolamine, a sustained-release oral formulation of treprostinil, was studied to determine whether it could provide a more convenient prostacyclin treatment option for patients with less severe PAH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral treprostinil in patients with PAH receiving stable background endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE-5I) therapy, or both.
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension and microRNAs--an ever-growing partnership.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating condition with progressive remodeling of the pulmonary resistance vessels. PAH is characterized by multifocal, polyclonal lesions inhabited by cells that underwent phenotypic transition, resulting in altered cell proliferation and contractility, ultimately resulting in increased vascular resistance. Diagnosis of PAH is confounded by the fact that it is largely asymptomatic in the initial stages. In fact, idiopathic PAH patients >65 years of age cannot be diagnosed hemodynamically due to high pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. This highlights the need for defining more robust molecular biomarkers for PAH diagnosis and progression. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, play a discrete role in vascular inflammation and in the etiology of cardiovascular pathologies inclusive of PAH and can potentially serve as diagnostic biomarkers. However, a cohesive understanding of global miRNA-mediated molecular events that control pulmonary vasculature plasticity is lacking which, if addressed systematically, can lead to detailed elucidation of the downstream cellular pathways that are affected by activation/silencing of silenced cognate transcripts. In turn, this can lead to not only robust biomarkers, but also to novel therapeutic strategies targeting more upstream regulators than the existing ones targeting more downstream effectors. The current review aims to provide a summary understanding of PAH, its associated pathophysiology, current knowledge of the role of miRNAs in PAH, and identifies grey areas that need further research for successful bench-to-bedside transition of these exciting new discoveries.
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Rapid, simple and sensitive detection of Q fever by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of the htpAB gene.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Q fever is the most widespread zoonosis, and domestic animals are the most common sources of transmission. It is not only difficult to distinguish from other febrile diseases because of the lack of specific clinical manifestations in humans, but it is also difficult to identify the disease in C. burnetii-carrying animals because of the lack of identifiable features. Conventional serodiagnosis requires sera from the acute and convalescent stages of infection, which are unavailable at early diagnosis. Nested PCR and real-time PCR require equipment. In this study, we developed a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay to identify C. burnetii rapidly and sensitively.
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Newborn hearing concurrent genetic screening for hearing impairment-A clinical practice in 58,397 neonates in Tianjin, China.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Newborn hearing screening (NHS) is used worldwide due to its feasibility and cost-efficiency. However, neonates with late-onset and progressive hearing impairment will be missed by NHS. Genetic factors account for an estimated 60% of congenital profound hearing loss. Our previous cohort studies were carried out in an innovative mode, i.e. hearing concurrent genetic screening, in newborns to improve the abilities or early diagnosis and intervention for the hearing defects. In this study, we performed the first clinical practice of this mode in Tianjin city.
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[Effects of naringin on proliferation, differentiation and maturation of rat calvarial osteoblasts in vitro].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To investigate the effects of naringin on the proliferation, differention and maturaion of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROB).
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Antiosteoporosis effect of radix scutellariae extract on density and microstructure of long bones in tail-suspended sprague-dawley rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50?mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2?mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.
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Association between C-reactive protein and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Associations between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and cancer risk have been reported for many years, but the results from prospective cohort studies remains controversial. A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was therefore conducted to address this issue.
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Relationship between maternal fasting glucose levels at 4-12 gestational weeks and offspring growth and development in early infancy.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To evaluate the association of maternal fasting glucose levels at 4-12 gestational weeks with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months in Tianjin, China.
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Gray matter atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have provided cumulative evidence of gray matter (GM) atrophy in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) relative to healthy controls (HC). However, not all findings have been entirely concordant. Herein, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis study in order to consistently quantify GM anomalies in PSP. We conducted a systematic search for VBM studies of PSP patients and HC using PubMed and Embase databases from January 2000 to May 2012. Meta-analysis of these VBM studies was performed using a newly improved voxel-based meta-analytic technique, effect-size signed differential mapping. A total of 9 cross-sectional VBM studies that involved 143 PSP patients and 216 HC subjects met the inclusion criteria. Considerable regional GM volume decrease was detected in the thalamus, basal ganglia, midbrain, insular cortex, and frontal cortex. These findings remained largely unchanged following jackknife sensitivity analyses. The present meta-analysis provided evidence of PSP-specific GM atrophy. This finding might help contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological basis underlying PSP.
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Lack of efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the lower limbs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A meta-analysis.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were carried out to investigate the role of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, these studies have small sample size and different measures for evaluating outcomes, and convey inconclusive results. We carried out a meta-analysis to assess the effects of NMES to COPD patients. A computerized search was performed through PubMed and Embase databases (up to December 2012) for relevant RCT. Two investigators independently screened the articles. The primary outcome measures were quadriceps strength and exercise capacity, secondary outcomes included dyspnoea and muscle fibre characteristics. The weighted mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated, and the heterogeneity was assessed with the I(2) test. Eight trials involving 156 patients were included in this meta-analysis. We found that NMES was not associated with significant changes in quadriceps strength (standardized mean difference 0.38; 95% CI: -0.13-0.89) nor 6?min walk distance (WMD 13.63?m; 95% CI: -17.39-44.65). NMES failed to improve the muscle fibre characteristics (type I: WMD 1.09%; 95% CI: -19.45-21.64; type IIa: WMD -7.50%; 95% CI: -19.81-4.81). NMES significantly improved dyspnoea (WMD -0.98 scores; 95% CI: -1.42- -0.54). Evidence to support the benefits of NMES to COPD patients is currently inadequate. Larger-scale studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of NMES.
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Presence of enteroviruses in recreational water in Wuhan, China.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Contaminated recreational waters pose a public health concern, as the potential for waterborne diseases exists in water contaminated with human fecal waste. Worldwide, bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total and fecal coliform are used as indicators of water quality. However, enteric viruses also present a public health concern and their presence cannot always be determined based on bacterial indicators. This study explores the use of molecular detection methods of enteric viruses as indicators of fecal contamination. Four viruses, enterovirus, norovirus genogroups I and II, and male-specific FRNA coliphage, were tested in this study. Highly sensitive RT-PCR methods developed at the University of Hawaii at Manoa were utilized to evaluate environmental samples collected from three lakes in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Sixteen of twenty-five sites tested positive for at least one virus. Enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus, followed by norovirus genogroup I. These findings support the use of molecular detection methods to test for enteric virus presence in recreational freshwater sources in China as alternative water quality indicators, and utilize recently developed, highly sensitive methods of detection of these viruses. In addition, these findings suggest that there is substantial fecal contamination of the three lakes tested in this study.
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Hydrothermal growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays and in situ conversion to nanotube arrays for highly efficient quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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TiO2 nanorod (NR) and nanotube (NT) arrays grown on transparent conductive substrates are attractive electrode for solar cells. In this paper, TiO2 NR arrays are hydrothermally grown on FTO substrate, and are in situ converted into NT arrays by hydrothermally etching. The TiO2 NR arrays are reported as single crystalline, but the TiO2 NR arrays are demonstrated to be polycrystalline with a bundle of 2-5 nm single crystalline nanocolumns grown along [001] throughout the whole NR from bottom to top. TiO2 NRs can be converted to NTs by hydrothermal selective etching of the (001) core and remaining the inert sidewall of (110) face. A growth mechanism of the NR and NT arrays is proposed. Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are fabricated by coating CdSe QDs on to the TiO2 arrays. After conversion from NRs to NTs, more QDs can be filled in the NTs and the energy conversion efficiency of the QDSCs almost double.
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Effects of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Our meta-analysis was performed to estimate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on systemic inflammation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
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Cloning and molecular characterization of cationic amino acid transporter y(+)LAT1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The solute carrier family 7A, member 7 gene encodes the light chain- y(+)L amino acid transporter-1 (y(+)LAT1) of the heterodimeric carrier responsible for cationic amino acid (CAA) transport across the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells in intestine and kidney. Rising attention has been given to y(+)LAT1 involved in CAA metabolic pathways and growth control. The molecular characterization and function analysis of y(+)LAT1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is currently unknown. In the present study, full-length cDNA (2,688 bp), which encodes y(+)LAT1 and contains a 5-untranslated region (319 bp), an open reading frame (1,506 bp) and a 3-untranslated region (863 bp), has been cloned from grass carp. Amino acid sequence of grass carp y(+)LAT1 contains 11 transmembrane domains and shows 95 %, 80 % and 75 % sequence similarity to zebra fish, amphibian and mammalian y(+)LAT1, respectively. The tissue distribution and expression regulation by fasting of y(+)LAT1 mRNA were analyzed using real-time PCR. Our results showed that y(+)LAT1 mRNA was highly expressed in midgut, foregut and spleen while weakly expressed in hindgut, kidney, gill, brain, heart, liver and muscle. Nutritional status significantly influenced y(+)LAT1 mRNA expression in fish tissues, such as down-regulation of y(+)LAT1 mRNA expression after fasting (14 days).
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Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance--current knowledge and future perspectives.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Quinolones are a group of antimicrobial agents that were serendipitously discovered as byproducts of the synthesis of chloroquine. Chemical modifications, such as the addition of fluorine or piperazine, resulted in the synthesis of third- and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones, with broad-spectrum antimicrobial actions against aerobic or anaerobic, Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. The efficacy and consequent widespread use of quinolones and fluoroquinolones has led to a steady global increase in resistance, mediated via gene mutations, alterations in efflux or cell membranes and plasmid-conferred resistance. The first plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene, qnrA1, was detected in 1998. Since then, many other genes have been identified and the underlying mechanisms of resistance have been elucidated. This review provides an overview of quinolone resistance, with particular emphasis on plasmid-mediated resistance.
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Gefitinib in combination with prednisolone to avoid interstitial lung disease during non-small cell lung cancer treatment: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Gefitinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a rare but lethal drug adverse event, which usually leads to the withdrawal of gefitinib and causes complications with anticancer treatment. In this study, gefitinib administration combined with prednisolone in a female with stage IIIb non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) produced a good outcome without inducing ILD. The results suggested that combined administration of gefitinib with glucocorticoids may be an efficient method to treat NSCLC while avoiding complications with ILD.
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Efficacy and safety of roflumilast in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A meta-analysis.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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BACKGROUND: Currently, several large studies showed that roflumilast has been demonstrated efficacy during treatment chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but also caused some side effects. AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of roflumilast in COPD patients. METHODS: A computerized search through electronic databases included PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane clinical trials database, Physiotherapy Evidence Database and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed to identify randomized controlled trials. The primary outcomes were trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (reported pre-bronchodilator values) and exacerbation rate. Secondary outcomes included other spirometric parameters, health-related quality of life, the overall mortality rate and adverse events. Weighted mean differences (WMDs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled using a random effects model. RESULTS: Eleven trials involving 9675 patients met the inclusion criteria. Roflumilast significantly reduced the mean exacerbation rate (mild, moderate or severe) (WMD = -0.23; 95% CI = -0.33 to -0.13; p < 0.00001) and improved trough FEV1 (WMD = 53.52 ml; 95% CI = 42.49 to 64.55; p < 0.00001), and other post-bronchodilator spirometric parameters (e.g., forced vital capacity, etc.). Roflumilast did not improve St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire total score (WMD = -0.70 units; 95% CI = -2.65 to 1.26; p = 0.49) and decrease the overall mortality rate (RR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.29; p = 0.56). Roflumilast increased some adverse events including diarrhea, headache, nausea, weight loss, and insomnia. CONCLUSIONS: Roflumilast significantly reduces the mean exacerbation rate in COPD patients. Although there are insufficient clinical evidence on other clinical endpoints and high risk of some adverse events, roflumilast therapy may benefit COPD patients. Further studies are needed to pay more attention to the long-term efficacy and safety of roflumilast.
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Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China.
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Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on offspring overweight in early infancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring from birth to 12 months old in Tianjin, China.
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Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n?=?2x?=?38), as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Neis genetic diversity index (He) of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83%) was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%). Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.
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Effects of Tai Chi in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: preliminary evidence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Currently, several studies assessed the role of Tai Chi (TC) in management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but these studies have wide variation of sample and convey inconclusive results. We therefore undertook a meta-analysis to assess the effects of TC.
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Efficacy of Tai Chi on pain, stiffness and function in patients with osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Whether Tai Chi benefits patients with osteoarthritis remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi exercise for pain, stiffness, and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis.
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Responses of nutrients and mobile carbohydrates in Quercus variabilis seedlings to environmental variations using in situ and ex situ experiments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Forest tree species distributed across a wide range of geographical areas are subjected to differential climatic and edaphic conditions and long-term selection, leading to genotypes with morphological and physiological adaptation to the local environment. To test the ability of species to cope with changing environmental conditions, we studied the ecophysiological features of Quercus variabilis using seedlings grown in geographically widely isolated populations (Exp. I, in situ) and in a common garden (Exp. II, ex situ) using seedlings originating from those populations. We found that Q. variabilis plants grown in different locations along a south-north gradient had different levels of nutrients (N, P, K) and carbon-physiological performance (photosynthesis, non-structural carbohydrates, such as soluble sugars and starch), and that these physiological differences were not correlated with local soil properties. These geographic variations of plant physiology disappeared when plants from different locations were grown in the same environment. Our results indicate that the physiological performance of Q. variabilis plants is mainly determined by the climatic variations across latitude rather than by their soils or by genetic differentiation. The adaptive ability of Q. variabilis found in the present study suggests that this species has the potential to cope, at least to some extent, with changing environmental conditions.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.