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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biological features of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Human infection associated with a novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus has recently been identified in China. A total of 132 confirmed cases and 39 deaths have been reported. Most patients presented with severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the first epidemic has subsided, the presence of a natural reservoir and the disease severity highlight the need to evaluate its risk on human public health and to understand the possible pathogenesis mechanism. Here we show that the emerging H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a potentially high risk to humans. We discover that the H7N9 virus can bind to both avian-type (?2,3-linked sialic acid) and human-type (?2,6-linked sialic acid) receptors. It can invade epithelial cells in the human lower respiratory tract and type II pneumonocytes in alveoli, and replicated efficiently in ex vivo lung and trachea explant culture and several mammalian cell lines. In acute serum samples of H7N9-infected patients, increased levels of the chemokines and cytokines IP-10, MIG, MIP-1?, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-? were detected. We note that the human population is naive to the H7N9 virus, and current seasonal vaccination could not provide protection.
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Indications that live poultry markets are a major source of human H5N1 influenza virus infection in China.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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Human infections of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus have continued to occur in China without corresponding outbreaks in poultry, and there is little conclusive evidence of the source of these infections. Seeking to identify the source of the human infections, we sequenced 31 H5N1 viruses isolated from humans in China (2005 to 2010). We found a number of viral genotypes, not all of which have similar known avian virus counterparts. Guided by patient questionnaire data, we also obtained environmental samples from live poultry markets and dwellings frequented by six individuals prior to disease onset (2008 and 2009). H5N1 viruses were isolated from 4 of the 6 live poultry markets sampled. In each case, the genetic sequences of the environmental and corresponding human isolates were highly similar, demonstrating a link between human infection and live poultry markets. Therefore, infection control measures in live poultry markets are likely to reduce human H5N1 infection in China.
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Development and implementation of the quality control panel of RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for avian influenza A (H5N1) surveillance network in mainland China.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) have been indispensable methods for influenza surveillance, especially for determination of avian influenza. The movement of testing beyond reference lab introduced the need of quality control, including the implementation of an evaluation system for validating personal training and sample proficiency testing.
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The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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Mainland China experienced pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) with peak activity during November-December 2009. To understand the geographic extent, risk factors, and attack rate of pH1N1 infection in China we conducted a nationwide serological survey to determine the prevalence of antibodies to pH1N1.
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A comprehensive surveillance of adamantane resistance among human influenza A virus isolated from mainland China between 1956 and 2009.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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Adamantane-derived drugs have been used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A virus infection for many years worldwide. Rapid surveillance of antiviral drug resistance is important for appropriate clinical guideline development. Here, we retrospectively assessed adamantane resistance among different influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1) over 53 years (1956-2009) in mainland China.
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A systematic molecular pathology study of a laboratory confirmed H5N1 human case.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Autopsy studies have shown that human highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) can infect multiple human organs other than just the lungs, and that possible causes of organ damage are either viral replication and/or dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines. Uncertainty still exists, partly because of the limited number of cases analysed. In this study, a full autopsy including 5 organ systems was conducted on a confirmed H5N1 human fatal case (male, 42 years old) within 18 hours of death. In addition to the respiratory system (lungs, bronchus and trachea), virus was isolated from cerebral cortex, cerebral medullary substance, cerebellum, brain stem, hippocampus ileum, colon, rectum, ureter, aortopulmonary vessel and lymph-node. Real time RT-PCR evidence showed that matrix and hemagglutinin genes were positive in liver and spleen in addition to positive tissues with virus isolation. Immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization stains showed accordant evidence of viral infection with real time RT-PCR except bronchus. Quantitative RT-PCR suggested that a high viral load was associated with increased host responses, though the viral load was significantly different in various organs. Cells of the immunologic system could also be a target for virus infection. Overall, the pathogenesis of HPAI H5N1 virus was associated both with virus replication and with immunopathologic lesions. In addition, immune cells cannot be excluded from playing a role in dissemination of the virus in vivo.
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Avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses can directly infect and replicate in human gut tissues.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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The human respiratory tract is a major site of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. However, many humans infected with H5N1 present with gastrointestinal tract symptoms, suggesting that this may also be a target for the virus. In this study, we demonstrated that the human gut expresses abundant avian H5N1 receptors, is readily infected ex vivo by the H5N1 virus, and produces infectious viral particles in organ culture. An autopsy colonic sample from an H5N1-infected patient showed evidence of viral antigen expression in the gut epithelium. Our results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that H5N1 can directly target human gut tissues.
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Epidemiological and virological characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) school outbreaks in China in 2009.
PLoS ONE
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During the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (pH1N1) outbreak, school students were at an increased risk of infection by the pH1N1 virus. However, the estimation of the attack rate showed significant variability.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.