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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An Examination of the First Oxford House in the UK: A Preliminary Investigation.
Drugs (Abingdon Engl)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model's total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents' response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK.
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Social anxiety and communal living: The influence of social anxiety on men and women in substance abuse recovery homes.
J Subst Use
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Research has demonstrated high rates of co-occurrence among anxiety and substance use disorders. However, few studies have specifically examined the relationship between substance use and social anxiety among individuals who are in substance abuse recovery. The present study examined social anxiety as a predictor of substance use among a sample randomized to a sober-living home versus usual aftercare. Given the social nature of many substance abuse treatment and aftercare programs, it was also hypothesized that high levels of social anxiety would reduce the length of stay in the sober-living home and negatively influence participation in self-help groups. Results suggested that social anxiety was a significant predictor of relapse at one time point, and that social anxiety decreased the likelihood for remaining in a sober-living house for six months or more. No significant relationship between social anxiety and participation in self-help groups were found. Implications for further research and substance abuse treatment are discussed.
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Investigating Social Support and Network Relationships in Substance Use Disorder Recovery.
Subst Abus
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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ABSTRACT Background: Social support and characteristics of one's social network have been shown to be beneficial for abstinence and substance use disorder recovery. The current study explores how specific sources of social support relate to general feelings of social support and abstinence-specific self-efficacy. Methods: Data was collected from 31 of 33 individuals residing in five recovery houses. Participants were asked to complete social support and social network measures, along with measures assessing abstinence from substance use, abstinence self-efficacy, and involvement in 12-step groups. Results: A significant positive relationship was found between general social support and abstinence-specific self-efficacy. General social support was also significantly associated with the specific social support measures of sense of community and AA affiliation. Social network size predicted abstinence-related factors such as AA affiliation and perceived stress. Conclusions: These results provide insight regarding individual feelings of social support and abstinence-specific self-efficacy by showing that one's social network-level characteristics are related to one's perceptions of social support. We also found preliminary evidence that individual Oxford Houses influence one's feelings of social support.
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Vocational Training and Employment Attainment among Substance Abuse Recovering Individuals within a Communal Living Environment.
Ther Communities
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The present study explored the effects of length of stay in an Oxford House (a sober living environment) with the number of days attended school/vocational training and days worked in the past 90 days with 292 women and 604 men.
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: The Current Status and Future Potentials of Emerging Biomarkers.
Fatigue
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains an incompletely characterized illness, in part due to controversy regarding its definition, biological basis and diagnosis. Biomarkers are objective measures that may lead to improvements in our understanding of CFS by providing a more coherent and consistent approach to study, diagnosis and treatment of the illness. Such metrics may allow us to distinguish between CFS subtypes - each defined by characteristic biomarkers - currently conflated under the single, heterogeneous condition of CFS. These delineations, in turn, may guide more granular, focused, and targeted treatment strategies based on more precise characterizations of the illness. Here, we review potential CFS biomarkers related to neurological and immunological components of the illness, and discuss how these biomarkers may be used to move the field of CFS forward, emphasizing clinical utility and potential routes of future research.
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What Promotes Wisdom in 12-Step Recovery?
J Groups Addict Recover
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Research investigations on twelve-step groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) have addressed a number of resources associated with 12-step recovery. However, little is known about the role of wisdom, and whether aspects of 12-step participation might increase this resource among 12-step members. An exploratory analysis revealed that participants who reported having a "spiritual awakening" and considered themselves "members" of 12-step groups reported significantly higher levels of wisdom. Twelve-step meeting attendance was not significantly related to wisdom scores. Findings suggest certain aspects of 12-step involvement are associated with wisdom and may play a role in substance abuse recovery.
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Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.
J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables.
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Comorbid mental health and substance abuse issues among individuals in recovery homes: Prospective environmental mediators.
Ment Health Subst Use
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Individuals with comorbid internalizing psychological symptoms and substance abuse issues often have more negative outcomes and evidence a relative disparity in treatment gains compared to those with only substance abuse issues. The present study examined social mechanisms over time for individuals living in self-governed recovery homes (Oxford Houses) such as 12-step group activities and social support, which likely influence both abstinence and psychological outcomes. Participants (n = 567) from a national United States sample of Oxford Houses completed baseline and multiple follow-up self-report assessments over a one-year period. A structural equation model was utilized to evaluate predicted relationships among baseline symptoms, 12-step activities, social support, and outcome variables. Results indicated that internalizing symptoms were associated with subsequent mutual help activities, but not directly with social support. Living in an Oxford House for six months and number of 12-step meetings attended were partially mediated by social support variables in predicting abstinence outcomes, but not psychological outcomes. Environments such as Oxford Houses may be viable options for recovering individuals with comorbid internalizing psychological problems, although social support mechanisms primarily promote abstinence. Implications for future research and for Oxford House policies are discussed.
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Predictors of Post-Infectious Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents.
Health Psychol Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case-control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at 6 months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at 6 months.
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Factors affecting the stability of social networks during early recovery in ex-offenders.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Few studies have considered the retention of the individuals (alters) comprising the social networks of people in recovery.
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Examining case definition criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis.
Fatigue
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Considerable controversy has transpired regarding the core features of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Current case definitions differ in the number and types of symptoms required. This ambiguity impedes the search for biological markers and effective treatments.
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Are Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome different illnesses? A preliminary analysis.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Considerable discussion has transpired regarding whether chronic fatigue syndrome is a distinct illness from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. A prior study contrasted the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria with the Fukuda and colleagues' chronic fatigue syndrome criteria and found that the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria identified a subset of patients with greater functional impairment and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the larger group who met Fukuda and colleagues' criteria. The current study analyzed two discrete data sets and found that the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria identified more impaired individuals with more severe symptomatology.
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Recovery Resources and Psychiatric Severity Among Persons with Substance Use Disorders.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A comparative analysis of recovery resources (abstinence social support, abstinence self-efficacy) was conducted among two groups exiting inpatient treatment for substance use disorders: persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders and persons with substance use disorders. Both groups reported comparable levels of abstinence social support, but this resource was not significantly related to substance use among persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders. Although abstinence self-efficacy was significantly related to substance use, persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders reported significantly lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy than persons with substance use disorders. Findings suggest that persons with psychiatric comorbid substance use disorders exit alcohol/drug treatment with lower levels of abstinence self-efficacy compared to their substance use disorder peers.
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Person-environment interactions among residents of Oxford Houses.
Addict Res Theory
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The continued struggle of addiction recovery support systems suggest that the paradigm of this field needs to continue its evolution, which has increasingly emphasized environments. Field Theory suggests that the products of individual and environmental characteristics be considered rather than a summation of the two. This study examined such interactions in Oxford Houses, a network of democratic, and self-governed addiction recovery homes. This study examined sobriety in experienced houses (average length of residency > six months) compared to less experienced houses (average length of residency ? six months) in relation to individual resident characteristics (age, length of residence in an Oxford House, and referral from the criminal justice system). Using multilevel modeling, findings indicated that older residents living in an experienced Oxford Houses were more likely to remain abstinent over time than those in inexperienced homes. Additionally, for inexperienced houses, residents who had been in the Oxford House for a longer period had a higher the probability of abstinence than those that had been in the house for a shorter period of time. Finally, legal referral was related to a lower probability of one-year abstinence but only for those in experienced homes. These types of person-environment interactions point to the need for more research to better understand how person variables interact with environmental variables in the processes of recovery and adaptation to settings, as well as for treatment professionals consideration of both person and environment when making recovery home referrals.
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Evaluating a bilingual voluntary community-based healthcare organization.
J Ethn Subst Abuse
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The current study compared traditional recovery homes for individuals with substance use disorders with homes that had been modified to feature culturally congruent communication styles. Findings indicated significant increases in employment income, with the size of the change significantly greater in the culturally modified houses. Significant decreases in alcohol use over time were also found, with larger decreases over time in the traditional recovery homes. Use of prescribed medications and days using drugs significantly decreased over time, but not differentially for those in the two types of recovery homes. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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Effects of Time Frame on the Recall Reliability of CFS Symptoms.
Eval Health Prof
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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This study serves as an investigation of the reliability of symptom data as reported by individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), across three recall time frames (the past week, the past month, and the past 6 months), and at two assessment points (with 1 week in between each assessment). Multilevel model analyses were used to determine the optimal recall time frame, in terms of test -retest reliability, for each of the Fukuda et al. (1994) case defining symptoms. Results suggested that the optimal time frame for reliably reporting CFS symptoms was six months for sore throat, lymph node pain, muscle pain, post-exertional malaise, headaches, memory/concentration difficulties, and unrefreshing sleep. For joint pain, the optimal time frame was one month. Researchers who are interested in the assessment of CFS symptoms need to take recall time frame into account, especially when the intended goal is to standardize and improve the methods used to reliably and accurately diagnose this complex illness.
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Factors of empowerment for women in recovery from substance use.
Am J Community Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Empowerment is an interdisciplinary construct heavily grounded in the theories of community psychology. Although empowerment has a strong theoretical foundation, few context-specific quantitative measures have been designed to evaluate empowerment for specific populations. The present study explored the factor structure of a modified empowerment scale with a cross-sectional sample of 296 women in recovery from substance use who lived in recovery homes located throughout the United States. Results from an exploratory factor analysis identified three factors of psychological empowerment which were closely related to previous conceptualizations of psychological empowerment: self-perception, resource knowledge and participation. Further analyses demonstrated a hierarchical relationship among the three factors, with resource knowledge predicting participation when controlling for self-perception. Finally, a correlational analysis demonstrated the initial construct validity of each factor, as each factor of empowerment was significantly and positively related to self-esteem. Implications for the application of psychological empowerment theory and research are discussed.
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Contrasting Chronic Fatigue Syndrome versus Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Fatigue
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Much debate is transpiring regarding whether chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) are different illnesses. Several prior studies that compared the Fukuda et al. CFS criteria to the Canadian ME/CFS criteria found that the Canadian criteria identified patients with more functional impairments and greater physical, mental, and cognitive problems than those who met Fukuda et al. criteria.[3,4] These samples were located in the Chicago metropolitan area, so the results could not be generalized to other locations. In addition, past studies used a symptom questionnaire that was not specifically developed to tap the Canadian criteria.
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Chronic fatigue syndrome following infections in adolescents.
Curr. Opin. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To review the recent epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of postinfectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents.
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Examining the impact of obesity on individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Workplace Health Saf
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder affecting multiple body systems. The most commonly used definition of CFS is 6 or more months of fatigue and the presence of at least four of eight minor symptoms. In addition, many health and psychological conditions, including severe obesity-body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m(2) or greater-exclude individuals from a diagnosis of CFS. Obesity has been correlated with fatigue, sleep problems, and less satisfaction with general health, functioning, and vitality. The current study investigated weight trends over time in a community-based sample of individuals with CFS and healthy controls. The study further investigated the impact of comorbid weight issues on several health and disability outcomes in a subset of overweight individuals. Overweight and obese individuals with CFS demonstrated poorer functioning than controls who were similarly weighted. One participant was excluded because she had gained weight at a monitoring visit and her BMI was greater than 40 kg/m(2). The implications of these findings for health care workers are discussed.
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Examining the energy envelope and associated symptom patterns in chronic fatigue syndrome: does coping matter?
Chronic Illn
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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OBJECTIVE/Hypothesis The objective of this study was to examine sub-types of individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome based on variables that are associated with the energy envelope theory and to examine the role of coping strategies in explaining the differences found between the subtypes. METHODS Cluster analysis was used. Grouping variables included physical functioning, post-exertional malaise severity, and the extent to which an individual was outside of the energy envelope. These clusters were evaluated using discriminant function analysis to determine whether they could be differentiated based on coping styles. RESULTS Cluster analysis identified three groups. Clusters 1 and 2 were consistent with the energy envelope theory. However, Cluster 3 was characterized by patients with the most impairment, but they were to a lesser extent exceeding their energy envelope. Coping strategies explained a small percentage (10%) of the variance in differentiating the clusters. DISCUSSION Energy maintenance may be associated with improved functioning and less severe symptoms for some. However, patients in Cluster 3 were closer to remaining within their energy envelope and also used higher levels of adaptive coping but were more impaired than Cluster 2. This suggests that adaptive coping strategies were not associated with improved health, as members of Cluster 3 were severely limited in functioning.
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Pretrauma risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review of the literature.
Clin Psychol Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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As it has become clear that most individuals exposed to trauma do not develop PTSD, it has become increasingly important to examine pretrauma risk factors. However, PTSD research has overwhelmingly relied on retrospective accounts of trauma, which is beleaguered by problems of recall bias. To further our understanding of PTSDs etiology, a systematic review of 54 prospective, longitudinal studies of PTSD published between 1991 and 2013 were examined. Inclusion criteria required that all individuals were assessed both before and after an index trauma. Results revealed six categories of pretrauma predictor variables: 1) cognitive abilities; 2) coping and response styles; 3) personality factors; 4) psychopathology; 5) psychophysiological factors; and 6) social ecological factors. The results indicated that many variables, previously considered outcomes of trauma, are pretrauma risk factors. The review considered these findings in the context of the extant retrospective PTSD literature in order to identify points of overlap and discrepancy. Pretrauma predictor categories were also used to conceptualize variable risk for PTSD. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
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A Qualitative Natural History Study of ME/CFS in the Community.
Health Care Women Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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In previous qualitative research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), researchers have focused on the experiences of patients with ME/CFS in tertiary care samples. This qualitative study examined the natural history of people with ME/CFS (n = 19) from a community-based sample. Findings highlighted multilayered themes involving the illness experience and the physical construction of ME/CFS. In addition, this study further illuminated unique subthemes regarding community response and treatment, which have implications for understanding the progression of ME/CFS as well as experiences of those within patient networks. There is a need for more longitudinal qualitative research on epidemiological samples of patients with ME/CFS.
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Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Self-Run Recovery Homes in the United States.
Int J Self Help Self Care
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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This study examined the sustainability rates of 214 self-run substance abuse recovery homes called Oxford Houses (OHs) over a six-year period. We list five factors needed to sustain an OH: affordable housing, residents following OH principles, resident income, institutional support, and community support. Results indicated a high sustainability rate (86.9%) in which 186 OHs remained open and 28 OHs closed. Reasons for houses closing (N = 14) included lack of affordable housing, which we classified as an external factor. Houses that closed because of internal factors (N = 13) included residents who were unable to adhere to OH rules, and insufficient income of residents. No house-level differences for income, sense of community, average lengths of stay, house age, or neighborhood characteristics were found between the houses that closed versus houses that remained open. Because the OH system relies on residents to sustain individual houses located in ordinary residential neighborhoods, these findings suggest that OH sustainability depends on locale, primarily access to affordable housing and adequate job opportunities for residents.
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Exploration of the link between tobacco retailers in school neighborhoods and student smoking.
J Sch Health
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students.
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Cognitive impairments associated with CFS and POTS.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by fatigue, sleep dysfunction, and cognitive deficits (Fukuda et al., 1994). Research surrounding cognitive functioning among patients with CFS has found difficulty with memory, attention, and information processing. A similar disorder, postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), is characterized by increased heart rate, fatigue, and mental cloudiness (Raj et al., 2009). Potential implications of cognitive deficits for patients with CFS and/or POTS are discussed, including difficulties with school and/or employment. A few biological theories (i.e., kindling, impairments in the central nervous system, and difficulty with blood flow) have emerged as potential explanations for the cognitive deficits reported in both CFS and POTS Future research should continue to examine possible explanations for cognitive impairments in CFS and POTS, and ultimately use this information to try and reduce cognitive impairments for these patients.
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Pacing as a strategy to improve energy management in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a consensus document.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating condition characterized by a number of symptoms which typically worsen following minimal exertion. Various strategies to manage the limited energy levels have been proposed. Of these, pacing has been consistently rated as one of the most helpful in surveys conducted by patient groups. This review is a response to the paucity of the information on pacing in the scientific literature.
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Contrasting case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis.
Eval Health Prof
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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This article uses data from patients recruited using the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to contrast those meeting criteria for the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) Canadian case definition with those that did not meet these criteria. The study also contrasts those meeting criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) based on criteria from Ramsay and other theorists with those that did not meet the ME criteria. The ME/CFS case definition criteria identified a subset of patients with more functional impairments and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the subset not meeting these criteria. The ME subset had more functional impairments, and more severe physical and cognitive symptoms than the subset not meeting ME criteria. When applied to a population meeting the 1994 CFS case definition, both ME/CFS and ME criteria appear to select a more severe subset of patients.
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Factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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This study examined the properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in a sample of 111 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors. The mean score for the Somatic-Affective factor was significantly higher than the Cognitive factor. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed for BDI-II total score, the two factor scores, and the BDI for Primary Care (BDI-PC). The BDI-PC and Cognitive factor demonstrated superior validity. Results suggest patients endorse BDI-II somatic items that overlap with CFS symptoms at a high rate. Factor scores should be evaluated separately, or the BDI-PC should be utilized with this population.
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Determinants of Alcohol, Khat, and Bhang Use in Rural Kenya.
Afr J Drug Alcohol Stud
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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The study investigated local determinants of substance use in rural Kenya. Over the years, there has been a growing concern over increased use of substances across ages, gender, religious persuasions, and social class in Kenya. It is still unclear what psychosocial individual and/or community factors might be that offer some explanation for the high levels of alcohol and drug use. The study investigated community members social status in areas of gender, education, employment, self-esteem, and availability of substances. The sample was comprised of Kenyan rural participants, and included 153 men and 64 women with a mean age of 34.2 years. The participants completed a survey measuring possible psychosocial determinants of alcohol, khat and bhang (i.e., marijuana) use patterns. The sample evidenced high levels of substance use particularly involving the locally available substances (i.e., bottled beer, local brews, chewing khat, smoking bhang). Males in comparison to females were more likely to drink alcohol, chew khat, and smoke bhang. Women compared to men reported higher education and employment status, which were associated with less substance use. Females had higher self-esteem when they did not use bottled beer whereas males had higher self-esteem when they use bottled beer. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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Veterans residing in self-governed recovery homes for substance abuse: sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics.
Psychiatr Rehabil J
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Veterans commonly experience both psychiatric and substance abuse problems following their reintegration into the community postwar. The present study describes a sample of veterans residing in self-governed recovery homes.
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Fatigue Scales and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Issues of Sensitivity and Specificity.
Disabil Stud Q
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Few studies have explored issues of sensitivity and specificity for using the fatigue construct to identify patients meeting chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) criteria. In this article, we examine the sensitivity and specificity of several fatigue scales that have attempted to define severe fatigue within CFS. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we found most scales and sub-scales had either significant specificity and/or sensitivity problems. However, the post-exertional subscale of the ME/CFS Fatigue Types Questionnaire (Jason, Jessen, et al., 2009) was the most promising in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Among the more traditional fatigue scales, Krupp, LaRocca, Muir-Nash, and Steinbergs (1989) Fatigue Severity Scale had the best ability to differentiate CFS from healthy controls. Selecting questions, scales and cut off points to measure fatigue must be done with extreme care in order to successfully identify CFS cases.
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Gambling Behaviors Among Oxford House Residents: A Preliminary Investigation.
J Soc Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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The present study investigated the prevalence of gambling behaviors among 71 individuals recovering from substance-dependent disorders and living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Residents were given the South Oaks Gambling Screen to assess gambling behaviors and pathological gambling, and 19.7% of the sample was identified as having probable pathological gambling. These residents reported proportionately more involvement in a variety of gambling behaviors than other residents. Engagement in various gambling activities was consistent with previous investigations and suggested that self-run recovery homes such as Oxford Houses might be suitable referral sources for recovering persons who have comorbid gambling problems.
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An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
Neurosci Med
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Kindling might represent a heuristic model for understanding the etiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Kindling occurs when an organism is exposed repeatedly to an initially sub-threshold stimulus resulting in hypersensitivity and spontaneous seizure-like activity. Among patients with ME/CFS, chronically repeated low-intensity stimulation due to an infectious illness might cause kindling of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Kindling might also occur by high-intensity stimulation (e.g., brain trauma) of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Once this system is charged or kindled, it can sustain a high level of arousal with little or no external stimulus and eventually this could lead to hypocortisolism. Seizure activity may spread to adjacent structures of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the brain, which might be responsible for the varied symptoms that occur among patients with ME/CFS. In addition, kindling may also be responsible for high levels of oxidative stress, which has been found in patients with ME/CFS.
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Reducing Childrens Media Viewing.
Case Rep Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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This case study evaluates the use of a Restrictive aide and the complementary use of parental mediation techniques to reduce media viewing among children. A family was provided a TV Token Timer, which involved a positive reward in exchange for participating in activities outside of watching television. Media viewing habits decreased from the baseline to the completion of the intervention at week 8 for both children. The parent reported high levels of Instructive mediation and positively evaluated the familys use of the TV Token Timer.
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Data mining: comparing the empiric CFS to the Canadian ME/CFS case definition.
J Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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This article contrasts two case definitions for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We compared the empiric CFS case definition (Reeves et al., 2005) and the Canadian ME/CFS clinical case definition (Carruthers et al., 2003) with a sample of individuals with CFS versus those without. Data mining with decision trees was used to identify the best items to identify patients with CFS. Data mining is a statistical technique that was used to help determine which of the survey questions were most effective for accurately classifying cases. The empiric criteria identified about 79% of patients with CFS and the Canadian criteria identified 87% of patients. Items identified by the Canadian criteria had more construct validity. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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The effect of homework compliance on treatment outcomes for participants with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.
Rehabil Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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This study examined the relationship between level of treatment engagement through completion of homework on treatment outcomes within nonpharmacological interventions for participants with ME/CFS.
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A longitudinal investigation of the predictability of the three-factor model of the Important People Inventory.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Because of psychometric limitations and varied adaptations of the Important People Inventory (IP; a measure of alcohol social support), Groh et al. (7) performed factor analyses and created a three-factor model (i.e., Support for Drinking from Network Members, Drinking Behaviors of Network Members, and General Social Support). This present study examined the ability of the three-factor model to predict alcohol use.
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Benefits and costs associated with mutual-help community-based recovery homes: The Oxford House model.
Eval Program Plann
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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We used data from a randomized controlled study of Oxford House (OH), a self-run, self-supporting recovery home, to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Following substance abuse treatment, individuals that were assigned to an OH condition (n=68) were compared to individuals assigned to a usual care condition (n=61). Economic cost measures were derived from length of stay at an Oxford House residence, and derived from self-reported measures of inpatient and outpatient treatment utilization. Economic benefit measures were derived from self-reported information on monthly income, days participating in illegal activities, binary responses of alcohol and drug use, and incarceration. Results suggest that OH compared quite favorably to usual care: the net benefit of an OH stay was estimated to be roughly $29,000 per person on average. Bootstrapped standard errors suggested that the net benefit was statistically significant. Costs were incrementally higher under OH, but the benefits in terms of reduced illegal activity, incarceration and substance use substantially outweighed the costs. The positive net benefit for Oxford House is primarily driven by a large difference in illegal activity between OH and usual care participants. Using sensitivity analyses, under more conservative assumptions we still arrived at a net benefit favorable to OH of $17,830 per person.
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How Type of Treatment and Presence of PTSD affect Employment, Self-regulation, and Abstinence.
N Am J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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The present study examined self-regulation, unemployment, and substance use outcomes for individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who had transitioned from substance use treatment centers to the community. Participants, recruited from substance abuse treatment centers, were randomly assigned to an Oxford House self-help communal living environment (n = 75) or received usual aftercare (n = 75). Among these 150 individuals, 32 participants (27 women, 5 men) were diagnosed with lifetime PTSD. At a two year follow-up, individuals with PTSD in the usual aftercare condition showed significantly lower levels of self-regulation than those in the Oxford House condition with or without PTSD. These findings highlight the importance of abstinence supportive settings following substance use treatment, especially for individuals with PTSD.
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Increased HDAC in association with decreased plasma cortisol in older adults with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Hypocortisolism is a frequent finding in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) with other research findings implying potential dysregulation of glucocorticoid signaling. Glucocorticoid signaling is under the influence of several pathways, several of which are of interest in the study of CFS. Oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity are known to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (Epel et al., 2004) and the presence of histone deacetylases (HDAC) could also impact glucocorticoid signaling. The intent of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship among oxidative stress elements, select HDACs (2/3) and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in an elderly sample with CFS. Findings suggest increased histone deacetylase activity, lower total antioxidant power, in the context of decreased plasma cortisol and increased plasma dehydroepiandrosterone concomitant with decreased expression of the encoding gene for the glucocorticoid receptor. These findings support the presence of HPA axis dysregulation in elderly individuals with CFS.
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A natural history study of chronic fatigue syndrome.
Rehabil Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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There is a need for natural history chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) studies from random, community-based, multi-ethnic populations.
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Contrasting social climates of small peer-run versus a larger staff-run substance abuse recovery setting.
Am J Community Psychol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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This study compared the social climate of peer-run homes for recovering substance abusers called Oxford House (OH) to that of a staffed residential therapeutic community (TC). Residents of OHs (N = 70) and the TC (N = 62) completed the Community Oriented Programs Environment Scales. OHs structurally differ on two primary dimensions from TCs in that they tend to be smaller and are self-run rather than professionally run. Findings indicated significantly higher Involvement, Support, Practical Orientation, Spontaneity, Autonomy, Order and Organization, and Program Clarity scores among the OH compared to TC residents. Additional analyses found the OH condition was higher Support, Personal Problem Orientation, and Order and Organization scores among women compared to men residents. These results suggested that these smaller OH self-run environments created a more involving and supportive social milieu than a larger staff-run TC. These findings are interpreted within Moos (2007) four theoretical ingredients (i.e., social control, social learning, behavioral economics, and stress and coping), which help account for effective substance abuse treatment environments.
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A review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies on myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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To review and synthesize findings across qualitative studies on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).
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Eating disorders, normative eating self-efficacy and body image self-efficacy: women in recovery homes.
Eur Eat Disord Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Although eating disorders (EDs) and ED symptoms are common among individuals in recovery for substance abuse (SA), long-term SA treatment programmes rarely address these problems. The present study examined the prevalence of EDs among women residing in Oxford Houses--low-cost, self-governed recovery homes for SA. Further, among women both with and without an ED diagnosis, the association between duration of Oxford House residency and eating-related self-efficacy scores was examined as an indicator of potential treatment effects on ED symptoms. During a telephone assessment, participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Eating Disorder Recovery Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Results indicated that 12 of the 31 women analysed met criteria for an ED (bulimia nervosa, 2; ED not otherwise specified, 10). Differential findings were evident for eating-related self-efficacy measures depending on ED diagnostic status and duration of residency. Potential interpretations, limitations and implications are discussed.
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CFS prevalence and risk factors over time.
J Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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The present natural history study examined the course of CFS from 1995-97 (Wave 1) to approximately 10 years later (Wave 2) from a random, community-based, multi-ethnic population. The rate of CFS remained approximately the same over the period of time from Wave 1 to Wave 2, although a high level of mortality was found (18% of those with medical or psychiatric exclusions group, 12.5% for the CFS group). Physical measures of disability and fatigue, along with measures of specific somatic symptoms, better differentiate individuals who later are diagnosed with CFS than more psychosocial measures such as stress and coping.
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12-Step involvement among a U.S. national sample of Oxford House residents.
J Subst Abuse Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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A longitudinal analysis was conducted among a U.S. national sample of persons affiliated with Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous living in self-run recovery homes (Oxford Houses). Categorical involvement in a set of 12-step activities (i.e., having a sponsor, reading 12-step literature, doing service work, and calling other members for help) and averaged summary scores of involvement were examined in relation to abstinence and self-efficacy for abstinence. Participants who were categorically involved in all 12-step activities reported significantly higher levels of abstinence and self-efficacy for abstinence at 1 year compared with those who were less involved, whereas averaged summary scores of involvement were not a significant predictor of abstinence. Participants number of days in Oxford Houses, but not rates of 12-step meeting attendance, was significantly related to increased abstinence. Findings suggest that categorical involvement in a number of 12-step activities equip persons with substance use disorders with resources for ongoing recovery.
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Residents of mutual help recovery homes, characteristics and outcomes: Comparison of four US ethnic subgroups.
Drugs (Abingdon Engl)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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This study compared the characteristics and outcomes of four ethnic groups living in mutual help recovery homes. The sample consisted of 524 Caucasian, 305 African American, 31 Latino/a, and 17 American Indian (AI) participants. This article includes a short review of relevant literature on AIs and substance use, provides an analysis of characteristics and outcomes of four ethnic groups and includes a discussion of the implications of the findings for knowledge of patterns of use among AIs. AIs were more likely to report being on parole or probation and being referred for aftercare by the legal system. Additionally, AIs reported greater disharmony within their recovery residences than Caucasians, but there were no significant ethnic differences in baseline length of stay in Oxford House, length of alcohol or drug sobriety, or substance use outcomes four months after the baseline assessment.
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Frequency and content analysis of chronic fatigue syndrome in medical text books.
Aust J Prim Health
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Text books are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical text books from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical text books included information on CFS. However, among the 129 527 total pages within these medical text books, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (0.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as multiple sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical text books. These findings suggest that the topic ofCFS is underreported in published medical text books.
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The role of changes in activity as a function of perceived available and expended energy in nonpharmacological treatment outcomes for ME/CFS.
J Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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Nonpharmacological interventions for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often emphasize gradual increases in activity to promote improvement in physical functioning and fatigue. The energy envelope theory may provide a framework for understanding the relationship between changes in activity level and outcomes for patients with ME/CFS. This study examined the relationship between energy envelope and changes in activity after nonpharmacological interventions in a sample of 44 adults with ME/CFS. Results showed that those who were within their energy envelope before treatment showed more improvement in physical functioning and fatigue compared with those outside of their energy envelope. These findings suggest that an assessment of perceived available and expended energy could help guide the development of individualized nonpharmacological interventions for people with ME/CFS.
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Measuring substantial reductions in functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Disabil Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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All the major current case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) specify substantial reductions in previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities to meet criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in operationalizing substantial reductions. For example, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) has been used to determine whether individuals met the CFS disability criterion. However, previous methods of using the SF-36 have been prone to including people without substantial reductions in key areas of physical functioning when diagnosing CFS. This study sought to empirically identify the most appropriate SF-36 subscales for measuring substantial reductions in patients with CFS.
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Oxford House Recovery Homes: Characteristics and Effectiveness.
Psychol Serv
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2010
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One of the largest examples of a community-based, mutual-help residential community for high risk substance abuse individuals is Oxford House. In the U.S., over 9,800 people live in these self-run dwellings where they obtain jobs, pay utility bills, and learn to be responsible citizens. Beginning with one single rented residence in the mid 1970s, Oxford Houses now number over 1,300. These rented homes are helping to deal with drug addiction and community re-entry by providing stable housing without any limits on length of stay, a network of job opportunities, and support for abstinence. An exploration of the research on these unique settings highlights the strengths of such a community-based approach to addressing addiction. New roles for psychologists in working with these types of support systems are identified.
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Illness duration and coping style in chronic fatigue syndrome.
Psychol Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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A sample of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome was recruited to assess coping strategies and illness duration. It was hypothesized that adaptive coping strategies would be higher among those with longer illness duration. Those in the longer illness duration group reported higher use of active coping, positive reframing, planning, and acceptance, and lower use of behavioral disengagement than those in the shorter illness duration group. No significant differences were found between the two illness duration groups for physical impairment or symptom severity, but the long duration group revealed a lower percentage of participants who were working than the short duration group. These findings suggest that individuals with longer or shorter duration of the illness have differences in coping styles but not differences in physical impairment or symptom severity.
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Self-Efficacy and Sense of Community among Adults Recovering from Substance Abuse.
N Am J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Previous researchers found that abstinence-specific self-efficacy has been predictive of the likelihood of relapse for individuals in recovery from substance abuse. Oxford Houses are sober living homes that provide mutual support and are resident funded and operated. The relationships between house level sense of community and abstinence-specific self-efficacy were examined in the present study with a sample of 754 adults living in 139 Oxford Houses nationwide in a multilevel model. A significant positive relationship between house level sense of community and self-efficacy was observed. These findings have both research and therapeutic implications.
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Alternative medical interventions used in the treatment and management of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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There have been several systematic reviews attempting to evaluate the efficacy of possible treatments for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and fibromyalgia (FM). However, information regarding the efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been comprehensively or systematically covered in these reviews, despite its frequent use in the patient community.
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Classification of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome by types of fatigue.
Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Persons with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) often complain of fatigue states (eg, postexertional malaise, brain fog) that are qualitatively different than normal, daily fatigue. Given the heterogeneous nature of ME/CFS, it is likely that individuals with this illness experience these fatigue types differently in terms of severity and frequency. It is also possible that meaningful subgroups of patients exist that exhibit different patterns of the fatigue experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether individuals with ME/CFS can be classified in a meaningful way according to the different types of fatigue they experience. One hundred individuals with ME/CFS participated in the study. Individuals that met inclusion criteria were administered the Multiple Fatigue Types Questionnaire (MFTQ), a 5-factor instrument that distinguishes between different types of fatigue. A cluster analysis was used to classify patients into various clusters based on factor subscale scores. Using a 3-factor solution, individuals were classified according to illness severity (low, moderate, severe) across the different fatigue factors. However, a 5-cluster solution enabled participants with moderate to severe fatigue levels to fall into more differentiated clusters and demonstrate distinct fatigue state patterns. These results suggest that fatigue patterns of individuals with ME/CFS are heterogeneous, and that patients may be classified into meaningful subgroups.
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What is fatigue? Pathological and nonpathological fatigue.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Aid in understanding issues surrounding the construct validity of fatigue including the distinction between pathological versus nonpathological fatigue. Fatigue is a universal symptom reported by individuals in the general population as well as by those suffering from different medical and psychological illnesses, including cancer, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, and anxiety. Chronic fatigue is a significant problem in many primary care settings, and the debilitating and prolonged nature of fatigue can pose significant economic consequences for society. Researchers have struggled to better assess and understand the etiology and classification of fatigue within different illness groups.
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Cracking Down On Youth Tobacco May Influence Drug Use.
J Community Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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This study evaluated the influence of tobacco Possession-Use-Purchase (PUP) law enforcement and illicit drug use and offers. Twenty-four towns were randomly assigned into two conditions. Both conditions focused on reducing minors access to commercial sources of tobacco. The communities assigned to the experimental condition also increased their PUP law enforcement, whereas among communities in the control condition, PUP law enforcement remained at low levels. A Hierarchical Linear Modeling analytical approach was selected due to the multilevel data and nested design. The likelihood of a child currently using drugs, ever having used drugs, or illicit drug offers was lower in the experimental versus control conditions. These outcomes suggest that police efforts to reduce specific substance use behaviors (i.e., underage tobacco use) may have a positive spillover effect and help reduce teen drug use and illicit drug offers.
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Activity Logs as a Measure of Daily Activity Among Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
J Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2009
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Self-report data collected through interviews has been one of the primary ways of assessing symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). An alternative way to collect data involves activity logs, which involves patients writing down the pattern, intensity, and qualitative nature of activity over several days.
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Youth tobacco access and possession policy interventions: effects on observed and perceived tobacco use.
Am J Addict
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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This study evaluated the effects of tobacco Purchase, Use and Possession (PUP) laws on student perceptions of adolescent tobacco use within towns and schools. Twenty-four towns were randomly assigned into two conditions, the experimental condition (E PUP) involved efforts to increase both PUP law enforcement and reduce minors access to commercial sources of tobacco, whereas the control condition (C) focused only on efforts to reduce minors access to commercial sources of tobacco. A hierarchical linear modeling analytical approach was selected due to the multilevel data and nested design. The present study found that over time, youth in the experimental PUP condition observed less youth tobacco usage at school and in their town, and perceived lower rates of tobacco among their peers at school and among friends than youth in the control condition. The findings suggest that PUP law enforcement might be used to strengthen community norms against youth tobacco use.
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Increases in tolerance within naturalistic, intentional communities: a randomized, longitudinal examination.
Am J Community Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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The authors examine differential changes in values of tolerance among 150 participants discharged from inpatient treatment centers, and randomly assigned to either a self-help-based, communal living setting (i.e., Oxford House), or usual aftercare. Participants were interviewed every 6 months for a 24-month period. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine the effect of condition (therapeutic communal living versus usual aftercare) on wave trajectories of tolerance (i.e., universality/diversity scores). Over time, residents of the communal living model demonstrated significantly greater values of tolerance than usual aftercare participants. Communal living participants who resided in the house for over 6 months showed the most substantial increases in tolerance. Results support the notion that communal living residents may develop more tolerant attitudes by striving toward superordinate community goals (objectives held by (a) the whole group and (b) which individual members could not achieve alone).
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Landlords of self-governed recovery homes: an initial exploration of attitudes, opinions, and motivation to serve others.
J Psychoactive Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Landlords of community-based recovery homes are an under-researched group. The few existing studies available suggest that landlords might be more open to renting to vulnerable populations if certain conditions are met or communication is more open between all parties involved. The present exploratory study surveyed landlords (n = 30) of self-governed recovery homes across the United States regarding their attitudes and opinions about renting to these homes, and motivations for community service. Results indicated that landlords generally had positive perceptions of renting to self-governed recovery environments, and even perceived benefits of renting to these homes compared to more traditional tenants. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed in the context of existing research and limitations of the present study.
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The relationship of Fennell phases to symptoms among patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Eval Health Prof
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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The Fennell Phase Inventory (FPI) is an instrument designed to measure phases of the illnesses known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The current study explored how the FPI was related to physical and psychological functioning as well as coping style. Based on FPI scores, 111 adults with ME/CFS were placed in one of three groups: crisis, stabilization, or resolution. Results showed that the crisis group demonstrated significantly worse functioning than at least one other group for depression, quality of life, mental functioning, anxiety, and self-efficacy; and utilized less adaptive coping styles. These results indicate that patients with ME/CFS who are in the crisis phase tend to experience more severe psychological and physical symptoms and utilize poorer coping strategies. Those in the resolution phase maintain the most adaptive coping strategies. Implications for these findings are discussed.
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Effects of youth tobacco access and possession policy interventions on heavy adolescent smokers.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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This study evaluated the effects of tobacco PUP (Purchase, Use and Possession) laws on tobacco use patterns among students in twenty-four towns, which were randomly assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group involved both PUP law enforcement and reducing minors access to commercial sources of tobacco, and the condition for the control group involved only efforts to reduce minors access to commercial sources of tobacco. The present study found that adolescents in the control group had a significantly greater increase in the percentage of youth who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day when compared to the experimental group.
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The Relationship Between Neighborhood Criminal Behavior and Oxford Houses.
Ther Communities
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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The present study investigated crime rates in areas surrounding 42 Oxford Houses and 42 control houses in a large city in the Northwestern United States. A city-run Global Information Systems (GIS) website was used to gather crime data including assault, arson, burglary, larceny, robbery, sexual assault, homicide, and vehicle theft over a calendar year. Findings indicated that there were no significant differences between the crime rates around Oxford Houses and the control houses. These results suggest that well-managed and governed recovery homes pose minimal risks to neighbors in terms of criminal behavior.
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Youth smoking status: perceptions versus measurements.
Am J Health Behav
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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OBJEctive: To determine whether youths who have smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days perceive themselves as smokers.
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Latinos and Latinas in communal settings: a grounded theory of recovery.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Latino/a residents of a mutual help residential recovery program (Oxford House) in order to elicit their experiences of the programs therapeutic elements. A model of recovery emerged from the analysis including several themes supported by existing literature: personal motivation and readiness to change, mutual help, sober environment, social support, and accountability. Consistent with a broad conceptualization of recovery, outcomes included abstinence, new life skills, and increased self-esteem/sense of purpose. Most participants were the only Latino/a in their Houses; however, cultural differences did not emerge as salient issues. The studys findings highlight potential therapeutic aspects of mutual-help communal recovery programs and suggest that English-speaking, bicultural Latinos/as have positive experiences and may benefit from participating in these programs.
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Severe versus Moderate criteria for the new pediatric case definition for ME/CFS.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The new diagnostic criteria for pediatric ME/CFS are structurally based on the Canadian Clinical Adult case definition, and have more required specific symptoms than the (Fukuda et al. Ann Intern Med 121:953-959, 1994) adult case definition. Physicians specializing in pediatric ME/CFS referred thirty-three pediatric patients with ME/CFS and 21 youth without the illness. Those who met ME/CFS criteria were separated into Severe and Moderate categories. Significant differences were found for symptoms within each of the six major categories: fatigue, post-exertional malaise, sleep, pain, neurocognitive difficulties, and autonomic/neuroendocrine/immune manifestations. In general, the results showed participants who met the Severe ME/CFS criteria reported the highest scores, the Moderate ME/CFS group show scores that were a little lower, and the control group evidenced the lowest scores. Findings indicate that the Pediatric Case Definition for ME/CFS can distinguish between those with this illness and controls, and between those with Severe versus Moderate manifestations of the illness.
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The impact of energy modulation on physical functioning and fatigue severity among patients with ME/CFS.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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The energy envelope postulates that patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) will improve functioning when maintaining expended energy levels at the same level as available energy level.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.