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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Examining the Risks of Cardiac Arrhythmia and Mortality among New-Generation Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor: A Nationwide Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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?Previous studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality related to azithromycin and levofloxacin. Risks associated with alternative drugs in the same class, including clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, were unknown. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to perform a nationwide, population-based study that compares the risks of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiovascular death among these antibiotics.
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Increased Expression of p-Akt correlates with Chronic Allograft Nephropathy in a Rat Kidney Model.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is the most common cause of chronic graft dysfunction leading to graft failure, our study investigates the expression and significance of p-Akt in the pathogenesis of CAN in rats. Kidneys of Fisher (F344) rats were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis (LEW) rats. The animals were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks post-transplantation for renal function and histopathology. Phosphorate Akt (p-Akt) protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistological assays. Our data show that 24-h urinary protein excretion in CAN rats increased significantly at week 16 as compared with F344/LEW controls. Allografts got severe interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells at week 4 and week 8, but it was degraded as the time went on after week 16. Allografts markedly presented with severe interstitial fibrosis (IF) and tubular atrophy at 16 and 24 weeks. p-Akt expression was upregulated in rat kidneys with CAN, and the increase became more significant over time after transplantation. p-Akt expression correlated significantly with 24-h urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine levels, tubulointerstitial mononuclear cells infiltration, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) migration in vascular wall, and IF. It was concluded that p-Akt overexpression might be the key event that involved mononuclear cells infiltration and vascular SMCs migration at early stage, and IF and allograft nephroangiosclerosis at the late stage of CAN pathogenesis in rats.
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Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.
Crit. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds.
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Efficacy of intraperitoneal and intravenous chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Aims and background. Peritoneal metastasis (PM) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is a poor prognostic indicator. The aim of this study was to compare the response of AGC patients with PM to paclitaxel-based systemic multidrug chemotherapy with and without additional intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy through retrospective analysis. Methods and study design. Two hundred and sixty-three AGC patients with PM were enrolled. Eighty-two patients received systemic paclitaxel/oxaliplatin and leucovorin/5-fluorouracil (POF) and 181 patients received 2-drug systemic therapies, PO (paclitaxel + oxaliplatin) or PF (paclitaxel + 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin), and IP infusion of a third drug. Results. Patients who received the POF regimen had longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients who received PO/PF + IP therapy (P = 0.026 and P = 0.046), respectively. In subgroup analysis, no significant differences in PFS and OS were observed between the POF regimen and PF/PO + IP regimens in patients with isolated peritoneal metastatic disease. Patients with multiorgan metastatic disease receiving POF had better PFS and better OS than patients receiving PO/PF + IP chemotherapy (P = 0.005 and P = 0.036, respectively). In multivariate analysis, ECOG performance status and the interaction between different therapeutic strategies and multiorgan metastasis were independent prognostic factors for survival. Leukopenia, fatigue and peripheral neuropathy were higher on the triplet regimen than the doublet regimens. Conclusions. Paclitaxel-based doublet therapy combined with IP chemotherapy had more manageable toxicity and equal efficiency compared to triplet therapy for AGC patients with isolated PM. The POF regimen may be a good choice for AGC patients with multiorgan metastasis, especially those having a good performance status.
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Modeling de novo leukemogenesis from human cord blood with MN1 and NUP98HOXD13.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Leukemic transformation of human cells is a complex process. Here we show that forced expression of MN1 in primitive human cord blood (CB) cells maintained on stromal cells in vitro induces a transient, but not serially transplantable, myeloproliferation in engrafted mice. However, co-transduction of an activated HOX gene (NUP98HOXD13) with MN1 induces a serially transplantable acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Further characterization of the leukemic cells generated from the dually transduced cells revealed activation of stem cell gene expression signatures also found in primary human AML. These findings reveal a new forward genetic model of human leukemogenesis and further highlight the relevance of homeobox transcription factors in the transformation process.
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[Soil biochemical characteristics in different ecological systems and their relationships with soil respiration and N2O emission].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The biochemical characteristics of soil in different ecological system and their effects on soil respiration (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission were investigated by an indoor incubation method. The results showed that the biochemical characteristics of soils in the different ecosystems and CO2 and N2O emissions from different soils greatly varied with each other. In general, the highest abundance of bacteria was found in the orchard soil, the highest abundance of actinomycetes occurred in the meadows and the highest abundance of fungi appeared in the woodlands. The abundance of bacteria or actinomycetes in the bamboo soil was the lowest among all soils, and the orchard soil had the lowest content of fungi. The contents of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen generally followed the order of orchard soil > woodland > cropland. Moreover, cumulative CO2 and N2O emissions from the different soils followed the order of orchard soil > bamboo soil > farmland > woodland > grassland and farmland > orchard > grassland > woodland > bamboo soil, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated that there was positive correlations between the abundance of soil bacteria and the contents of microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, as well as between the abundance of soil fungi and the soil total nitrogen content (P < 0.05), while the abundance of soil actinomycosis was positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents (P < 0.01). The soil bacteria, microbial carbon and nitrogen had a significant positive impact on soil respiration (P < 0.05), and soil bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and ammonium nitrogen had the same impact on N2O emissions (P < 0.05). Stepwise regression analysis suggested that soil respiration could be quantitatively determined by a linear combination of soil bacteria and soil pH, while N2O emission was mainly dependent on the values of soil bacteria and ammonium nitrogen.
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[Effect of dangua recipe on glycolipid metabolism and VCAM-1 and its mRNA expression level in Apo E(-/-) mice with diabetes mellitus].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To study the effect of Dangua Recipe (DGR) on glycolipid metabolism, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and its mRNA expression level of transgenic Apo E(-/-) mouse with spontaneous atherosclerosis, thus revealing its partial mechanism for curing diabetes mellitus (DM) with angiopathy.
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Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Isolates of Extensively Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Zunyi, China.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Before 2013, 92 countries reported extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases to the WHO. Here, we announce the genome sequences of two clinical isolates of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) from Zunyi, China. The genome sequences are composed of 4,411,507 bp and 4,411,515 bp with 2,210 and 2,071 variants, respectively, when compared to the H37Rv genome.
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Relationship between TLR4 and NF-?B p65 protein expressions and clinical radiosensitivity of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To study the relationship between TLR4 and NF-?B p65 protein expressions in tumor tissues after radiotherapy and clinical radiosensitivity of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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[Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To explore the correlation between suicide ideation and family function & negative life events, as well as other influential factors in adolescents, thus present a theoretical base for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems.
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Colorimetric detection of mercury species based on functionalized gold nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The speciation analysis of heavy metal pollutants is very important because different species induce different toxicological effects. Nanomaterial-assisted optical sensors have achieved rapid developments, displaying wide applications to heavy metal ions but few to metal speciation analysis. In this work, a novel colorimetric nanosensor strategy for mercury speciation was proposed for the first time, based on the analyte-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with the assistance of a thiol-containing ligand of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). Upon the addition of mercury species, because Hg-DDTC was more stable than Cu-DDTC, a place-displacement between Hg species and Cu(2+) would occur, and thereby the functionalized Au NPs would aggregate, resulting in a color change. Moreover, by virtue of the masking effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the nanosensor could readily discriminate organic mercury and inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)), and it is thus anticipated to shed some light on the colorimetric sensing of organic mercury. So, a direct, simple colorimetric assay for selective determination of Hg species was obtained, presenting high detectability, such as up to 10 nM for Hg(2+) and 15 nM for methylmercury. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward mercury species against other metal ions. The simple, rapid, and sensitive label-free colorimetric sensor for the determination of Hg species provided an attractive alternative to conventional methods, which usually involve sophisticated instruments, complicated processes, and long periods of time. More importantly, by using mercury as a model, an excellent nanomaterial-based optical sensing platform can be developed for speciation analysis of trace heavy metals, which can lead to nanomaterials stability change through smart functionalization and reasonable interactions.
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Toxicity of sediment cores from Yangtze River estuary to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Toxicity evaluation is an important segment in sediment quality monitoring in order to protect aquatic organisms and human health. The purpose of this study is to assess the toxicity of sediments from three sediment cores in Yangtze River Estuary, China, using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo tests. Fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to both whole sediments and sediment organic extracts prepared from collected sediments, in order to provide a comprehensive and realistic insight into the bioavailable toxicity potential of the sediments. As end points, development parameters (mortality, hatching rate, and abnormality) in the developing embryos were recorded during the 96-h exposure. The results showed that some samples increased mortality, inhibited the hatching of embryos, and induced morphological abnormalities. The embryonic toxicities presented serrated changes and irregular distribution with depth, which may be related to hydrodynamic effect and unstable environmental input. However, lethal and sub-lethal effects were more significant at the sub-surface sediments (10?40 cm), which indicated that the pollution is more serious in recent decades.
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Serum metabolomic signatures of lymph node metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Lymph node metastasis was recently proven to be the single most important prognostic factor for esophageal cancer, an important malignant tumor with poor prognosis. A global metabolomics approach was applied to study lymph node metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Metabolomics analyses were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry together with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. There were clear metabolic distinctions between ESCC patients and healthy subjects. ESCC patients could be well-classified according to lymph node metastasis. We further identified a series of differential serum metabolites for ESCC and lymph node metastatic ESCC patients, suggesting metabolic dysfunction in proliferation (aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and branched-chain amino acid consumption), apoptosis, migration, immune escape, and oxidative stress of cancer cells in metastatic ESCC patients. In total, three serum metabolites (valine, ?-aminobutyric acid, and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid) were selected by binary logistic regression analysis, and their combined use resulted in high diagnostic capacity for ESCC metastasis by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The present metabolomics study staged ESCC patients by lymph node metastasis, and the results suggest promising applications of this approach in prognostic prediction, tailored therapeutics, and understanding the pathological mechanisms of poor prognosis of ESCC patients.
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A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses.
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[Efficacy of levetiracetam combined with short-term clonazepam in treatment of electrical status epilepticus during sleep in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To study the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) combined with short-term clonazepam (CZP) in the treatment of electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECCT).
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Prussian blue-Au nanocomposites actuated hemin/G-quadruplexes catalysis for amplified detection of DNA, Hg2+ and adenosine triphosphate.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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In this paper, horseradish peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) and Prussian blue (PB)-gold (Au) nanocomposites were designed as versatile electrochemical sensing platforms for the amplified detection of DNA, Hg(2+) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). By the conjugation of the target probe with the capture probe, a conformational change resulted in the formation of HRP-DNAzyme on the PB-Au modified electrode. The redox of HRP-DNAzyme (red) was efficiently carried out in the presence of H2O2, in which PB acted as a mediator stimulating the biocatalytic functions of HRP-DNAzyme and actuated a catalytic cycle bringing an amplified signal. Specific recognition of the target DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP allowed selective amperometric detection of the target molecule. The detection limits of DNA, Hg(2+) and ATP were 50 nM, 30 pM and 3 nM, respectively. The highlight of this work is that the catalytic cycle between PB-Au nanocomposites and HRP-DNAzyme was adequately utilized in the amplification platform for versatile sensing. The novel electrocatalytic biosensor involving only one-step incubation exhibited a wide linear range, low detection limit, and satisfactory selectivity and operational stability. The proposed approach provided an ease-of-use and universal reporting system with a simple design and easy operations.
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Mycoplasma Hyorhinis Infection Promotes NF-?B-Dependent Migration of Gastric Cancer Cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Chronic infection of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) has been postulated to be associated with several types of cancer, but its effect on patients' survival and host factors mediating its infection remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that M. hyorhinis p37 protein expression in gastric cancer tissues predicts poor survival and associates with metastasis. M. hyorhinis infects mammalian cells and promotes gastric cancer cell invasiveness via its membrane protein p37. Synthesized peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of p37 prevents M. hyorhinis infection. Host Annexin A2 (ANXA2) interacts with the N-terminus of p37. In addition, EGFR forms a complex with p37 and ANXA2, and is required for M. hyorhinis-induced phosphorylation and membrane recruitment of ANXA2. M. hyorhinis infection is inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of ANXA2 or EGFR, but is enhanced by expression of ectopic ANXA2 or EGFR. Downstream of ANXA2 and EGFR, the NF-?B pathway is activated and mediates M. hyorhinis-driven cell migration. In conclusion, our study unveils the effect of M. hyorhinis infection on gastric cancer survival and uncovers the mechanisms by which M. hyorhinis infects mammalian cells and promotes cancer cell migration. Cancer Res; 74(20); 5782-94. ©2014 AACR.
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A cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between uric acid and coronary atherosclerosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease in China.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Although many studies have examined the relationship between uric acid (UA) and coronary artery disease (CAD), whether UA is an independent risk factor contributing to progression of CAD is still controversial. Whether UA plays a different role in different sexes is also unclear.
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Evaluation of the ecotoxicity of sediments from Yangtze river estuary and contribution of priority PAHs to ah receptor--mediated activities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In this study, in vitro bioassays were performed to assess the ecotoxicological potential of sediments from Yangtze River estuary. The cytotoxicity and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of sediment extracts with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver cells were determined by neutral red retention and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assays. The cytotoxicity and AhR-mediated activity of sediments from the Yangtze River estuary ranged from low level to moderate level compared with the ecotoxicity of sediments from other river systems. However, Yangtze River releases approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared with Rhine, a major river in Europe. Thus, the absolute pollution mass transfer of Yangtze River may be detrimental to the environmental quality of estuary and East China Sea. Effect-directed analysis was applied to identify substances causing high dioxin-like activities. To identify unknown substances contributing to dioxin-like potencies of whole extracts, we fractionated crude extracts by open column chromatography. Non-polar paraffinic components (F1), weakly and moderately polar components (F2), and highly polar substances (F3) were separated from each crude extract of sediments. F2 showed the highest dioxin-like activities. Based on the results of mass balance calculation of chemical toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs), our conclusion is that priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons indicated a low portion of bio-TEQs ranging from 1% to 10% of crude extracts. Further studies should be conducted to identify unknown pollutants.
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Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov., a novel anaerobic bacterium isolated from the pit mud of Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A novel Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain S11-3-10(T), was isolated from the pit mud used for Chinese Luzhou-flavor liquor production. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain formed a monophyletic clade with the closely related type strains of Clostridium cluster I and was most closely related to Clostridium amylolyticum JCM 14823(T) (94.38%). The temperature, pH, and NaCl range for growth was determined to be 20-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), 4.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.3), and 0-3.0% (w/v), respectively. The strain was able to tolerate up to 7.5 % (v/v) ethanol. Yeast extract or peptone was found to be required for growth. Acids were found to be produced from glucose, mannose and trehalose. The major end products from glucose fermentation were identified as ethanol, acetate and hydrogen. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified phospholipids and polar lipids. The major fatty acids (>5%) were identified as iso-C(15:0), C(16:0), C(16:0)dma, C(14:0), anteiso-C(15:0) and iso-C(13:0). No respiratory quinone was detected. The diamino acid in the cell wall peptidoglycan was identified as meso-diaminopimelic acid and the whole-cell sugars were found to include galactose and glucose as major components. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 36.4 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic evidence, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Clostridium for which the name Clostridium swellfunianum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S11-3-10(T) (=DSM 27788(T) = JCM 19606(T) = CICC 10730(T)).
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Dan-gua Fang () improves glycolipid metabolic disorders by promoting hepatic adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase expression in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To investigate the effect of Dan-gua Fang () on adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) ? expression in liver and subsequent improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism.
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Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) based label-free aptasensor for platelet-derived growth factor-BB and its logic gate application.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is often overexpressed in human malignant tumors as an indicator for tumor angiogenesis. Here by the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between DNA-Ag fluorescent nanoclusters (NCs) and G-quadruplex/hemin complexes, we present a sensitive label-free fluorescent sensor for PDGF-BB. In the presence of PDGF-BB, the specific conjugation with its aptamer induced the conformational change of the duplex-like DNA sequence, releasing the G-quadruplex sequence part. Then in the presence of hemin and K(+), the horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme (HRP-DNAzyme) was formed. With the electron transfer between the DNA-Ag NCs to the hemin Fe (III) center of HRP-DNAzyme, the PET occurred with a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-Ag NCs. The detection performance such as selectivity, linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and the quenching capability of HRP-DNAzyme were estimated. The detection range for PDGF-BB is from 5×10(-13) to 1×10(-8) M and the detection limit is 1×10(-13) M. The experimental results confirmed that the novel fluorescent aptasensor possessed a good sensitivity and high selectivity for PDGF-BB. In addition, the developed probe is nontoxic, label-free only involving one-step hybridization without sophisticated fabrication process. Furthermore, based on this quenching mode occurred by PDGF-BB and hemin, using PDGF-BB and hemin as inputs and the fluorescence signal as an output, a logic gate has been fabricated.
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Distribution and seasonal variation of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential in the Huangpu River, China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Detection of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water has led to rising concerns. There are, however, a paucity of studies on the distribution and seasonal variation of NDMA and NDMA formation potential (NDMA-FP) in natural waters, especially in China. For EDCs, limited studies have investigated the distribution and seasonal variation of estrone (E1), 17?-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), technical-nonylphenols (t-NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in Shanghai. In this study, water samples were collected from 11 sampling sites along the Huangpu River in 2012. The distribution and seasonal variation of EDCs, NDMA, and NDMA-FP were investigated. The results showed that all of the 11 sampling sites were contaminated by the target compounds. Compared with E2 and EE2, higher E1 and E3 concentrations were usually detected in the Huangpu River. The values of 17?-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) suggest a high possibility of endocrine effects on exposed organisms in the Huangpu River. NDMA-FP and t-NP were the dominant contaminants among the eight target compounds. The detection rates of the target compounds and their concentrations were both higher in dry seasons than in wet seasons. Higher concentrations of target compounds were observed in urban sampling sites near drainage outlets, and also in suburban sampling sites where intensive livestock farming and farmlands were located.
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Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 is Involved in Neuronal Injury in Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and can be activated by multiple stimuli during cerebral ischemia. Recently, we reported that intracerebroventricular (icv.) injection of HC-067047, a specific TRPV4 antagonist, reduced brain infarction following 60-min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying TRPV4-mediated neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia. We demonstrated that TRPV4 expression was upregulated in the ipsilateral hippocampus at 4 to 48 h post-MCAO, peaking at 18 h post-MCAO. Treatment with TRPV4 antagonists (HC-067047 and ruthenium red) dose-dependently reduced brain infarction at 24 h post-MCAO. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (p-Akt) was downregulated and that of extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK) was upregulated at 8 to 24 h post-MCAO, which was markedly blocked by treatment with HC-067047. Icv. injection of GSK1016790A (a TRPV4 agonist), dose-dependently induced hippocampal neuronal death, accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In addition, the level of p-Akt was decreased and that of p-ERK was increased by GSK1016790A-injection, which was sensitive to an NR2B antagonist. The neuronal toxicity of GSK1016790A was blocked by treatment with an NR2B antagonist and a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) agonist but not by administration of a MAPK/ERK kinase antagonist. We conclude that the activation of TRPV4 is upregulated and involved in neuronal injury during cerebral ischemia and that the neurotoxicity associated with TRPV4-activation is mediated through NR2B-NMDAR and the related downregulation of the Akt signaling pathway.
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Refinement of collagen-mineral interaction: A possible role for osteocalcin in apatite crystal nucleation, growth and development.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Mineralization of vertebrate tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum, and calcifying tendon involves type I collagen, which has been proposed as a template for calcium and phosphate ion binding and subsequent nucleation of apatite crystals. Type I collagen thereby has been suggested to be responsible for the deposition of apatite mineral without the need for non-collagenous proteins or other extracellular matrix molecules. Based on studies in vitro, non-collagenous proteins, including osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, are thought to mediate vertebrate mineralization associated with type I collagen. These proteins, as possibly related to mineral deposition, have not been definitively localized in vivo. The present study has reexamined their localization in the leg tendons of avian turkeys, a representative model of vertebrate mineralization. Immunocytochemistry of osteocalcin demonstrates its presence at the surface of, outside and within type I collagen while that of bone sialoprotein appears to be localized at the surface of or outside type I collagen. The association between osteocalcin and type I collagen structure is revealed optimally when calcium ions are added to the antibody solution in the methodology. In this manner, osteocalcin is found specifically located along the a4-1, b1, c2 and d bands defining in part the hole and overlap zones within type I collagen. From these data, while type I collagen itself may be considered a stereochemical guide for intrafibrillar mineral nucleation and subsequent deposition, osteocalcin bound to type I collagen may also possibly mediate nucleation, growth and development of platelet-shaped apatite crystals. Bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin as well, each immunolocalized at the surface of or outside type I collagen, may affect mineral deposition in these portions of the avian tendon.
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A mouse line for inducible and reversible silencing of specific neurons.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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BackgroundGenetic methods for inducibly and reversibly inhibiting neuronal activity of specific neurons are critical for exploring the functions of neuronal circuits. The engineered human glycine receptor, called ivermectin (IVM)-gated silencing receptor (IVMR), has been shown to possess this ability in vitro.ResultsHere we generated a mouse line, in which the IVMR coding sequence was inserted into the ROSA26 locus downstream of a loxP-flanked STOP cassette. Specific Cre-mediated IVMR expression was revealed by mis-expression of Cre in the striatum and by crossing with several Cre lines. Behavioral alteration was observed in Rosa26-IVMR mice with unilateral striatal Cre expression after systemic administration of IVM, and it could be re-initiated when IVM was applied again. A dramatic reduction in neuron firing was recorded in IVM-treated free moving Rosa26-IVMR;Emx1-Cre mice, and neuronal excitability was reduced within minutes as shown by recording in brain slice.ConclusionThis Rosa26-IVMR mouse line provides a powerful tool for exploring selective circuit functions in freely behaving mice.
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Impulsive exponential synchronization of randomly coupled neural networks with Markovian jumping and mixed model-dependent time delays.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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In this paper, the exponential synchronization problem for an array of N randomly coupled neural networks with Markovian jump and mixed model-dependent time delays via impulsive control is investigated. The jump parameters are determined by a continuous-time, discrete-state Markovian chain, and the mixed time delays under consideration comprise both discrete and continuous distributed delays. By making use of the Kronecker product and some useful techniques, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional suitable for handling distributed delays was proposed and then we show that the addressed synchronization problem is solvable if a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are feasible. The results presented in this paper generalize and improve many known results. Two numerical examples are also given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
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Effect of intracoronary nitroprusside in preventing no reflow phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Adjunctive therapy with intracoronary nitroprusside (NTP) in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) had controversial benefits in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
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Chemical Modification and Energetically Favorable Atomic Disorder of a Layered Thermoelectric Material TmCuTe2 Leading to High Performance.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Thermoelectric (TE) materials have continuously attracted interest worldwide owing to their capability of converting heat into electricity. However, discovery and design of new TE material system remains one of the greatest difficulties. A TE material, TmCuTe2 , has been designed by a substructure approach and successfully synthesized. The structure mainly features CuTe4 -based layers stacking along the c axis that are separated by Tm(3+) cations. Such an intrinsic Cu site vacancy structure undergoes a first-order phase transition at around 606?K driven by the energetically favorable uniform Cu atom re-distribution on the covalent CuTe4 -based layer substructure, as shown by crystal structure simulations and variable-temperature XRD data. Featured with very low thermal conductivity (ca. 0.6?W?m(-1) ?K(-1) ), large Seebeck coefficient (+185??V?K(-1) ), and moderate electrical conductivity (220?S?cm(-1) ), TmCuTe2 has a maximum ZT of 0.81 at 745?K, which is nine times higher than the value of 0.09 for binary Cu2 Te, thus making it a promising candidate for mid-temperature TE applications. Theoretical studies uncover the electronic structure modifications from the metallic Cu2 Te to the narrow gap semiconductor TmCuTe2 that lead to such a remarkable performance enhancement.
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Occurrence, polarity and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in the Huangpu River, China.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles in aquatic ecosystem. To investigate the characteristics of DOM in Huangpu River (the last tributary of the Yangtze River), surface water samples were collected along the river from December 2011 to June, 2013. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the absorbance and fluorescence spectrum of DOM in water samples were measured. Fluorescent DOM in the Huangpu River was decomposed into four components by the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), including one humic-like substance and three protein-like substances. It showed that high spatial variability of DOC concentration was observed in the upstream water compared to the downstream water, and so did the absorbance coefficients of chromophoric dissolved organic matter and the total fluorescence intensities of different PARAFAC components of DOM. Furthermore, there was a large difference between the polarity and bioavailability of DOM in the Huangpu River. Polar compounds dominated tyrosine-like component of fluorescent DOM in all seasons. Tryptophan-like and humic-like substances had more polar fraction in summer and autumn than those in winter, while aromatic protein-like materials had the highest polar fraction in winter. Almost all of fluorescent DOM components were refractory in spring, while less than 20% of fluorescent DOM in average were biodegradable within 4weeks in other seasons. We concluded that the spatial variation in the abundance of DOM in the Huangpu River is mainly affected by the water discharges from the Hangjiahu Plain and the seasonal difference in polarity and bioavailability of DOM is largely determined by its origins.
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Steroidal sapogenins and glycosides from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum with inhibitory effect on tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Six new spirostane glycosides (1-6), named polygodosides A-F, one new furostanol glycoside, polygodoside G (7), one new cholestane glycoside, polygodoside H (8), and one new steroidal sapogenin, polygodosin A (9), together with thirteen known compounds (10-22) were isolated from a 90% MeOH extract of the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. The effects on TF procoagulant activity in THP-1 cells were tested for most of the compounds.
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Syrinx resolution is correlated with the upward shifting of cerebellar tonsil following posterior fossa decompression in pediatric patients with Chiari malformation type I.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Chiari malformation type I (CMI) is characterized by deformed hindbrain. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the alterations in position of hindbrain after Posterior fossa decompression (PFD), and to identify the factors associated with syrinx resolution in pediatric patients with CMI.
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Occurrence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage sludge from Shanghai: Implications for source and environmental burden.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Sewage sludge is regarded as one important sink for hydrophobic pollutants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), but the current pollution situation of HBCD in sludge from China is unknown, despite that many studies have reported its occurrence in other environmental compartments across China. In this study, we collected 27 sludge samples from Shanghai to investigate the occurrence and distribution, to examine the diastereoisomer profile and sources, and to provide advice for future pollution control. HBCD is ubiquitous in sludge with a mean concentration of 4.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range: 0.10-37.2ngg(-1) dw), lower than data from European countries and the United States. Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) treating industrial wastewater contained high levels of HBCD. However, no significant relationships were found between HBCD and four parameters (total organic carbon, the percentage of industrial wastewater, capacity and sludge production of WWTPs). ?- and ?-HBCD were two main components with the corresponding contributions of 47.9% and 48.0%. Comparing with the annual production of HBCD in China, its storage in sewage sludge is extremely low (less than 0.002%), indicating future release of HBCD from waste polystyrene foam will be significant, and careful considerations should be taken during waste disposal. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCD in sewage sludge from China.
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Low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary associated with undifferentiated carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma with undifferentiated carcinoma (UC) was first reported in endometrium carcinoma, termed with dedifferentiated carcinoma (DC). However, the coexistence of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma (LGEC) or serous carcinoma (LGSC) with UC has received minimal attention in ovary, and the behavior of this kind of neoplasm remains at further discussion. In this study, we reported a case of low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinoma associated with UC and reviewed another four cases previously reported. We found a histological continuity between the LGEC and UC components in H&E section, which suggested a dedifferentiation from LGEC to UC components. In summary, this kind of pathological type has aggressive behavior and these patients have very poor prognosis regardless of the amount of undifferentiated carcinoma.
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Dual hairpin-like molecular beacon based on coralyne-adenosine interaction for sensing melamine in dairy products.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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This study presents a novel dual hairpin-like molecular beacon (MB) for the selective and sensitive detection of melamine (MA) based on the conjugation of MA and thymine. In this protocol, the coordination between coralyne and adenosine (A) leaded a dual hairpin-like MB and the fluorophore-quencher pair is close proximity resulting in the fluorescence quenching. With the addition of MA, it conjugated with thymine in the loop part of dual hairpin-like MB by triple H-bonds, triggering the dissociation of the dual hairpin-like MB. The resulting spatial separation of the fluorophore from quencher induced the enhancement in fluorescence emission. Under the optimized conditions, the sensor exhibited a wide linear range of 8×10(-9)-1.6×10(-5) M (R(2)=0.9969) towards MA, with a low detection limit of 5 nM, approximately 4000 times lower than the Drug Administration and the US Food estimated MA safety limit. The real milk samples were also investigated with a satisfying result.
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The role of Sequence Type (ST) 131 in adult community-onset non-ESBL-producing Escherichia coli bacteraemia.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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BackgroundTo compare the epidemiological and clinical features and outcome in clonal group O25b/ST131 and non-clonal group O25b/ST131 in adult patients with non-extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteraemia.MethodsWe collected 371 consecutive isolates with community-onset non-ESBL producing E. coli bloodstream infection in 2010 in a 1200-bed hospital in Taiwan. Twenty adult patients with clonal group O25b/ST131 and 40 patients with non-clonal group O25b/ST131 were compared.ResultClonal group O25b/ST131 accounted for 5.9% of total isolates. The underlying disease and healthcare-associated risk factors were similar in the case and control groups. Patients with the clonal group O25b/ST131 were less likely to have intra-abdominal infection (0% vs. 22.5%; p¿<¿0.05) than patients from the control group. The Day 30 mortality rate was similar in the case and control groups (15% vs. 12.5%).ConclusionsClonal group O25b/ST131 was found in both multidrug-resistant and susceptible E. coli strains, causing community-onset bloodstream infection. Although O25b/ST131 does not lead to a higher mortality than other isolates, choosing an appropriate antimicrobials in the empirical therapy of community-onset E. coli bacteraemia has become more challenging.
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Hsp74, a potential bladder cancer marker, has direct interaction with keratin 1.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Early diagnosis and prognosis monitoring are very important for the survival of patients with bladder cancer. To identify candidate biomarkers of bladder cancer, we used a combination of techniques including 2-DE, co-IP, western blot, LC-MS/MS, and immunohistochemistry. Hsp74 was identified with high expression in bladder cancer. The cellular location of expression products of gene Hsp74 showed that they were distributed into cytoplasm and keratin 1 was found to be associated with Hsp74. The results provide a new idea to understand the molecular basis of bladder cancer progression and pinpoint new potential molecular target for early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of bladder cancer.
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MicroRNAs as novel biomarkers in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis based on 20 studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The detection of microRNAs (miRNAs), particularly those obtained from the bloodstream, is an emerging method for diagnosing human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, studies on the accuracy of miRNAs detection in diagnosing NSCLC have yield inconsistent conclusions, making it necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of miRNAs in the diagnosis of NSCLC. The Medline, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Sinomed electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles evaluating the diagnostic value of miRNAs for NSCLC. A bivariate regression model was used to calculate the pooled diagnostic accuracy estimates. A total of 20 articles were included in this meta-analysis, involving 1,563 NSCLC patients and 1,060 healthy controls. Overall, our bivariate random effects meta-analysis yielded area under curve (AUC) of 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.82-0.88) with sensitivity of 76 % (95 CI: 72-80) and specificity of 80 % (95 % CI: 77-84) for the use of miRNAs in differentiating NSCLC patients from healthy controls. In addition, subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that a combination of multiple miRNAs (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.89, 81, and 84, respectively) had a higher diagnostic accuracy than single miRNA-based assays (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.81, 73, and 77 %, respectively). Furthermore, a comparison of miRNAs expression patterns between blood and sputum samples provides additional evidence that miRNAs obtained from blood (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.86, 78, and 80 %, respectively) are more credible diagnostic biomarkers than those from sputum (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.79, 66, and 79 %, respectively). In summary, the current meta-analysis suggests that the detection of miRNAs may be used in the future as an initial screening test for NSCLC, particularly, the detection of a combination of multiple miRNAs, which is a more comprehensive indicator than individual miRNAs.
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S-Nitrosylating protein disulphide isomerase mediates ?-synuclein aggregation caused by methamphetamine exposure in PC12 cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Methamphetamine (METH) belongs to Amphetamine-type stimulants, METH abusers are at high risk of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there are still no effective treatments to METH-induced neurodegeneration because its mechanism remains unknown. In order to investigate METH's neurotoxic mechanism, we established an in vitro PD pathology model by exposing PC12 cells to METH. We found the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nitric oxide (NO) and ?-synuclein (?-syn) was significantly increased after METH treatment for 24h, in addition, the aggregattion of ?-syn and the S-nitrosylation of protein disulphideisomerase(PDI) were also obviously enhanced. When we exposed PC12 cells to the NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine(L-NNA) with METH together, the L-NNA obviously inhibited these changes induced by METH. While when we exposed PC12 cells to the precursor of NO L-Arginine together with METH, the L-Arginine resulted in the opposite effect compared to L-NNA. And when we knocked down the PDI gene, the L-NNA did not have this effect. Therefore, PDI plays a significant role in neurological disorders related to ?-syn aggregation, and it suggests that PDI could be as a potential target to prevent METH-induced neurodegeneration.
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Parameters identification for photovoltaic module based on an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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A precise mathematical model plays a pivotal role in the simulation, evaluation, and optimization of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Different from the traditional linear model, the model of PV module has the features of nonlinearity and multiparameters. Since conventional methods are incapable of identifying the parameters of PV module, an excellent optimization algorithm is required. Artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), originally inspired by the simulation of collective behavior of real fish swarms, is proposed to fast and accurately extract the parameters of PV module. In addition to the regular operation, a mutation operator (MO) is designed to enhance the searching performance of the algorithm. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by various parameters of PV module under different environmental conditions, and the testing results are compared with other studied methods in terms of final solutions and computational time. The simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of obtaining higher parameters identification precision.
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Targeting miR-23a in CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes prevents tumor-dependent immunosuppression.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have potent antitumor activity and therefore are leading candidates for use in tumor immunotherapy. The application of CTLs for clinical use has been limited by the susceptibility of ex vivo-expanded CTLs to become dysfunctional in response to immunosuppressive microenvironments. Here, we developed a microRNA-targeting (miRNA-targeting) approach that augments CTL cytotoxicity and preserves immunocompetence. Specifically, we screened for miRNAs that modulate cytotoxicity and identified miR-23a as a strong functional repressor of the transcription factor BLIMP-1, which promotes CTL cytotoxicity and effector cell differentiation. In a cohort of advanced lung cancer patients, miR-23a was upregulated in tumor-infiltrating CTLs, and expression correlated with impaired antitumor potential of patient CTLs. We determined that tumor-derived TGF-? directly suppresses CTL immune function by elevating miR-23a and downregulating BLIMP-1. Functional blocking of miR-23a in human CTLs enhanced granzyme B expression, and in mice with established tumors, immunotherapy with just a small number of tumor-specific CTLs in which miR-23a was inhibited robustly hindered tumor progression. Together, our findings provide a miRNA-based strategy that subverts the immunosuppression of CTLs that is often observed during adoptive cell transfer tumor immunotherapy and identify a TGF-?-mediated tumor immune-evasion pathway.
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Sigma-1 (?1) receptor deficiency reduces ?-amyloid25-35-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits through suppressing phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor NR2B.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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In early Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, reduction of sigma-1 receptors (?1R) is detected. In this study, we employed male heterozygous ?1R knockout (?1R±) mice showing normal cognitive performance to investigate association of ?1R deficiency with AD risk. Herein we report that a single injection (i.c.v.) of A?25-35 impaired spatial memory with approximately 25% death of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region of WT mice (A?25-35-WT mice), whereas it did not cause such impairments in ?1R± mice (A?25-35-?1R± mice). Compared with WT mice, A?25-35-WT mice showed increased levels of NMDA-activated currents (INMDA) and NR2B phosphorylation (phospho-NR2B) in the hippocampal CA1 region at 48 h after A?25-35-injection (post-A?25-35) followed by approximately 40% decline at 72 h post-A?25-35 of their respective control levels, which was inhibited by the ?1R antagonist NE100. In A?25-35-WT mice, the administration of NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 or NE100 on day 1-4 post-A?25-35 attenuated the memory deficits and loss of pyramidal cells. By contrast, A?25-35-?1R± mice showed a slight increase in the INMDA density and the phospho-NR2B at 48 h or 72 h post-A?25-35 compared to ?1R± mice. Treatment with ?1R agonist PRE084 in A?25-35-?1R± mice caused the same changes in the INMDA density and the phospho-NR2B as those in A?25-35-WT mice. Furthermore, A?25-35-?1R± mice treated with the NMDA receptor agonist NMDA or PRE084 on day 1-4 post-A?25-35 showed a loss of neuronal cells and memory impairment. These results indicate that the ?1R deficiency can reduce A?25-35-induced neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits through suppressing A?25-35-enhanced NR2B phosphorylation.
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Protective effect of alpha-synuclein knockdown on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The over-expression of ?-synuclein is a major factor in the death of dopaminergic neurons in a methamphetamine-induced model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, ?-synuclein knockdown rats were created by injecting ?-synuclein-shRNA lentivirus stereotaxically into the right striatum of experimental rats. At 2 weeks post-injection, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with methamphetamine to establish the model of Parkinson's disease. Expression of ?-synuclein mRNA and protein in the right striatum of the injected rats was significantly downregulated. Food intake and body weight were greater in ?-synuclein knockdown rats, and water intake and stereotyped behavior score were lower than in model rats. Striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase levels were significantly elevated in ?-synuclein knockdown rats. Moreover, superoxide dismutase activity was greater in ?-synuclein knockdown rat striatum, but the levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide synthase and nitrogen monoxide were lower compared with model rats. We also found that ?-synuclein knockdown inhibited methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis. These results suggest that ?-synuclein has the capacity to reverse methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the rat striatum by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving dopaminergic system function.
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In vitro and in vivo performance of bioactive Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA implants fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Failure of the bone-implant interface in a joint prosthesis is a main cause of implant loosening. The introduction of a bioactive substance, hydroxyapatite (HA), to a metallic bone-implant may enhance its fixation on human bone by encouraging direct bone bonding. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites with a reproducible porous structure (porosity of 27% and pore size of 6-89 ?m) were successfully fabricated by a rapid microwave sintering technique. This method allows the biocomposites to be fabricated in a short period of time under ambient conditions. Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites exhibited a compressive strength of 93 MPa, compressive modulus of 2.9 GPa and microhardness of 556 HV which are close to those of the human cortical bone. The in vitro preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite showed that the composite surface could provide a biocompatible environment for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation without any cytotoxic effects. This is among the first attempts to study the in vivo performance of load-bearing Ti6Al4V/TiC and Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites in a live rabbit. The results indicated that the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composite had a better bone-implant interface compared with the Ti6Al4V/TiC implant. Based on the microstructural features, the mechanical properties, and the in vitro and in vivo test results from this study, the Ti6Al4V/TiC/HA composites have the potential to be employed in load-bearing orthopedic applications.
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Depletion of canonical Wnt signaling components has a neuroprotective effect on midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and recent studies have suggested that disruption of this signaling cascade may underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and ?-catenin components, in a mouse model of PD remains unclear. In the present study, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mouse line was used to generate mice with the specific knockout of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin in DA neurons. Following inactivation of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin, TH-immunohistochemical staining was performed. The results indicated that ?-catenin is required for the development or maintenance of these neurons; however, LRP5 and LRP6 were found to be dispensable. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, the depletion of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin was found to be protective for the midbrain DA neurons to a certain extent. These in vivo results provide a novel perspective for the function of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in a mouse model of PD.
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Cry1 and Tef gene polymorphisms are associated with major depressive disorder in the Chinese population.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Accumulating evidences indicate that circadian abnormalities lead to sleep disorder, neurodegenerative diseases and depression. We have reported that the polymorphisms of a clock-related gene, Tef, contributed to the risk of sleep disturbances and depression in the Parkinson disease. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the three clock genes we previously studied are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Chinese population.
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Effects of amylose and phosphate monoester on aggregation structures of heat-moisture treated potato starches.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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For three cultivars of potato starch, heat-moisture treatment (HMT) displayed an influence on the aggregation structures at different scale levels. With HMT, the granular morphology of potato starch granules remained similarly, and an increase in the average repeat distance of semi-crystalline lamellae was observed. The crystalline structure and birefringence were also affected. Moreover, the polymorphic transformation (B ? A+B) could be related to dehydration, whereas the decrease in the degree of crystallinity might be resulted from the rupture of hydrogen bonds. Interestingly, amylose could act as the backbone of the aggregation structures of potato starch to provide resistance to HMT, but phosphate monoester could promote the destruction during HMT. In addition, compared with amylose, phosphate monoester played a more significant role in changing the average repeat distance of semi-crystalline lamellae (long period) during HMT.
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Prophylactic lamivudine to improve the outcome of HBsAg-positive lymphoma patients during chemotherapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Hepatitis B viral (HBV) reactivation in lymphoma patients undergoing chemotherapy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increasingly, lamivudine is being used to prevent hepatitis B reactivation. To assess the effects of prophylactic lamivudine on reactivation and mortality following chemotherapy in lymphoma patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, we searched Medline/PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library for studies through November 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using REVMAN. Fourteen studies consisting of 636 patients were included in the analysis. The rate of HBV reactivation, incidence of hepatitis and incidence of hepatitis due to HBV reactivation in patients with lamivudine prophylaxis was significantly lower than those with no prophylaxis. Risk ratios [RRs] were 0.25 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.13-0.51; P=0.0001), 0.40 (95% CI 0.26-0.63; P<0.0001), and 0.21 (95% CI 0.09-0.51; P=0.0005) respectively. In addition, patients given prophylactic lamivudine had significant reductions in overall mortality and mortality attributable to HBV reactivation compared with control group. Risk ratios [RRs] were 0.45 (95% CI 0.29-0.70; P=0.0004) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.84; P=0.01) respectively. Chemotherapy disruption was not significantly different between the two groups. Risk ratios [RRs] were 0.34 (95% CI 0.09-1.26; P=0.11). Prophylactic therapy with lamivudine for HBsAg-positive lymphoma patients who are undergoing chemotherapy may reduce the risk for HBV reactivation, hepatitis due to HBV reactivation, overall mortality and mortality attributable to HBV reactivation. Additionally, patients with preventive lamivudine had a trend towards the decreased incidence of chemotherapy disruption.
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Infection, antibiotic therapy and risk of colorectal cancer: a nationwide nested case-control study in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of our study was to examine the inter-relationship among infection sites, systemic antibiotic use and risk of CRC among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a diabetic cohort from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we identified 3,593 incident colon cancer cases, 1,979 rectal cancer cases and 22,288 controls and conducted a nested case-control study to examine the association between antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between infection sites, antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Patients with intra-abdominal infection were significantly associated with increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.35) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.00). Any antianaerobic antibiotic use was associated with a higher risk of colon cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.12-2.52) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.50-1.90) but without an obvious dose-response relationship for cumulative use. Antianaerobic antibiotics also increased the risks for those with nonintra-abdominal infection. No association was found between antiaerobic agent use and the CRC risk. The results suggest intra-abdominal infections and antianaerobic antibiotic use may be a marker for precancerous lesions or early CRC, although the possibility of antianaerobic antibiotics playing an additional role cannot be excluded. Further research examining the relationship between intra-abdominal infection, antianaerobic antibiotics use and possible change of microbiota leading to colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.
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Mercury distribution in sediment along urban-rural gradient around Shanghai (China): implication for pollution history.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The increasing levels of heavy metals in the environment generally related with the rapid industrialization and urbanization. Mercury (Hg) is a global toxin with wide concerns, and China gradually becomes the main producer, consumer, and emitter of Hg in the world. However, few historical data are available on the occurrence of Hg in Chinese urban areas. Here, we collected 35 lake surface sediment samples from 35 public parks and 1 sediment core in the Luxun Park in Shanghai, a hyper-urbanization city in China, to determine the spatial and vertical distributions of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) and to explore the Hg pollution history with the industrial development. Higher concentrations of Hg and MeHg and greater Hg enrichment were found in urban areas compared with suburban area with the following order: central urban core area?>?developed urban area?>?developing urban area?>?suburban area. The THg concentration in the sediment core showed an increasing trend from 1876 to 2000 and a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2012, coinciding with the process of industrialization and urbanization in Shanghai. However, THg fluxes unceasingly increased from 1876 to present probably attributed to coal consumption in the suburban area and transportation agglomeration in the central urban core area. Unlike THg, no significant variations for MeHg with time and the maximum value (0.17 ?g/kg) appeared in 1947. The methylation ratio of MeHg to THg in the sediment is pretty low, and more studies are needed to further understand the fate of Hg in the environment.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.
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House dust mite induced lung inflammation does not alter circulating vitamin d levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with chronic lung diseases such as asthma. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D is involved in disease pathogenesis or is modified by the inflammation associated with the disease process. We hypothesized that allergic inflammation decreases the level of circulating 25(OH)D and tested this using a mice model of house dust mite (HDM) induced allergic airway inflammation. Cellular influx was measured in bronchoalvelar lavage (BAL) fluid, and allergic sensitization and 25(OH)D levels were measured in serum. Exposure to HDM caused a robust inflammatory response in the lung that was enhanced by prior influenza infection. These responses were not associated with any change in circulating levels of 25(OH)D. These data suggest that alterations in circulating 25(OH)D levels induced by Th-2 driven inflammation are unlikely to explain the cross-sectional epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and asthma.
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Tremor and clinical fluctuation are related to sleep disorders in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease.
Transl Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To study the relationship between sleep disturbances and symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
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Characterization of cancer stem-like cells derived from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells transformed by tumor-derived extracellular vesicles.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several studies have shown that cancer niche can perform an active role in the regulation of tumor cell maintenance and progression through extracellular vesicles-based intercellular communication. However, it has not been reported whether this vesicle-mediated communication affects the malignant transformation of normal stem cells/progenitors. We have previously reported that the conditioned medium derived from the mouse Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cell line can convert mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) into cancer stem cells (CSCs), indicating that normal stem cells when placed in an aberrant microenvironment can give rise to functionally active CSCs. Here, we focused on the contribution of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) that are secreted from LLC cells to induce the transformation of miPSCs into CSCs. We isolated tEVs from the conditioned medium of LLC cells, and then the differentiating miPSCs were exposed to tEVs for 4 weeks. The resultant tEV treated cells (miPS-LLCev) expressed Nanog and Oct3/4 proteins comparable to miPSCs. The frequency of sphere formation of the miPS-LLCev cells in suspension culture indicated that the self-renewal capacity of the miPS-LLCev cells was significant. When the miPS-LLCev cells were subcutaneously transplanted into Balb/c nude mice, malignant liposarcomas with extensive angiogenesis developed. miPS-LLCevPT and miPS-LLCevDT, the cells established from primary site and disseminated liposarcomas, respectively, showed their capacities to self-renew and differentiate into adipocytes and endothelial cells. Moreover, we confirmed the secondary liposarcoma development when these cells were transplanted. Taken together, these results indicate that miPS-LLCev cells possess CSC properties. Thus, our current study provides the first evidence that tEVs have the potential to induce CSC properties in normal tissue stem cells/progenitors.
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[Value of contrast-enhanced sonography in early diagnosis of breast cancer].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To assess the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in early diagnosis of breast cancer.
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[Incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among adults in mainland China: a meta-analysis].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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To investigate the incidence and risk factors of prehypertension among adults in mainland China and identify the high-risk population.
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Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Crystals: Ba3P3O10X (X = Cl, Br).
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2013
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Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical (deep-UV NLO) crystals are of worldwide interest for the generation of coherent light with wavelength below 200 nm by the direct second-harmonic generation (SHG) output from solid-state lasers. The unprecedented deep-UV NLO phosphates representing their own structure types, Ba3P3O10Cl (BPOC), Ba3P3O10Br (BPOB), have been discovered, which display moderate powder SHG intensities in type I phase matchable behaviors with a short UV cutoff edge of 180 nm (measured by a single crystal, one of the shortest values among phosphates to date). Insightfully, the geometry and polarization of the C1-P3O10(5-) building unit are affected by the crystal packing. DFT calculations and cutoff energy dependent SHG coefficient analyses reveal that the SHG origin is from the cooperation of asymmetric C1-P3O10(5-) anion, Ba(2+) cation, and Cl(-)/Br(-) anion.
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[Temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors and chlorophyll-a and their correlation analysis in a small enclosed lake].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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About four years field observation was conducted from July 2007 to September 2011, in a small enclosed eutrophic lake located in Qianwei Village, Chongming Island. The temporal and spatial distribution of environmental factors (including physical-chemical factors and hydrodynamic condition) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were studied and their correlation was analyzed. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of Chl-a in the lake. Significantly positive correlation was found between Chl-a and water temperature, turbidity, TN and TP. Water temperature and nutrients were the main limited factors of seasonal changes of phytoplankton. It could be the result of phytoplankton growth that caused the seasonal change of turbidity. It was found that hydrological changes were the primary factor affecting the spatial difference of Chl-a concentration. Lower average Chl-a concentration (35. 30 microg.L-1) was recorded in the north watercourse, in condition with higher wind driven flow velocity ranging from 0. 08 m.s- 1 to 0. 22 m.s -1. A strong negative correlation was found between Chl-a concentration and flow velocity. Higher average Chl-a concentration (53. 11 microg.L-1) was frequently found under flow conditions ranged from 0 m.s-1 to 0. 10 m.s-1. These findings indicated that increasing hydrodynamic condition would significantly inhibit the growth of phytoplankton and reduce the risk of algae blooming in summer in these eutrophic water bodies.
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Combining Multiple Markers to Improve the Longitudinal Rate of Progression-Application to Clinical Trials on the Early Stage of Alzheimers Disease.
Stat Biopharm Res
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Clinical trials on early stage Alzheimers disease (AD) are reaching a bottleneck because none of the current disease markers changes appreciably early in the disease process and therefore a huge sample is required to adequately power such trials. We propose a method to combine multiple markers so that the longitudinal rate of progression can be improved. The criterion is to maximize the probability that the combined marker will be decreased over time (assuming a negative mean slope for each marker). We propose estimates to the weights of markers in the optimum combination and a confidence interval estimate to the combined rate of progression through the maximum likelihood estimates and a bootstrap procedure. We conduct simulations to assess the performance of our estimates and compare our approach with the first principal component from a principal component analysis. The proposed method is applied to a real world sample of individuals with preclinical AD to combine measures from two cognitive domains. The combined cognitive marker is finally used to design future clinical trials on preclinical AD, demonstrating a significant improvement in reducing the sample sizes needed to power such trials when compared with individual markers alone.
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A Nodule-specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Astragalus sinicus.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Astragalus sinicus lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), in vivo. Immuno-fluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy showed that AsE246 and DGDG localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Over-expression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis.
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Enhancement of SIV-specific cell mediated immune responses by co-administration of soluble PD-1 and Tim-3 as molecular adjuvants in mice.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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The development of an effective T cell based HIV vaccine would need to elicit cell mediated immune responses with superior magnitude, breadth, and quality. Since blocking the interactions between inhibitory receptors with their associated ligands using soluble PD-1 (sPD-1) and soluble Tim-3 (sTim-3) have been shown to reverse T cell exhaustion and enhance cell mediated immune responses, we tested if co-administration of sPD-1 and sTim-3 with an adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine (rAd5-SIV) can enhance cell mediated immune responses. The frequency of SIV antigen specific IFN-? spot-forming cells and the secretion of IFN-? and TNF-? by splenocytes from rAd5-SIV immunized mice was significantly increased when stimulated ex vivo with SIV peptides in the presence of sPD-1 or sTim-3 or both sPD-1 and sTim-3. The magnitude of cell mediated immune responses elicited by rAd5-SIV was enhanced by co-administration of sPD-1 and sTim-3. Co-administration of both sPD-1 and sTim-3 induced higher frequency of SIV antigen specific IFN-?(+) spot-forming cells to poorly immunogenic Vif and Tat. The percentage of cell mediated responses for each SIV antigen became more balanced, with reduction to Gag but induction to non-structural proteins. Furthermore, co-injection of rAd5-sPD1 and rAd5-sTim3 with rAd5-SIV in mice enhanced T cell proliferation capability and generated more antigen specific IFN-?(+) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Our study provided a new approach to enhance vaccine induced cell mediated immune responses, which may be applicable to improve the efficacy of vaccines against SIV/HIV.
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N-glycosylation affects the proper folding, enzymatic characteristics and production of a fungal ß-glucosidase.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Heterologous expression of ß-glucosidase is one of the approaches to enhance the efficiency of fungal cellulase preparations. It has been reported that N-glycosylation affects the structure framework, function and stability of proteins. In this study, a ß-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus (GenBank: XP_001216552, BglS) was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and Trichoderma reesei. The four asparagine residues were all linked with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides in P. pastoris, whereas only N224 carried high-mannosetype glycan in T. reesei (the other three sites carried one N-acetylglucosamine). The long N-glycan chains on PpBglS weakened its substrate affinity, activity and thermostability. The moderate post-translational and post-secretory glycan modification in T. reesei makes it a suitable expression system for BglS. The N224 glycan played a critical role in BglS folding. The elucidation of the correlation between the different N-glycosylation patterns of BglS and their corresponding enzymatic characteristics is an important step towards improving the activity, thermostability and even production of heterologous ß-glucosidase by glycan engineering.
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Perventricular Closure of a Post-Traumatic Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect Guided by Transesophageal Echocardiogram.
J Card Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Minimally invasive perventricular closure is emerging as an alternative to conventional open surgery in treating traumatic ventricular septal defects (VSDs). We report a case of successful perventricular closure of a post-traumatic muscular VSD in a patient who sustained blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle accident. A larger Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder (16?mm in diameter) was used to close the VSD near the apex.
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Target-induced quenching for highly sensitive detection of nucleic acids based on label-free luminescent supersandwich DNA/silver nanoclusters.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Luminescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) were anchored by designed oligonucleotides, acting as fluorescent labels. They hybridized with specific nucleic acid targets to form a supersandwich structure resulting in the fluorescence intensity of the DNA/AgNCs decreasing linearly with respect to the concentration of the target DNA.
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Impact of a Common Clinical Pathway on Length of Hospital Stay for Patients Undergoing Open and Minimally Invasive Kidney Surgery.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Clinical pathways are designed to reduce variability in patient care practices and to improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the effect of implementing a clinical care pathway on the length of stay (LOS) for patients undergoing kidney surgery..
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Pb(II) removal from water using Fe-coated bamboo charcoal with the assistance of microwaves.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Bamboo charcoal (BC) was used as starting material to prepare iron-modified bamboo charcoal (Fe-MBC) by its impregnation in FeCl3 and HNO3 solutions simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The material can be used as an adsorbent for Pb(II) contaminants removal in water. The composites were prepared with Fe molar concentration of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol/L and characterized by means of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) measurements. Nitrogen adsorption analyses showed that the BET specific surface area and total pore volume increased with iron impregnation. The adsorbent with Fe molar concentration of 2 mol/L (2Fe-MBC) exhibited the highest surface area and produced the best pore structure. The Pb(II) adsorption process of 2Fe-MBC and BC were evaluated in batch experiments and 2Fe-MBC showed an excellent adsorption capability for removal Pb(II). The adsorption of Pb(II) strongly depended on solution pH, with maximum values at pH 5.0. The ionic strength had a significant effect on the adsorption at pH < 6.0. The adsorption isotherms followed the Langmuir isotherm model well, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(II) was 200.38 mg/g for 2Fe-MBC. The adsorption processes were well fitted by a pseudo second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto Fe-MBC was feasible, spontaneous, and exothermic under the studied conditions, and the ion exchange mechanism played an significant role. These results have important implications for the design of low-cost and effective adsorbents in the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater.
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Compared Analysis of LncRNA Expression Profiling in pdk1 Gene Knockout Mice at Two Time Points.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Background/Aims: Previous studies have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) are related to the occurrence and development of many human diseases, such as cancer and the HELLP and the brachydactyly syndromes. However, studies of LncRNA in heart failure have not yet been reported. Here, we investigated cardiac lncRNA expression profiles in the myocardial-specific knockout pdk1 gene (KO) mouse model of heart failure. Methods: Cardiac samples were obtained from PDK1 KO and WT mice on postnatal (P) day 8 (P8) and day 40 (P40), and lncRNA expression profiles were analyzed by sequencing and screening using the Arraystar mouse lncRNA microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of these lncRNAs confirmed the identity of some genes. Results: Comparisons of the KO and control groups showed fold changes of >1.5 in the expression levels of 2,024 lncRNAs at P8, while fold changes of >2 in the expression levels of 4,095 lncRNAs were detected at P40. Nineteen lncRNAs were validated by RT-PCR. Bioinformatic and pathway analyses indicated that mkk7, a sense overlap lncRNA, may be involved in the pathological processes of heart failure through the MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusion: These data reveal differentially expressed lncRNA in mice with a myocardial-specific deletion of the pdk1 gene, which may provide new insights into the mechanism of heart failure in PDK1 knockout mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Utility of flow cytometry of cerebrospinal fluid as a screening tool in the diagnosis of central nervous system lymphoma.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Experiences at our institution show that flow cytometry analysis (FCA) has become routine clinical practice in the workup of patients with altered mental status, even if risk factors are low.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.