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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Annular Secondary Syphilis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A previously well 34-year-old man presented with multiple plaques on his face, groin and penis, and legs. The patient reported a history of multiple unprotected sexual encounters over the preceding 2 years. A diagnosis of annular secondary syphilis was made.
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Diffraction theory of high numerical aperture subwavelength circular binary phase Fresnel zone plate.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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An analytical model of vector formalism is proposed to investigate the diffraction of high numerical aperture subwavelength circular binary phase Fresnel zone plate (FZP). In the proposed model, the scattering on the FZP's surface, reflection and refraction within groove zones are considered and diffraction fields are calculated using the vector Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral. The numerical results obtained by the proposed phase thick FZP (TFZP) model show a good agreement with those obtained by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method within the effective extent of etch depth. The optimal etch depths predicted by both methods are approximately equal. The analytical TFZP model is very useful for designing a phase and hybrid amplitude-phase FZP with high-NA and short focal length.
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The genome of a Mongolian individual reveals the genetic imprints of Mongolians on modern human populations.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Mongolians have played a significant role in modern human evolution, especially after the rise of Genghis Khan (1162?-1227). Although the social cultural impacts of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian population have been well documented, explorations of their genome structure and genetic imprints on other human populations have been lacking. We here present the genome of a Mongolian male individual. The genome was de novo assembled using a total of 130.8-fold genomic data produced from massively parallel whole genome sequencing. We identified high-confidence variation sets, including 3.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 756,234 short insertions and deletions (Indels). Functional SNP analysis predicted the individual has a pathogenic risk for carnitine deficiency. We located the patrilineal inheritance of the Mongolian genome to the lineage D3a through Y haplogroup analysis and inferred that the individual has a common patrilineal ancestor with Tibeto-Burman populations and is likely to be the progeny of the earliest settlers in East Asia. We finally investigated the genetic imprints of Mongolians on other human populations using different approaches. We found varying degrees of gene flows between Mongolians and populations living in Europe, South/Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The analyses demonstrate that the genetic impacts of Mongolians likely resulted from the expansion of the Mongolian Empire in the 13(th) century. The genome will be of great help in further explorations of modern human evolution and genetic causes of diseases/traits specific to Mongolians.
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Mechanical and dynamic characteristics of encapsulated microbubbles coupled by magnetic nanoparticles as multifunctional imaging and drug delivery agents.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Development of magnetic encapsulated microbubble agents that can integrate multiple diagnostic and therapeutic functions is a key focus in both biomedical engineering and nanotechnology and one which will have far-reaching impact on medical diagnosis and therapies. However, properly designing multifunctional agents that can satisfy particular diagnostic/therapeutic requirements has been recognized as rather challenging, because there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of how the integration of magnetic nanoparticles to microbubble encapsulating shells affects their mechanical properties and dynamic performance in ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. Here, a multifunctional imaging contrast and in-situ gene/drug delivery agent was synthesized by coupling super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) into albumin-shelled microbubbles. Systematical studies were performed to investigate the SPIO-concentration-dependence of microbubble mechanical properties, acoustic scattering response, inertial cavitation activity and ultrasound-facilitated gene transfection effect. These demonstrated that, with the increasing SPIO concentration, the microbubble mean diameter and shell stiffness increased and ultrasound scattering response and inertial cavitation activity could be significantly enhanced. However, an optimized ultrasound-facilitated vascular endothelial growth factor transfection outcome would be achieved by adopting magnetic albumin-shelled microbubbles with an appropriate SPIO concentration of 114.7?µg?ml(-1). The current results would provide helpful guidance for future development of multifunctional agents and further optimization of their diagnostic/therapeutic performance in clinic.
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A Mannich/cyclization cascade process for the asymmetric synthesis of spirocyclic thioimidazolidineoxindoles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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An asymmetric cascade Mannich/cyclization reaction between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and sulfimides using a commercially available organocatalyst has been developed. A wide range of structurally diverse spiro[imidazolidine-4,3'-oxindole] derivatives were obtained with good yields (up to 92%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).
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Meta-analysis of Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Middle-Third Early Gastric Cancer.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Abstract Background: Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) has been performed to reduce postprandial symptoms for some early gastric cancer (EGC) cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible advantages after PPG for middle-third EGC in comparison with distal gastrectomy.
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[An application of arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurements in fluid management strategies of critically ill patients].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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To discuss the clinical significance of fluid management of severe patients according to arterial pressure-based cardiac output (APCO) monitoring volume responsiveness index.
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Copper-catalyzed cascade transformation of O-propargylic oximes with sulfonyl azides to ?,?-unsaturated N-acylamidines.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Copper-catalyzed cascade transformations of O-propargylic oximes and sulfonyl azides were carried out to efficiently afford ?,?-unsaturated N-acylamidines. The reaction involved the intramolecular attack of the oxime group to the ketenimine moiety that was generated in situ, followed by the cleavage of the N-O bond.
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Ordered structures of small numbers of nanorods induced by semiflexible star polymers.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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The ordered structures of nanorods (NRs) in the semiflexible star polymer/NR mixtures are explored by employing molecular dynamics simulation. The structures of small numbers of NRs can be well controlled by varying the stiffness of semiflexible star polymers. At a moderate binding energy between star polymers and NRs, four completely different structures of small numbers of NRs are observed, including that the side-to-side hexagonal aggregation structures of NRs for flexible star polymers, the partly parallel aggregation structures of NRs and the end-to-end contact parallel aggregation structures of NRs for semiflexible star polymers, and the partial dispersion of NRs for rigid star polymers. Helical conformations of semiflexible star polymers binding with NRs are responsible for the formation of the end-to-end contact parallel aggregation structures for small numbers of NRs. This investigation may provide a possible pathway to develop ''smart'' medium to construct novel materials with high performance.
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Size separation of graphene oxide with preparative free-flow electrophoresis.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Graphene oxide nanosheets often bear a wide size distribution. However, it is critical to have nanosheets with narrow size distribution for their unique size-dependent physiochemical properties, and nanosheets with a narrow size distribution are the cornerstones for application. Therefore, efficient separation methods of graphene nanosheets have been given considerable attention in many scientific areas recently. Free-flow electrophoresis is extensively used in the separation and purification of biological molecules with continuous flow separation. The charged graphene oxide nanosheets to some extent are very close in size to biological molecules and share similarity in motion behavior in an electric field. Thus, in the present work, we present a new and simple means to separate graphene oxide nanosheets into more mono-dispersed size groups by using the free-flow electrophoresis technique. By optimizing the separation conditions, we were able to obtain graphene oxide sheets with narrow size distribution. The separated samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy, and the size measurements were made by using the software "Image Pro Plus". In addition, a brief discussion is also given into the theoretic background of the separation of graphene oxide according to the size by by the technique of preparative free-flow electrophoresis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Overexpression of the Tomato Pollen Receptor Kinase LePRK1 Rewires Pollen Tube Growth to a Blebbing Mode.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP), a Rop guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Here, we show that pollen tubes overexpressing LePRK1 or a truncated LePRK1 lacking its extracellular domain (LePRK1?ECD) have enlarged tips but also extend their leading edges by producing "blebs." Coexpression of LePRK1 and tomato PLIM2a, an actin bundling protein that interacts with KPP in a Ca(2+)-responsive manner, suppressed these LePRK1 overexpression phenotypes, whereas pollen tubes coexpressing KPP, LePRK1, and PLIM2a resumed the blebbing growth mode. We conclude that overexpression of LePRK1 or LePRK1?ECD rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbing mode, through KPP- and PLIM2a-mediated bundling of actin filaments from tip plasma membranes. Arabidopsis thaliana pollen tubes expressing LePRK1?ECD also grew by blebbing. Our results exposed a hidden capability of the pollen tube cell: upon overexpression of a single membrane-localized molecule, LePRK1 or LePRK1?ECD, it can switch to an alternative mechanism for extension of the leading edge that is analogous to the blebbing growth mode reported for Dictyostelium and for Drosophila melanogaster stem cells.
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The red sport of 'Zaosu' pear and its red-striped pigmentation pattern are associated with demethylation of the PyMYB10 promoter.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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'Zaosu' pear, a hybrid of Pyrus pyrifolia and Pyrus communis, is a popular cultivar developed in China. 'Zaosu Red' is a bud sport of 'Zaosu' with red shoots, young leaves, and fruit. After grafting of 'Zaosu Red', reverse mutations in some branches lead to a loss of colour in leaves and stems. Also, the mature fruit of 'Zaosu Red' exhibits two phenotypes; fully red and striped. The aim of this study was to establish the mechanism of the red colour mutation in 'Zaosu' and the striped pigmentation pattern in fruit of 'Zaosu Red'. The accumulation of anthocyanins and transcript levels of the genes PpUFGT2 and PyMYB10 were highly correlated. The open reading frames (ORF) and promoter regions of these two key genes were cloned and compared between 'Zaosu' and its bud sports, but no sequence differences were found. The R2R3 MYB, PyMYB10, can activate expression of genes encoding enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. A yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PyMYB10 was associated with the -658 to -172bp fragment of the PpUFGT2 promoter, probably via a MYB binding site (MBS) located at -466bp. The PyMYB10 promoter had lower methylation levels in anthocyanin-rich tissues, indicating that the red bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear and the striped pigmentation pattern of 'Zaosu Red' pear are associated with demethylation of the PyMYB10 promoter.
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A preliminary study on sulfate reduction bacteria behaviors in groundwater by sulfur and carbon isotopes: a case study in Jiaozuo City, China.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Inorganic pollutants in groundwater, such as sulfate and nitrate, have been a serious problem in China for decades. These pollutants are difficult to be removed because of their high solubility and ease of transport in subsurface environment. It had been found that microorganism could be one of the most feasible methods for inorganic pollutant elimination. During the process of degradation, some microorganisms can utilize sulfur and nitrogen in sulfate and nitrate forms, respectively, as energy sources. Meanwhile, significant variations of sulfur stable isotope ratios happened. Therefore sulfur isotope can be used as a good indicator for pollutant degradation and microbial activities. Shallow groundwater (SGW), deep groundwater (DGW), and surface water (SFW) were investigated in alluvial plain in Jiaozuo City, China. The results of hydrochemical analysis indicated that K(+), Na(+), and HCO3 (-) were dominant ions in DGW, Mg(2+) and HCO3 (-) were dominant ions in SGW, and Ca(2+) and HCO3 (-) were dominant in SFW except for LR sample. A wide variation of ? (34)SSO4 values ranging from + 7.3 to +23.6 ‰ had been observed for all water samples, with a mean value of +20.7, +12.6 and +10.0 ‰ for DGW, SGW, and SFW respectively. At the same time, ? (13)C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) ranged from -12.4 to -5.7 ‰, with a mean value of -7.5, -9.0, and -9.6 ‰ for DGW, SGW, and SFW, respectively. The microbial degradation processes resulted in significant sulfur isotope fractionations in DGW. Organic carbon was utilized by bacteria and transferred into inorganic carbon, leading to negative fractionation of carbon isotopes. Thus the variations in stable isotope ratios of sulfur and carbon in groundwater can be used as good indicators for understanding of the relationship between bacteria behaviors and sulfate degradation.
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Tear menisci after laser in situ keratomileusis with mechanical microkeratome and femtosecond laser.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To investigate the effect on tear menisci after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with flap creation by either microkeratome or femtosecond laser.
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Binding to semiflexible polymers: a novel method to control the structures of small numbers of building blocks.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Through the molecular dynamics simulation method, we demonstrate that long semi-flexible polymer chains can serve as an effective soft elastic medium for manipulating the ordered structures of small numbers of building blocks, which can be easily controlled by the chain bending stiffness. For two spherical particles in a polymer-particle mixture, three types of local organization are identified: monomer level tight particle bridging, direct contact aggregation, and dispersion. For small numbers of spherical particles in a polymer-particle mixture, the ordered structures of particles, such as spherical and linear particle aggregations, depend mainly on chain bending stiffness. For non-spherical building blocks, the relative orientations of neighboring building blocks are also strongly affected by chain bending stiffness. These results can help us to understand the complexity of the self-assembly of small numbers of building blocks in polymer-particle mixtures and the gene activity in living cells, as well as to construct novel materials in the nanotechnology field.
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Identification of angiogenesis-related miRNAs in a population of patients with renal clear cell carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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In the present study, we compared the expression of miRNAs and angiogenesis-related genes in the renal tumors and adjacent normal renal tissues of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The first part of the present study was a preliminary analysis of 4 patients with stage T1a/b ccRCC that measured the levels of angiogenesis and expression of angiogenesis-related genes and miRNAs in the tumors and adjacent normal renal tissues. The second part of this study was an analysis of 30 patients with stage T1, T2 or T3 ccRCC that employed qPCR to characterize expression of angiogenesis-related miRNAs in the tumors and adjacent normal tissues. The first part of this study indicated that all 4 patients had increased levels of CD34 in tumors, indicating elevated angiogenesis. However, quantitative analysis of microvessel density and expression of miRNAs indicated highly variable results among these patients. The data of all patients in the present study indicated that more patients with stage T1 ccRCC had higher expression of miR-126 and miR-378 in their normal tissues, whereas more patients with stage T2/3 ccRCC had higher expression of these miRNAs in their tumor tissues. The tumors of patients with ccRCC had lower expression of miR-126 and miR-378 during the early stages of disease (T1), but higher expression of these miRNAs during the later stages of disease (T2/T3).
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Addition of hydrogen peroxide for the simultaneous control of bromate and odor during advanced drinking water treatment using ozone.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Complete removal of the characteristic septic/swampy odor from Huangpu River source water could only be achieved under an ozone dose as high as 4.0 mg/L in an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process, which would lead to the production of high concentrations of carcinogenic bromate due to the high bromide content. This study investigated the possibility of simultaneous control of bromate and the septic/swampy odor by adding H2O2 prior to the O3-BAC process for the treatment of Huangpu River water. H2O2 addition could reduce the bromate concentration effectively at an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of 0.5 or higher. At the same time, the septic/swampy odor removal was enhanced by the addition of H2O2, although optimization of the H2O2/O3 ratio was required for each ozone dose. At an ozone dose of 2.0 mg/L, the odor was removed completely at an H2O2/O3 ratio of 0.5. The results indicated that H2O2 application at a suitable dose could enhance the removal of the septic/swampy odor while suppressing the formation of bromate during ozonation of Huangpu River source water.
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Investigation of hepatic blood perfusion by laser speckle imaging and changes of hepatic vasoactive substances in mice after electroacupuncture.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The study was conducted to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on hepatic blood perfusion (HBP) and vascular regulation. We investigated 60 male anesthetized mice under the following 3 conditions: without EA stimulation (control group); EA stimulation at Zusanli (ST36 group); EA stimulation at nonacupoint (NA group) during 30?min. The HBP was measured using the laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI). The level of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and noradrenaline (NE) in liver tissue was detected by biochemical methods. Results were as follows. At each time point, HBP increase in ST36 group was higher than that in the NA group in anesthetized mice. HBP gradually decreased during 30?min in control group. The level of NO in ST36 group was higher than that in NA group. The level of both ET-1 and NE was the highest in control group, followed by NA group and ST36 group. It is concluded that EA at ST36 could increase HBP possibly by increasing the blood flow velocity (BFV), changing vascular activity, increasing the level of NO, and inhibiting the level of ET-1 in liver tissue.
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Silencing RhoA inhibits migration and invasion through Wnt/?-catenin pathway and growth through cell cycle regulation in human tongue cancer.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) has been identified as a critical regulator of tumor aggressive behavior. In this study, we assessed the role of RhoA in the mechanisms underlying growth, migration, and invasion of squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (TSCC). Stable RhoA knockdown of TSCC cell lines SCC-4 and CAL27 were achieved using Lentiviral transfection. The effects of RhoA depletion on cell migration, invasion, and cell proliferation were determined. The possible underlying mechanism of RhoA depletion on TSCC cell line was also evaluated by determining the expression of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), ?-catenin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in vivo. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of TSCC growth was studied by analysis of cyclin D1/2, p21CIP1/WAF1, and p27Kip1 protein levels. Immunohistochemical assessments were performed to further prove the alteration of Gal-3 and ?-catenin expression. We found that, in mice injected with human TSCC cells in the tongue, RhoA levels were higher in primary tumors and metastasized lymph nodes compared with those in the normal tissues. Silencing of RhoA significantly reduced the tumor growth, decreased the levels of Gal-3, ?-catenin, MMP-9, and cyclin D1/2, and increased the levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 and p27Kip1. In vitro, RhoA knockdown also led to inhibition of cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. Our data suggest that RhoA plays a significant role in TSCC progression by regulating cell migration and invasion through Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation, respectively. RhoA might be a novel therapeutic target of TSCC.
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Platelet Factor 4 Protects Kidney Allograft in a Rat Kidney Transplantation Model.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Platelets are the cellular mediator of thrombosis, but it is becoming increasingly evident that platelets actively participate in inflammation and immune responses. A recent paper indicated that platelet factor 4 (PF4) alleviated cardiac allograft rejection in mice. But the role of PF4 on kidney transplantation has never been investigated. In our current experiment, PF4 administration alleviates immune responses to kidney transplantation. PF4 significantly alleviates vascular and glomerular changes, as well as interstitial inflammation, fibrosis, and tubular atrophy at day 56 after transplantation. PF4 decreases interleukin (IL)-17 production in vivo and also limits Th17 differentiation in vitro. Furthermore, the alleviated chronic vasculopathy and tubulointerstitial inflammation induced by PF4 were abolished with additional IL-17 administration. Meanwhile, decreased serum creatinine and urea induced by PF4 were also reversed by recombinant mouse IL-17 (rmIL-17). In conclusion, PF4 plays a protective role in chronic kidney allograft and this was associated with inhibition of IL-17 production.
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A genetic variant of miR-148a binding site in the SCRN1 3'-UTR is associated with susceptibility and prognosis of gastric cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated regions targeted by putative mircoRNA can change its binding strength, affecting the susceptibility and prognosis of cancer. We aimed to investigate the associations between SNPs within miR-148a binding sites and gastric cancer (GC) risk and prognosis. Using bioinformatics tools, we selected two SNPs (SCRN1 rs6976789 and PDYN rs2235749) located in miR-148a target sites. We genotyped the two SNPs in a case-control study comprising 753 GC patients and 949 cancer-free subjects. We found a significantly increased risk of GC associated with the SCRN1 rs6976789 C>T polymorphism [adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.53; CT/TT vs. CC]. However, no significant association was found between the PDYN rs2235749 and GC risk in all genetic models. Furthermore, we evaluated whether SCRN1 rs6976789 affected the survival of GC patients. Results showed that individuals with SCRN1 rs6976789 TT genotype had poorer overall survival compared with those carried CC/CT genotypes in intestinal-type GC (adjusted HR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.21-5.05). Luciferase report assay showed that the rs6976789 variant T allele influenced the binding ability of miR-148a. Our results suggested that the SCRN1 rs6976789 polymorphism may play an important role in the GC development and progression.
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Glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppresses carcinogen-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis by restricting cancer cell metabolism.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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The abnormal metabolism of cancer cells is a crucial feature of tumors and provides promising therapeutic targets for cancer treatments. Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells, termed the Warburg effect, is a highlighted characteristic of cancer?specific metabolism. However, the effect of glycolysis inhibition on hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of the glycolysis inhibitor 2?deoxy?D?glucose (2?DG) on the N?diethylnitrosamine (DEN)?induced rat hepatocarcinoma model and its underlying mechanisms were investigated. It was observed that 2?DG significantly delayed hepatocarcinogenesis and effectively prolonged survival time in the DEN?treated rats. The glycolysis inhibitor, 2?DG prominently decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in the DEN?induced rat hepatoma and had no evident impact on the pericarcinomatous liver tissues. Further investigation revealed that 2?DG resulted in a reduction of glycolysis products, the compensatory increase of hexokinase 2 expression and a decrease in 6?phosphofructo?2?kinase, pyruvate kinase M2 and lactate dehydrogenase A expression in the hepatoma tissues. The inhibition of glycolysis further suppressed the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis and ATP production, while it promoted autophagic activation. In addition, the in vitro study demonstrated that hypoxia, an important factor in the tumor microenvironment, may assist in increasing 2?DG?induced inhibition of cell viability, cell cycle retardation and the decrease of colony formation ability in hepatoma cells. Taken together, the present results suggested that 2?DG may inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis in the DEN?treated rats via restricting cancer cell metabolism. This finding provides a promising measure in the prevention and treatment of hepatoma.
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Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the pancreas after bone marrow transplant.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the pancreas is rare. We report a case of a 12-yearold boy who experienced a relapse of ALL in the pancreas after a bone marrow transplant.
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Effect of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on NF-?B activation and CYP2E1 content of rats with immunological liver injury.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Abstract Context: Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a potent inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Recent studies have shown that NF-?B plays an essential role in the regulation of genes whose products are involved in the pathogenesis of immunological liver injury.
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Ischemic postconditioning prevents renal ischemia reperfusion injury through the induction of heat shock proteins in rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Ischemic postconditioning (IPo) attenuates ischemia?reperfusion injuries (IRI) in various organs, of both animals and humans. This study tested the hypothesis that IPo attenuates renal IRI through the upregulation of heat shock protein (HSP)70, HSP27 and heme oxygenase?1 (HO?1, also known as HSP 32) expression. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for up to 48 h. One group of rats received IPo prior to restoring full perfusion. Another group was administered 100 mg/kg HSP inhibitor quercetin, injected intraperitoneally 1 h prior to ischemia. Control rats received sham operations. Renal IR resulted in severe morphological and pathological changes, with increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. IR resulted in increased inflammation by inducing plasma tumor necrosis factor?? and renal nuclear factor kappa?light?chain?enhancer of activated B cells expression. IR also increased lipid peroxidation, as indicated by elevated malondialdehyde content, reduced superoxide dismutase activity and increased renal apoptosis. Renal HSP70, HSP27 and HO?1 mRNA and protein levels were increased by IR and further elevated by IPo. IPo attenuated these changes observed in pathology, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and inflammation. Quercetin treatment abolished all the protective effects of IPo. In conclusion, this study showed that IPo can attenuate lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and inflammation as well as renal IRI by upregulating the expression of HSP70, HSP27 and HO?1.
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Sonic hedgehog paracrine signaling activates stromal cells to promote perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is characterized by stromal desmoplasia and perineural invasion (PNI). We sought to explore the contribution of pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) activated by paracrine Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in pancreatic cancer PNI and progression.
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Quantitative method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals based on odor sensitivity distribution: illustrated using 2-MIB.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Taste and odor (T/O) in drinking water often cause consumer complaints and are thus regulated in many countries. However, people in different regions may exhibit different sensitivities toward T/O. This study proposed a method to determine the regional drinking water odorant regulation goals (ORGs) based on the odor sensitivity distribution of the local population. The distribution of odor sensitivity to 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) by the local population in Beijing, China was revealed by using a normal distribution function/model to describe the odor complaint response to a 2-MIB episode in 2005, and a 2-MIB concentration of 12.9 ng/L and FPA (flavor profile analysis) intensity of 2.5 was found to be the critical point to cause odor complaints. Thus the Beijing ORG for 2-MIB was determined to be 12.9 ng/L. Based on the assumption that the local FPA panel can represent the local population in terms of sensitivity to odor, and that the critical FPA intensity causing odor complaints was 2.5, this study tried to determine the ORGs for seven other cities of China by performing FPA tests using an FPA panel from the corresponding city. ORG values between 12.9 and 31.6 ng/L were determined, showing that a unified ORG may not be suitable for drinking water odor regulations. This study presents a novel approach for setting drinking water odor regulations.
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The Chromatin-Remodeling Factor PICKLE Integrates Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Signaling during Skotomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Plant cell elongation is controlled by endogenous hormones, including brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA), and by environmental factors, such as light/darkness. The molecular mechanisms underlying the convergence of these signals that govern cell growth remain largely unknown. We previously showed that the chromatin-remodeling factor PICKLE/ENHANCED PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (PKL/EPP1) represses photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we demonstrated that PKL physically interacted with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1), key components of the light and BR signaling pathways, respectively. Also, this interaction promoted the association of PKL with cell elongation-related genes. We found that PKL, PIF3, and BZR1 coregulate skotomorphogenesis by repressing the trimethylation of histone H3 Lys-27 (H3K27me3) on target promoters. Moreover, DELLA proteins interacted with PKL and attenuated its binding ability. Strikingly, brassinolide and GA3 inhibited H3K27me3 modification of histones associated with cell elongation-related loci in a BZR1- and DELLA-mediated manner, respectively. Our findings reveal that the PKL chromatin-remodeling factor acts as a critical node that integrates light/darkness, BR, and GA signals to epigenetically regulate plant growth and development. This work also provides a molecular framework by which hormone signals regulate histone modification in concert with light/dark environmental cues.
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Ligand-based photooxidations of dithiomaltolato complexes of Ru(II) and Zn(II): photolytic CH activation and evidence of singlet oxygen generation and quenching.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The complex [Ru(bpy)2(ttma)](+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; ttma = 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-thiopyran-4-thionate, 1, has previously been shown to undergo an unusual C-H activation of the dithiomaltolato ligand upon outer-sphere oxidation. The reaction generated alcohol and aldehyde products 2 and 3 from C-H oxidation of the pendant methyl group. In this report, we demonstrate that the same products are formed upon photolysis of 1 in presence of mild oxidants such as methyl viologen, [Ru(NH3)6](3+) and [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+), which do not oxidize 1 in the dark. This reactivity is engendered only upon excitation into an absorption band attributed to the ttma ligand. Analogous experiments with the homoleptic Zn(ttma)2, 4, also result in reduction of electron acceptors upon excitation of the ttma absorption band. Complexes 1 and 4 exhibit short-lived visible fluorescence and long-lived near-infrared phosphorescence bands. Singlet oxygen is both generated and quenched during aerobic excitation of 1 or 4, but is not involved in the C-H activation process.
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Naturally Occurring Neomorphic PIK3R1 Mutations Activate the MAPK Pathway, Dictating Therapeutic Response to MAPK Pathway Inhibitors.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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PIK3R1 (p85? regulatory subunit of PI3K) is frequently mutated across cancer lineages. Herein, we demonstrate that the most common recurrent PIK3R1 mutation PIK3R1(R348?) and a nearby mutation PIK3R1(L370fs), in contrast to wild-type and mutations in other regions of PIK3R1, confers an unexpected sensitivity to MEK and JNK inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with the response to inhibitors, PIK3R1(R348?) and PIK3R1(L370fs) unexpectedly increase JNK and ERK phosphorylation. Surprisingly, p85? R348(?) and L370fs localize to the nucleus where the mutants provide a scaffold for multiple JNK pathway components facilitating nuclear JNK pathway activation. Our findings uncover an unexpected neomorphic role for PIK3R1(R348?) and neighboring truncation mutations in cellular signaling, providing a rationale for therapeutic targeting of these mutant tumors.
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The adsorption-desorption transition of double-stranded DNA interacting with an oppositely charged dendrimer induced by multivalent anions.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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The adsorption-desorption transition of DNA in DNA-dendrimer solutions is observed when high-valence anions, such as hexavalent anions, are added to the DNA-dendrimer solutions. In the DNA-dendrimer solutions with low-valence anions, dendrimers bind tightly with the V-shaped double-stranded DNA. When high-valence anions, such as pentavalent or hexavalent anions, are added to the DNA-dendrimer solutions, the double-stranded DNA chains can be stretched straightly and the dendrimers are released from the double-stranded DNA chains. In fact, adding high-valence anions to the solutions can change the charge spatial distribution in the DNA-dendrimer solutions, and weaken the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged dendrimers and the oppositely charged DNA chains. Adsorption-desorption transition of DNA is induced by the overcharging of dendrimers. This investigation is capable of helping us understand how to control effectively the release of DNA in gene/drug delivery because an effective gene delivery for dendrimers includes non-covalent DNA-dendrimer binding and the effective release of DNA in gene therapy.
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Wrapping/unwrapping transition of double-stranded DNA in DNA-nanosphere complexes induced by multivalent anions.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Wrapping and unwrapping behaviors of double-stranded DNA around a positively charged nanosphere in solution are studied by using the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation method. When monovalent, divalent and trivalent anions are added to the DNA-nanosphere complex solution, double-stranded DNA binds with a nanosphere owing to strong electrostatic attraction. However, when tetravalent anions are added to the DNA-nanosphere complex solution, local charge inversion is observed for a high anion concentration of tetravalent anions and the double-stranded DNA can be unwrapped from the nanosphere because of the local charge inversion near the nanosphere. Moreover, the helical structure of DNA is damaged when double-stranded DNA wraps around the nanosphere and the helical structure can be rebuilt when the double-stranded DNA unwraps from the nanosphere. This study can help us understand how to control the release of DNA in DNA-nanosphere complexes.
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Fabrication of a three-layer SU-8 mould with inverted T-shaped cavities based on a sacrificial photoresist layer technique.
Biomed Microdevices
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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A novel method for fabricating a three-layer SU-8 mould with inverted T-shaped cavities is presented. The first two SU-8 layers were spin coated and exposed separately, and simultaneously developed to fabricate the bottom and the horizontal part of the inverted T-shaped cavity. Then, a positive photoresist was filled into the cavity, and a wet lapping process was performed to remove the excess photoresist and make a temporary substrate. The third SU-8 layer was spin coated on the temporary substrate to make the vertical part of the inverted T-shaped cavity. The sacrificial photoresist layer can prevent the first two SU-8 layers from being secondly exposed, and make a temporary substrate for the third SU-8 layer at the same time. Moreover, the photoresist can be easily removed with the development of the third SU-8 layer. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip with arrays of T-shaped cantilevers for studying the mechanics of cells was fabricated by using the SU-8 mould.
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A modified method to detect the phagocytic ability of eosinophilic and basophilic haemocytes in the oyster Crassostrea plicatula.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The immune defence system of bivalve species largely depends on haemocytes. Haemocytes are generally classified as hyalinocytes (H) or granulocytes (G), and each cell type is further sub-classified as eosinophilic (E) or basophilic (B) haemocytes. Until recently, research on eosinophilic and basophilic haemocytes has primarily focused on their morphologies, dye affinities and intracellular components. Few studies have investigated their phagocytic ability because of the absence of appropriate experimental methods. In this study, we introduce a modified method suitable to detect the phagocytic ability of eosinophilic and basophilic haemocytes. This modified method involves neutral red staining by employing fluorescent microspheres as the phagocytosed medium. Specifically, haemocytes are incubated with fluorescent microspheres and then stained with neutral red. Next, the stained haemocytes are fixed by acetone and are counterstained by propidium iodide. Finally, the haemocytes are observed under a multifunctional microscope to analyse the phagocytic ability by counting the number of eosinophilic or basophilic haemocytes involved in phagocytosis (calculation for phagocytic rate, PR) and the number of phagocytosed microspheres by each eosinophilic or basophilic haemocyte (calculation for phagocytic index, PI). By employing this modified method in the oyster Crassostrea plicatula, we found that the PRs of G and H were very similar to the data obtained by another method, flow cytometry, indicating that this modified method has high accuracy. Additionally, we also found that the PR and PI in E-G were 70.9 ± 7.3% and 1.0 ± 0.2, respectively, which were both significantly higher than those in B-G (53.1 ± 6.4% and 0.7 ± 0.1). The PR and PI in E-H were 16.3 ± 2.8% and 0.2 ± 0.1, respectively, while in B-H, the PR and PI were 13.3 ± 3.6% and 0.2 ± 0.1, respectively, with no significant difference observed. Based on this result, eosinophilic granulocytes are more active in phagocytosis than basophilic granulocytes in the oyster immune defence system.
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Comparative genetic mapping and genomic region collinearity analysis of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm41.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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By applying comparative genomics analyses, a high-density genetic linkage map narrowed the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm41 originating from wild emmer in a sub-centimorgan genetic interval. Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, results in large yield losses worldwide. A high-density genetic linkage map of the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm41, originating from wild emmer (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) and previously mapped to the distal region of chromosome 3BL bin 0.63-1.00, was constructed using an F5:6 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross of durum wheat cultivar Langdon and wild emmer accession IW2. By applying comparative genomics analyses, 19 polymorphic sequence-tagged site markers were developed and integrated into the Pm41 genetic linkage map. Ultimately, Pm41 was mapped in a 0.6 cM genetic interval flanked by markers XWGGC1505 and XWGGC1507, which correspond to 11.7, 19.2, and 24.9 kb orthologous genomic regions in Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum, respectively. The XWGGC1506 marker co-segregated with Pm41 and could be served as a starting point for chromosome landing and map-based cloning as well as marker-assisted selection of Pm41. Detailed comparative genomics analysis of the markers flanking the Pm41 locus in wheat and the putative orthologous genes in Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum suggests that the gene order is highly conserved between rice and sorghum. However, intra-chromosome inversions and re-arrangements are evident in the wheat and Brachypodium genomic regions, and gene duplications are also present in the orthologous genomic regions of Pm41 in wheat, indicating that the Brachypodium gene model can provide more useful information for wheat marker development.
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Evaluation of clinical application of ESICM acute gastrointestinal injury grading system: a single-center observational study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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In 2012, the working group on abdominal problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) proposed a definition and also guidelines for the grading system and treatment of acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI). Until now, clinical reports on this topic have not been available, and the practicality of using the AGI grading system requires further validation in the clinic. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing the current AGI grading system in a clinical environment, and to provide evidence for its usefulness in assessing the severity and prognosis of critically ill patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction.
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Measuring both procalcitonin and C-reactive protein for a diagnosis of sepsis in critically ill patients.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as individual biomarkers, and in combination, for the identification of infections in a critically ill patient cohort was evaluated retrospectively.
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Expression of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor-antagonizing cytokines and vascular stabilizing factors prior to and following bypass surgery in patients with moyamoya disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-antagonizing cytokines and VEGF-influenced vascular stabilizing cytokines in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) and the association with postoperative collateral vessel formation. The study population included 53 MMD patients that had undergone indirect bypass surgery and 50 healthy controls. Serum levels of VEGF, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), TSP-2, soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1), sVEGFR-2, endostatin, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2 were measured at the baseline (preoperative) and at day seven following surgery. Postoperative collateralization assessment was conducted upon the six-month follow-up cerebral angiography. Cytokine levels were compared between patients with good or poor collateral formation. Compared with the healthy controls, MMD patients exhibited lower baseline levels of sVEGFR-1 (P<0.0001) and sVEGFR-2 (P<0.0001), but higher VEGF expression (P<0.0001). Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels did not exhibit any difference between the two groups. On day seven following surgery, MMD patients exhibited an almost unchanged sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 expression level, but upregulated expression of VEGF (P<0.0001), Ang-1 (P<0.0001) and TSP-2 (P<0.0001). The six-month follow-up angiographies revealed that 21 patients (45.65%) that had undergone the same surgical procedure achieved good collateralization. Patients with good collateral formation appeared to have lower sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 levels prior to (P=0.029 and P=0.045, respectively) and at day seven (P=0.044 and P=0.047, respectively) following bypass surgery when compared with the patients with worse collateralization. Therefore, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of MMD. Lower levels of sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 indicated better postoperative collateralization in the six months following indirect bypass surgery. However, Ang-1 and Ang-2 may not be specifically involved in the course of MMD.
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Genome shuffling and ribosome engineering of Streptomyces actuosus for high-yield nosiheptide production.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Nosiheptide is one of the EU-approved sulfur-containing peptides in feed industry to inhibit the growth of the majority of Gram-positive bacteria. The main purpose of this study is directed to breed the high nosiheptide-producers by genome shuffling and ribosome engineering in Streptomyces actuosus AW7. The starting population for shuffling was generated by combining (60)Co?-irradiation with LiCl mutagenesis treatments on the spores. After four rounds of protoplast fusion exposed to streptomycin as adaptive pressure, a high-yield recombinant strain D92 was obtained. In a 10-L fermenter, nosiheptide production reached 1.54 g/L which was 9.20-fold compared to that of the parental strain. Hyphae development, metabolic process, and ribosomal protein S12 sequence were investigated to characterize the differentiation among the recombinants. Several mutations in S12 were believed to be responsible to streptomycin resistance in the tested strain. The results demonstrated that the combination of genome shuffling and ribosome engineering is an efficient approach to breed high-yield industrial strains.
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Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in Hydrotaea armipes (Fallén) (Diptera: Muscidae): new evidence for taxonomy of the genus Hydrotaea.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of male Hydrotaea (Hydrotaea) armipes (Fallén) are examined via scanning electron microscopy in order to highlight the importance of antennal sensilla as a source of morphological characters for taxonomy and phylogeny of Hydrotaea. Antennal scape and pedicel have only one type of sensilla, the sharp-tipped chaetic sensilla, whereas antennal funiculus possesses several types of sensilla, including trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. These results are compared with previously published studies on other fly species, especially on H. (H.) irritans (Fallén) and H. (Ophyra) chalcogaster (Wiedemann), and there are possible uniquely derived characters or diagnostic characters examined on antennal pedicel and antennal funiculus, which suggests either affinities and divergence between species at subgenus level. Thus, new morphological evidence is provided, which might help to develop the much disputed taxonomy of genus Hydrotaea Robineau-Desvoidy in future.
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The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus.
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Colloids containing gadolinium-capped gold nanoparticles as high relaxivity dual-modality contrast agents for CT and MRI.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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A type of novel macromolecular colloid was prepared from gadolinium-based poly(l-succinimide) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with AuS covalent bonds. The colloid displayed improved stability in aqueous media and regular arrays in partial region. Moreover, these materials enhanced the contrast 9 times more than that of the corresponding uncoated Au compound when the Au mass content was only 0.15%. Therefore, these materials might have potential as dual-modality contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).
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Two different one-dimensional supramolecular chains formed from the reaction of 2-[1-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline with two different precursors, Co(NO3)2 and CoCl2.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Two different one-dimensional supramolecular chains with Co(II) cations have been synthesized based on the semi-rigid ligand 2-[1-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L), obtained by condensation of 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline and 4-(chloromethyl)pyridine hydrochloride. Starting from different Co(II) salts, two new compounds have been obtained, viz. catena-poly[[[dinitratocobalt(II)]-?-2-[1-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline] dichloromethane monosolvate acetonitrile monosolvate], {[Co(NO3)2(C22H16N4)]·CH2Cl2·CH3CN}n, (I) and catena-poly[[[dichloridocobalt(II)]-?-2-[1-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline] methanol disolvate], {[CoCl2(C22H16N4)]·2CH3OH}n, (II). In (I), the Co(II) centres lie in a distorted octahedral [CoN3O3] coordination environment. {Co(NO3)2L}n units form one-dimensional helical chains, where the L ligand has different directions of twist. The helical chains stack together via interchain ?-? interactions to form a two-dimensional sheet, and another type of ?-? interaction further connects neighbouring sheets into a three-dimensional framework with hexagonal channels, in which the acetonitrile molecules and disordered dichloromethane molecules are located. In (II), the Co(II) centres lie in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal [CoCl2N3] coordination environment. {CoCl2L}n units form one-dimensional chains. The chains interact via C-H···? and C-H···Cl interactions. The result is that two-dimensional sheets are generated, which are further linked into a three-dimensional framework via interlayer C-H···Cl interactions. When viewed down the crystallographic b axis, the methanol solvent molecules are located in an orderly manner in wave-like channels.
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Dynamics of targeted microbubble adhesion under pulsatile compared with steady flow.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Hemodynamic flow variations at low fluid shear stress are thought to play a critical role in local atherosclerotic plaque initiation and development and to affect plaque instability. Targeted microbubbles are being developed as intravascular agents for identifying atherosclerotic lesions using ultrasound. How variations in local hydrodynamic flow influence the adhesiveness of targeted microbubbles is not well understood. We postulated that rates of targeted microbubble binding and accumulation differ when subjected to steady flow (SF) as compared with oscillatory or pulsatile flow (PF), because PF imposes non-uniform blood rheology and periodic acceleration and deceleration of blood velocity, when compared with SF. We assessed the binding rates of targeted microbubbles in seven randomly assigned PF and seven matched SF replicate runs at low (<1 Pa) and intermediate (?1 and <2.5 Pa) wall shear stress (WSS) by drawing 4.8 × 10(6) microbubbles mL(-1) over streptavidin-coated substrates, immobilized within a parallel plate flow chamber at a calculated density of 81 binding sites ?m(-2). Selective binding and accumulation of targeted microbubbles was recorded in a single field of view using real-time video microscopy. Microbubble accumulation was modeled to obtain flow-mediated microbubble binding kinetics (amplitude, A, and rate constant, k). PF elicited higher microbubble accumulation rates, in comparison to SF. The rates of microbubble accumulation differed significantly between PF and SF (p < 0.05) at intermediate WSS but not at low WSS (p > 0.05). The rate of microbubble accumulation decreased as WSS increased.
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Arginine deiminase augments the chemosensitivity of argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine via inhibition of NF-?B signaling.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world with a 5-year survival rate of less than 6%. Currently, there is no successful therapeutic strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer, and new effective strategies are urgently needed. Recently, an arginine deprivation agent, arginine deiminase, was found to inhibit the growth of some tumor cells (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, and lung cancer) deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), an enzyme used to synthesize arginine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of arginine deiminase in combination with gemcitabine, the first line chemotherapeutic drug for patients with pancreatic cancer, and to identify the mechanisms associated with its anticancer effects.
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Green tea extract inhibition of human leiomyoma cell proliferation is mediated via catechol-O-methyltransferase.
Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To investigate the inhibitory effect of green tea extract, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on wild-type human leiomyoma (WT-HuLM) cells and its potential action via catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) activity.
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Fine structure of Delia platura (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) revealed by scanning electron microscopy.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Delia platura (Meigen) is a phytophagous fly that can cause significant crop losses. To obtain a better understanding of the external morphology of this species, adult D. platura is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Organs or structures that are important for taxonomy, such as the compound eyes, spiracles, pulvilli, wings, and genitalia are highlighted to complement previous description based on light microscope. Mesothoracic and metathoracic spiracles of D. platura that provide efficiency in preventing entrance of fine materials or dust into the tracheal system are morphologically different. In addition, the elongate-oval pulvillus is densely covered with tenent setae with spoon-like tip, which can increase the number of contact points for attachment to a surface. Four types of sensilla are observed on the male genitalia of D. platura including: trichoid sensilla, chaetic sensilla, three subtypes of campaniform sensilla, and basiconic sensilla. Long bristles and microtrichiae are observed on the female genitalia of D. platura. The possible function of sensilla located in the genitalia of D. platura is discussed. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:619-630, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Study on influencing factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.
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Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.
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Thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe?O ?/Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105: synthesis, characterization and application in MR imaging of tumor angiogenesis.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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To detect tumor angiogenesis in tumor-bearing mice using thiol-PEG-carboxyl-stabilized Fe2O3/Au nanoparticles targeted to CD105 on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Ultrasound-Enhanced Protective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In traditional Chinese medicine, Ligusticum wallichii (Chuan Xiong) and its bioactive ingredient, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), have been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and to relieve various neurological symptoms, such as those associated with ischemic injury. In the present study, we investigated whether ultrasound (US) exposure could enhance the protective effect of TMP against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Glutamate-induced toxicity to pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was used to model I/R injury. TMP was paired with US to examine whether this combination could alleviate glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. The administration of TMP effectively protected cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis, which could be further enhanced by US-mediated sonoporation. The anti-apoptotic effect of TMP was associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and a change in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, Bcl-2 and Bax. Furthermore, TMP reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-8, which likely also contributes to its cytoprotective effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that ultrasound-enhanced TMP treatment might be a promising therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Further study is required to optimize ultrasound treatment parameters.
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Direct reprogramming of Huntington's disease patient fibroblasts into neuron-like cells leads to abnormal neurite outgrowth, increased cell death, and aggregate formation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent advances in trans-differentiation of one type cell to another have made it possible to directly convert Huntington's disease (HD) patient fibroblasts into neurons by modulation of cell-lineage-specific transcription factors or RNA processing. However, this possibility has not been examined. Here, we demonstrate that HD patient-derived fibroblasts can be directly trans-differentiated into neuron-like cells by knockdown of the expression of a single gene encoding the polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein. The directly converted HD neuron-like cells were positive in expression of Tuj1, NeuN, DARPP-32, and ?-aminobutyric acid and exhibited neuritic breakdown, abnormal neuritic branching, increased cell death, and aggregation of mutant huntingtin. These observations indicate that the neuron-like cells directly converted from HD patient fibroblasts recapitulate the major aspects of neuropathological characteristics of HD and thus provide an additional model for understanding the disorder and validation of therapeutic reagents.
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Multi-scale and shape constrained localized region-based active contour segmentation of uterine fibroid ultrasound images in HIFU therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To overcome the severe intensity inhomogeneity and blurry boundaries in HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound) ultrasound images, an accurate and efficient multi-scale and shape constrained localized region-based active contour model (MSLCV), was developed to accurately and efficiently segment the target region in HIFU ultrasound images of uterine fibroids.
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Fine physical and genetic mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 originating from wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90) via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172.
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FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 signaling activity and promotes proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma.
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Epidemiological analysis of trauma patients following the Lushan earthquake.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Lushan County in China's Sichuan province on April 20, 2013, resulting in 196 deaths and 11,470 injured. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the injuries and the treatment of the seismic victims.
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[Influence of electroacupuncture on indocyanine green metabolism in liver: display of in vivo fluorescence imaging].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To observe the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on indocyanine green (ICG) metabolism in the liver and the action mechanism of acupuncture for hepatic regulation.
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Influence of heat stress on leaf ultrastructure, photosynthetic performance, and ascorbate peroxidase gene expression of two pear cultivars (Pyrus pyrifolia).
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Plants encounter a variety of stresses in natural environments. One-year-old pot-grown trees of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Cuiguan and Wonhwang) were exposed to two heat stress regimes. Under constant short-term heat stress, chloroplasts and mitochondria were visibly damaged. Relative chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were significantly decreased, which indicated that the leaf photosynthetic capability declined. Under chronic heat stress, mesophyll cell ultrastructure was not obviously damaged, but leaf photosynthetic capability was still restrained. As chronic heat stress was a simulation of the natural environment in summer, further study of the responses under this stress regime was undertaken. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased in Cuiguan, but not in Wonhwang. Inducible expression of PpAPX genes in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and peroxisomes was consistent with increased APX activity in Cuiguan, whereas only weak induction of PpAPX genes was observed in Wonhwang. The isoenzymes cytosolic APX1 (cAPX1) and stromal APX (sAPX) were confirmed to be localized in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, respectively.
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Clinical values of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Microscope-integrated near-infrared indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) has been used in neurosurgery for a decade. This study aimed to assess the value of intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography with Flow 800 software in cerebrovascular surgery and to discover its hemodynamic features and changes of cerebrovascular diseases during surgery.
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A new classification of nevus of Ota.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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The nevus of Ota, is a common benign pigmentary dermatosis, mainly involve innervation area of first and second branch of trigeminal nerve. The classification of nevus of Ota was proposed by Tanino, based on 26 cases of nevus of Ota from 1937 to 1940. Studies about its classification are rarely seen in last 70 years, while it is still practical today.
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FancJ regulates interstrand crosslinker induced centrosome amplification through the activation of polo-like kinase 1.
Biol Open
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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DNA damage response (DDR) and the centrosome cycle are two of the most critical processes for maintaining a stable genome in animals. Sporadic evidence suggests a connection between these two processes. Here, we report our findings that six Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins, including FancI and FancJ, localize to the centrosome. Intriguingly, we found that the localization of FancJ to the mother centrosome is stimulated by a DNA interstrand crosslinker, Mitomycin C (MMC). We further show that, in addition to its role in interstrand crosslinking (ICL) repair, FancJ also regulates the normal centrosome cycle as well as ICL induced centrosome amplification by activating the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). We have uncovered a novel function of FancJ in centrosome biogenesis and established centrosome amplification as an integral part of the ICL response.
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A Creative Therapy in Treating Cavernous Hemangioma of Penis with Copper Wire.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Cavernous hemangiomas of penis are rare benign lesions infrequently described in the literature. No completely satisfactory treatment has been found to correct the cosmetic deformities especially the extensive hemangiomas of corpus penis.
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Facile synthesis of hydrogenated carbon nanospheres with a graphite-like ordered carbon structure.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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We report a synthesis of hydrogenated carbon nanospheres (HCNSs) via a facile solvothermal route at low temperatures (60-100 °C), using CHCl3 as the carbon source and potassium (K) as the reductant. Selective cleavage of the relatively lower stable C-Cl bonds (compared to C-H bonds) of the carbon precursor (CHCl3) by K metal results in the growth of HCNSs. The diameter of HCNSs ranges from 40 to 90 nm. The HCNSs have a graphite-like ordered carbon structure in spite of their high degree of hydrogenation. The HCNSs exhibit an average Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 43 m(2) g(-1), containing a small amount of mesopores and macropores in the structure. The nanospheres sample as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has been studied. It exhibits a high discharge capacity (3539 mA h g(-1) in the first cycle, 978 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles) and good cycling stability, demonstrating advantages as a promising candidate for anode materials in LIBs. The high capacity of the HCNSs is due to their unique nanostructures and high percentage hydrogenation, as well as hydrogenation induced structural defects.
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BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of Polo-like kinase 1 in response to replication stress.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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In response to DNA damage or replication stress, proliferating cells are arrested at different cell cycle stages for DNA repair by downregulating the activity of both the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and other important cell cycle kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) . The signaling pathway to inhibit CDKs is relatively well understood, and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and other DNA damage response (DDR) factors play a key role in this process. However, the DNA damage-induced inhibition of PLK1 is still largely a mystery. Here we show that DNA damage and replication stress stimulate the association between BRCA1 and PLK1. Most importantly, we demonstrate that BRCA1 downregulates the kinase activity of PLK1 by modulating the dynamic interactions of Aurora A, hBora, and PLK1. Together with previous findings, we propose that in response to replication stress and DNA damage, BRCA1 plays a critical role in downregulating the kinase activity of both CDKs and PLK1.
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Ordered structures of diblock nanorods induced by diblock copolymers.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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The self-assembly of diblock copolymer (DBCP)/diblock nanorod (DBNR) mixtures are studied by using a dissipative particle dynamics simulation method. The microstructures of DBCP/DBNR blends depend on the type of DBCPs as well as the number of DBNRs. For the asymmetric DBCPs of A3B7, the morphological transition of DBCP/DBNR blends from cylinder phase to lamellar phase is observed for the DBNRs with suitable length and component. Meanwhile, for the symmetric DBCPs of A5B5, the lamellar morphologies of DBCP/DBNR blends can always maintain during the process of adding DBNRs to the blends except for the case of component length mismatch between the DBCPs and the DBNRs. On the other hand, DBCPs can also affect the orientation and the spatial distributions of DBNRs deeply, and the ordered structures of DBNRs are formed for the DBCP/DBNR blends with a large number of DBNRs. Comparisons with homopolymer/DBNR blends are made, and only the aggregation structures are observed in homopolymer/DBNR blends. This investigation can provide valuable assistance in exploring and designing complicated polymer/nanoparticle composites with the desired properties.
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Clear cell tumor of the lung: a case report and literature review.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Clear cell tumor of the lung is a rare and benign pulmonary tumor; only sporadic cases have been reported. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old man with recurrent cough, blood-streaked sputum and left chest pain. A chest computed tomography scan showed a round, homogeneous pulmonary mass in the left lower lobe, which exhibited intense heterogeneous enhancement in the arterial phase and homogeneous in the delay phase after injecting a contrast agent. The patient underwent a fine-needle aspiration biopsy and was diagnosed as having a benign clear cell tumor of the lung. The clinical presentation and radiographic investigation of this tumor are summarized in this paper to recognize this rare disease. Interestingly, we found some differences with previously reported cases.
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Glycated albumin may be a choice, but not an alternative marker of glycated hemoglobin for glycemic control assessment in diabetic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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It has been suggested that glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) underestimate the actual glycemic control levels in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, because of anemia and the using of erythropoietin (EPO); it was recommended that glycated albumin (GA) should be an alternative marker. Therefore, the assessment performances of glycemic control were compared between GA and HbA1c in this research by referring to mean plasma glucose (MPG) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing MHD or not.
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[LC-MS quantification and pharmacokinetics of the multi-constituents of Huangqin Tang in rat plasma after different single oral doses].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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The current study aims to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of Huangqin Tang on different oral doses. An LC-MS method for simultaneous determination of flavonoids and terpenoids in rat plasma was developed and validated. Plasma samples were treated with hydrochloric acid (containing 1% ascorbic acid), precipitated with acetonitrile, separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 column, detected by single quadruple mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization interface, and quantified using selected ion monitoring mode. All pharmacokinetic parameters were processed by non-compartmental analysis using WinNonlin software. The results of specificity, linearity, intra-day and inter-day precisions, accuracy, and stability for LC-MS assay were suitable for the quantification of paeoniflorin, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A, glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma. The concentration-time profiles of baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, oroxylin A and glycyrrhizic acid showed double-peak phenomenon after Huangqin Tang was orally administered at 40 g x kg(-1) dose; all eight constituents in rat plasma showed good dose-exposure relationship within the dosage of 10-40 g x kg(-1); although plasma concentrations were different, the flavonoids with the same backbone showed the similar fate in the body with the corresponding dosage. In conclusion, the LC-MS assay was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of multi-constituents of Huangqin Tang with different doses. Additionally, these constituents demonstrated good pharmacokinetic properties in the body.
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A whole-genome DNA marker map for cotton based on the D-genome sequence of Gossypium raimondii L.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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We constructed a very-high-density, whole-genome marker map (WGMM) for cotton by using 18,597 DNA markers corresponding to 48,958 loci that were aligned to both a consensus genetic map and a reference genome sequence. The WGMM has a density of one locus per 15.6 kb, or an average of 1.3 loci per gene. The WGMM was anchored by the use of colinear markers to a detailed genetic map, providing recombinational information. Mapped markers occurred at relatively greater physical densities in distal chromosomal regions and lower physical densities in the central regions, with all 1 Mb bins having at least nine markers. Hotspots for quantitative trait loci and resistance gene analog clusters were aligned to the map and DNA markers identified for targeting of these regions of high practical importance. Based on the cotton D genome reference sequence, the locations of chromosome structural rearrangements plotted on the map facilitate its translation to other Gossypium genome types. The WGMM is a versatile genetic map for marker assisted breeding, fine mapping and cloning of genes and quantitative trait loci, developing new genetic markers and maps, genome-wide association mapping, and genome evolution studies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.