The very wide range of activities performed in hospitals (care, diagnosis, hygiene, maintenance, research) require the use of a large variety of potentially ecotoxic substances such as surfactants, metals, disinfectants and pharmaceuticals. This study aimed to determine oxidative stress in the common carp Cyprinus carpio induced by hospital wastewater (HWW) in Mexico. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed to the latter value (0.5 %) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxide content (HPC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, protein carbonyl content (PCC) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Significant increases in HPC, MDA content and PCC were observed in exposed specimens, particularly in gill, liver and brain. SOD and CAT activity also increased in liver and brain. In conclusion, this particular HWW induces oxidative stress on C. carpio, this damage being most evident in gill, liver and brain.
Breast cancer is a disease that arises from the accumulation of alterations in the genome of cells that make up the mammary gland. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway has been reported to participate in the development of breast cancer and is activated by adipocytokines such as leptin, which are elevated in obesity. In contrast, alterations in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) gene expression have been found in patients with decreased breast cancer metastasis.
Many toxic xenobiotics that enter the aquatic environment exert their effects through redox cycling. Oxidative stress, which incorporates both oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses, is a common effect induced in organisms exposed to xenobiotics in their environment. The results of the present study aimed to determine the oxidative stress induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by contaminants [metals and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] present in Madín Reservoir. Five sampling stations (SSs), considered to have the most problems due to discharges, were selected. Carp were exposed to water from each SS for 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, blood, and muscle: hydroperoxide content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results show that contaminants (metals and NSAIDs) present in water from the different SSs induce oxidative stress. Thus, water in this reservoir is contaminated with xenobiotics that are hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population.
Acetylsalicylic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory widely used due to its low cost and high effectiveness. This compound has been found in water bodies worldwide and is toxic to aquatic organisms; nevertheless its capacity to induce oxidative stress in bioindicators like Daphnia magna remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate toxicity in D. magna induced by acetylsalicylic acid in water, using oxidative stress and DNA damage biomarkers. An acute toxicity test was conducted in order to determine the median lethal concentration (48-h LC50) and the concentrations to be used in the subsequent subacute toxicity test in which the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation, oxidized protein content, activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and level of DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation level and oxidized protein content were significantly increased (p<0.05), and antioxidant enzymes significantly altered with respect to controls; while the DNA damage were significantly increased (p<0.05) too. In conclusion, acetylsalicylic acid induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in D. magna.
Toxicity in natural ecosystems is usually not due to exposure to a single substance, but is rather the result of exposure to mixtures of toxic substances. Knowing the effects of contaminants as a mixture compared to their effects in isolated form is therefore important. This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress induced by binary mixtures of diclofenac with paracetamol, ibuprofen, naproxen, and acetylsalicylic acid and by these nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in isolated form, using Hyalella azteca as a bioindicator. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of each NSAID were obtained. Amphipods were exposed for 72 h to the latter value in isolated form and as binary mixtures. The following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Significant increases in LPX and PCC with respect to the control group (p???0.05) were induced by NSAIDs both in isolated form and as binary mixtures. Changes in SOD, CAT, and GPx activity likewise occurred with NSAIDs in isolated form and as binary mixtures. In conclusion, NSAIDs used in this study induce oxidative stress on H. azteca both in isolated form and as binary mixtures, and the interactions occurring between these pharmaceuticals are probably antagonistic in type.
The impact of involuntary exposure to antineoplastic drugs (AD) was studied in a group of nurses in diverse hospitals in Mexico. The results were compared with a group of unexposed nurses. Anthropometric characteristics and the biochemical analysis were analyzed in both groups. Also, lipid peroxidation level (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated in blood of study participants as oxidative stress (OS) biomarkers. The group of occupationally exposed (OE) nurses consisted of 30 individuals ranging in age from 25 to 35 years. The control group included 30 nurses who were not occupationally exposed to the preparation and handling of AD and whose anthropometric and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of the OE group. All biomarkers evaluated were significantly increased (P < 0.5) in OE nurses compared to the control group. Results show that the assessment of OS biomarkers is advisable in order to evaluate exposure to AD in nurses.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used pharmaceuticals in Mexico, but there is not proper regulation on the sale, use and disposal. These drugs can enter water bodies by diverse pathways, attaining significant concentrations and inducing damage on hydrobionts.
Although trace concentrations of ibuprofen (IBP) have been detected in diverse water bodies, there is currently insufficient information on the potentially deleterious effects of this xenobiotic. The present study aimed to determine whether IBP induces oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill, and blood of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. To this end, the median lethal concentration at 96 h (96-h LC50) was determined and the lowest observed adverse effect level was established. Carp were exposed to the latter concentration (17.6 mg L(-1)) for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Results indicated that LPX and antioxidant enzymes' activity increased significantly (p < 0.05) with respect to the control group in liver, gill, and blood, while no significant differences occurred in brain. In conclusion, IBP induced oxidative stress on C. carpio, the liver being the organ most affected by this damage.
Aluminum is one of the most abundant elements in nature and is used in diverse industrial processes. As a result, it contaminates aquatic ecosystems, inducing damage on associated biota. In fish, it has been observed to induce hypoxia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis and respiratory arrest. Although there is little information on Al-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage, this type of studies are essential in order to identify the mechanisms of action of this metal. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by Al on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) erythrocytes were determined in specimens exposed to 0.05, 120 and 239mgAlL(-1) in static exposure systems. Blood samples were taken at 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, erythrocytes were separated, and the following were evaluated: frequency of micronuclei and frequency of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, blood Al levels, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results show that tested aluminum concentrations produces oxidative stress (increase in lipid peroxidation degree and oxidized proteins content, as well as decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity) and induced higher frequencies of micronuclei and TUNEL-positive cells, so this metal can be considered as a cytotoxic and genotoxic agent for erythrocytes of common carp.
Due to its analgesic properties, diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). While residue from this pharmaceutical agent has been found in diverse water bodies in various countries, there is not enough information of its potential toxicity on aquatic organisms, particularly in species which are economically valuable due to their high consumption by humans, such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This study aimed to evaluate potential DCF-induced oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill and blood of C. carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96h (96-h LC50) was determined and used to establish the concentration equivalent to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Carp specimens were exposed to this concentration for different exposure times (12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h) and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF and 4-hydroxy DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Results show a statistically significant LPX increase (P<0.05) in liver and gill mainly as well as significant changes in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes evaluated in these organs, with respect to controls (P<0.05). The DCF concentrations decreased in water system and increased in the carp. The DCF biotransformation to 4-hydroxy DCF was observed to 12h. The pharmaceutical agent DCF is concluded to induce oxidative stress on the common carp C. carpio, with the highest incidence of oxidative damage occurring in liver and gill. Furthermore, the biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species.
Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimers and Parkinsons diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L?¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level).
Medication errors are probably more common in neonates than is generally appreciated. In Mexican pediatric hospitals, L-carnitine is mainly used for nutritional support and to treat cardiomyopathy secondary to neonatal asphyxia. Using a longitudinal-retrospective approach we assessed the appropriateness of all L-carnitine prescriptions written during a 12-month period at a NICU of a second-level hospital located in Toluca, Mexico. Reports of adverse reactions possibly related to L-carnitine therapy were collected and characterized. Overall, administration of L-carnitine was considered justified and appropriate only in 18% of patients. 60.7% of L-carnitine prescriptions were rated as inappropriate because the prescribed doses fell outside the recommendations. The overall rate of ADRs calculated from the patient population was 18.03%. All of them were of gastrointestinal type: abdominal cramps (8 cases, 61.54%) and vomiting (5 cases, 38.46%). Our results supported the establishment of an L-carnitine rational use policy at the NICU of the hospital under study.
Few studies have been made in regard to the effect of aluminum on the molecular and cellular structure and function of aquatic organisms; therefore, in the present report we determined the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects induced by the metal on the lymphocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three groups of fish were exposed to 0.05, 120, and 239 mg/L of aluminum (Al), respectively, by using Al? (SO?)?·7H?O, and another group was included as control. The cells obtained were studied with the comet assay, flow cytometry, and the TUNEL method. With the first method we found a concentration and time dependent, significant increase in the amount of DNA damage induced by Al, and a higher damage when we evaluated the level of oxidized DNA. By applying flow cytometry we established that the metal induced a DNA content increase and ploidy modifications as well as apoptosis and disturbances of the cell cycle progression. With the last method we determined a significant increase in the amount of apoptotic cells, mainly in the 72-96 h period. Our results established that Al caused deleterious DNA and cellular effects in the tested organism, and they suggested the pertinence of evaluating toxicity induced by the metal in organisms living in contaminated water bodies.
Madin Reservoir (MR), located in the State of Mexico, is fed mainly by the Rio Tlalnepantla. MR supplies potable water to the municipalities of Naucalpan and Atizapan, and various recreational activities take place in its vicinity, such as sailing and the fishing of diverse species including the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The purpose of this study was to determine the toxic effects of contaminants present in MR water and sediment on C. carpio. Five sampling stations were selected (those considered to have the most problems due to discharges). Water and sediment samples were taken and toxicity studies were performed, including acute toxicity (lethality) and subacute toxicity assays. The biomarkers used in the subacute assays were lipid peroxidation (LPX) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the liver and brain of test organisms. These biomarkers were also evaluated in local carp, i.e. carp with chronic exposure in situ to reservoir contaminants. Results show that contaminants in the water and sediment of the different sampling stations induce oxidative stress, this toxicity being more evident in samples from stations near the entry point of the Rio Tlalnepantla tributary and in local carp. This may be due to high contaminant levels as well as the fact that the physicochemical characteristics of the matrices might favor their bioavailability. Thus, both the water and sediment of this reservoir are contaminated with xenobiotics hazardous to C. carpio, a species consumed by the local human population.
Diclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely used in Mexico where it is sold over the counter. It enters water bodies through municipal and industrial discharges, posing a risk to water systems and aquatic organisms. Diclofenac-enriched artificial sediment was used to evaluate the toxicity of this pharmaceutical on the sentinel species Hyalella azteca, using oxidative stress biomarkers in order to determine if the set of tests used in this study is a suitable early damage biomarker. The median lethal concentration (72-h LC(50)) was determined and oxidative stress was evaluated using lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content to evaluate oxidized protein content, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. All biomarkers were significantly altered. Diclofenac induces oxidative stress in H. azteca and the set of tests used (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, antioxidant enzyme activities) constitutes an adequate early damage biomarker for evaluating the toxicity of this pharmaceutical group in aquatic species.
Several studies of fish have shown that aluminum may induce hypoxia, hypercapnia, metabolic acidosis, and respiratory failure. In lymphocytes, morphologic abnormalities and reduced immune activity have been observed. Nevertheless, there is little data on oxidative stress and such data are essential in order to identify its mechanism of action. The common carp Cyprinus carpio, an omnivorous fish commonly used in commercial aquaculture, has been proposed as a test organism in toxicologic assays due to its economic importance and wide geographic distribution. The aim of this work was to evaluate Al-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes of the common carp C. carpio. Specimens were exposed to three different concentrations of Al (0.05, 120, and 239 mg/l) in a static exposure system for 96 h. At the end of the exposure period, blood was collected and lymphocytes were separated. Lipid peroxidation, oxidized protein content and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Results show that the tested Al concentrations modified the activity of antioxidant enzymes and elicited higher levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidized proteins. The degree of damage induced was concentration and tissue dependent.
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