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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhancement of the field emission from the TiO2 nanotube arrays by reducing in a NaBH4 solution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A mass of oxygen vacancies are successfully introduced into TiO2 nanotube arrays using low-cost NaBH4 as a reductant in a liquid-phase environment. By controlling and adjusting the reduction time over the range of 0-24 h, the doping concentration of the oxygen vacancy realizes controllable and eventually reaches saturation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of oxygen vacancies is also investigated, indicating that part of oxygen vacancies remain stable up to 250 °C. In addition, this liquid-phase reduction strategy significantly lowers the requirements of instruments and cost. More interesting, reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays show drastically enhanced field emission performances including substantially decreased turn-on field from 25.01 to 2.65 V/?m, a high current density of 3.5 mA/cm2 at 7.2 V/?m and an excellent field emission stability and repeatability. These results are attributed to the oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing in NaBH4 solution, resulting in a reduced effective work function and an increased conductivity.
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Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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The immunologic and hematopoietic profiles of mesenchymal stem cells derived from different sections of human umbilical cord.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We compared immunologic and hematopoietic characteristics of MSCs derived from whole human umbilical cord (UC), as well as from different sections of UCs, including the amniotic membrane (AM), Wharton's jelly (WJ), and umbilical vessel (UV). Cell phenotypes were examined by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte transformation test and mixed lymphocyte reaction were performed to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of MSCs derived from UCs. The mRNA expression of cytokines was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hematopoietic function was studied by co-culturing MSCs with CD34(+) cells isolated from cord blood. Our results showed that MSCs separated from these four different sections including UC, WJ, UV, and AM had similar biological characteristics. All of the MSCs had multi-lineage differentiation ability and were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. The MSCs also inhibited the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a dose-dependent manner. The relative mRNA expression of cytokines was examined, and the results showed that UCMSCs had higher interleukin-6 (IL6), IL11, stem cell factor, and FLT3 expression than MSCs derived from specific sections of UCs. CD34(+) cells had high propagation efficiencies when co-cultured with MSCs derived from different sections of UCs, among which UCMSCs are the most efficient feeding layer. Our study demonstrated that MSCs could be isolated from whole UC or specific sections of UC with similar immunomodulation and hematopoiesis supporting characteristics.
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Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To 'scan' the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient's body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20?m?s(-1), changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.
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[Cloning and analysis of a halogenase gene of Streptomyces sp. 604F from the Arctic Ocean].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To clone a halogenase gene from halometabolite-producing Streptomyces sp. 604F to facilitate identification of potential halometabolites and its biosynthetic gene cluster.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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High C4 gene copy numbers protects against Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in Chinese Han.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Considering the phenotypical consequences and association of C4 copy number variation (CNV) with various autoimmune diseases, we aimed to examine C4 CNVs for 1027 patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and 2083 controls.
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Spin labeling artery method perfusion MRI study of SPG4 and SCA3/MJD.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) are similar diseases that are often referred to jointly as SCA3/MJD. As the most common autosomal-dominantly inherited subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), HSP4 (or SPG4) has overlapping symptoms with SCA3/MJD, which hinders their diagnoses. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a noninvasive, contrast-agent free, magnetic resonance perfusion imaging method used to obtain maps of the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Here, we investigated the diagnostic value of ASL in SCA3/MJD and SPG4 patients.
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MicroRNA-590 attenuates lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by targeting lipoprotein lipase gene in human THP-1 macrophages.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNA-590 (miR-590) has protective effects on cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is unknown. Interestingly, previous studies from our laboratory and others have shown that macrophage-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) might accelerate atherosclerosis by promoting lipid accumulation and inflammatory response. However, the regulation of LPL at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs has not been fully understood. In this study, we explored whether miR-590 affects the expression of LPL and its potential subsequent effects on lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in human THP-1 macrophages.
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Mitochondriome and cholangiocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future studies on the interactions between normal and neoplastic cells.
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Re-evaluating the optimal radiation dose for definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The optimal radiation dose for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has long been debated. We evaluated if doses greater than 50.4 Gy delivered with modern techniques are beneficial in terms of tumor control, survival, and toxicity.
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Genome-wide association analysis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome identifies two new susceptibility loci at 1p31.2 and 10q21.3.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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To identify new genetic risk factors for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 2,208,258 SNPs in 774 cases and 2,009 controls with follow-up in a collection of 415 cases and 2,006 controls and a further collection of 349 cases and 1,588 controls from a Han Chinese population. We identified three loci associated with VKH syndrome susceptibility (IL23R-C1orf141, rs117633859, P(combined) = 3.42 × 10(-21), odds ratio (OR) = 1.82; ADO-ZNF365-EGR2, rs442309, P(combined) = 2.97 × 10(-11), OR = 1.37; and HLA-DRB1/DQA1, rs3021304, P(combined) = 1.26 × 10(-118), OR = 2.97). The five non-HLA genes were all expressed in human iris tissue. IL23R was also expressed in the ciliary body, and EGR2 was expressed in the ciliary body and choroid. The risk G allele of rs117633859 in the promoter region of IL23R exhibited low transcriptional activation in a cell-based reporter assay and was associated with diminished IL23R mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
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Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) using 70Gy in 10 fractions for non-small cell lung cancer: Exploration of clinical indications.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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We report our outcomes for patients with NSCLC treated with SABR to 70Gy in 10 fractions and propose indications for this regimen as well as new dose-volume constraints.
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Paradoxical role of CBX8 in proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The effect of polycomb chromobox (Cbx) proteins in cancer is context-dependent. The Chromobox homolog 8 (CBX8) was originally characterized as a transcriptional repressor, which inhibits cell proliferation in Ink4a-Arf-dependent and -independent manner. However, the role of CBX8 in colorectal cancer remains unknown. Here, we found that high CBX8 expression was associated with a low rate of distant metastasis and good prognosis in CRC patients, even though CBX8 was up-regulated in CRC cell lines and clinical samples. Knockdown of CBX8 inhibited CRC proliferation in vitro and in vivo, mostly by increasing p53 and its downstream effectors. However, knockdown of CBX8 enhanced CRC migration, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, in part through direct up-regulation of integrin ?4 (ITGB4) that in turn decreased RhoA activity. Collectively, the knockdown of CBX8 inhibited CRC proliferation, while promoting its metastasis, thus exerting paradoxical effects in CRC progression.
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DCE-MRI assessment of the effect of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 targeted DNAzyme on tumor vasculature in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (EBV-LMP1) is an important oncogenic protein for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and has been shown to engage a plethora of signaling pathways. Correspondingly, an LMP1-targeted DNAzyme was found to inhibit the growth of NPC cells both in vivo and in vitro by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. However, it remains unknown whether an LMP1-targeted DNAzyme would affect the vasculature of NPC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been applied in the clinical trials of anti-angiogenic drugs for more than ten years, and Ktrans has been recommended as a primary endpoint. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to use DCE-MRI to longitudinally study the effect of an EBV-LMP1-targeted DNAzyme on the vasculature of patients with NPC.
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HPV seropositivity joints with susceptibility loci identified in GWASs at apoptosis associated genes to increase the risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC).
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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We previously showed that human papillomavirus (HPV) serostatus was not an independent risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) in nonsmokers and nondrinkers; however, HPV increased the risk in smokers.
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[Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of THC and THC-solid dispersion orally to mice at single dose].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To establish a fast sensitive, reproducible LC-MS/MS method to study pharmacokinetic properties of THC, and compare relative bioavailability of THC and its solid dispersion in mice. 200 mice were divided randomly into two groups, and administered orally with THC and THC-solid dispersion after fasting (calculate on THC:400 mg x kg(-1)), used HPLC-MS/MS method to determine the THC concentration of each period at the following times: baseline ( predose ), 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24 h after dosing. Calculating the pharmacokinetic parameters according to the C-t curv, and then use the Phoenix WinNonlin software for data analysis. The calibration curves were linear over the range 9.06-972 microg x L(-1) for THC (R2 = 0.999). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.7 microg x L(-1), respectively. The average extraction recoveries for THC was above 75%, The methodology recoveries were between 79% and 108%. The intra-day and inter-day RSD were less than 13%, the stability test showed that the plasma samples was stable under different conditions (RSD < 15%). The precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic parameters of THC and THC-solid dispersion orally to mice shows as fllows: T(max), were 60 and 15 min, AUC(0-t) were 44 500.43 and 57 497.81 mg x L(-1) x min, AUC(0-infinity) were 51 226.00 and 68 031.48 mg x L(-1) x min, MRT(0-infinity) were 596.915 6, 661.747 7 min, CL(z)/F were 0.007 809 and 0.005 88 L x min(-1) x kg(-1). Compared with THC, the MRT and t1/2 of the THC-solid dispersion were all slightly extended, the t(max) was significantly reduced, AUC(0-24 h), AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were all significantly higher, the relative bioavailability of THC-solid dispersion is 1.34 times of THC. The results of the experiment shows that the precision, accuracy, recovery and applicability were found to be adequate for the pharmacokinetic studies. After oral administration to mice, the relative bioavailability of THC-solid dispersion show significant improvement compared to THC.
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Whole-genome sequencing of 234 bulls facilitates mapping of monogenic and complex traits in cattle.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The 1000 bull genomes project supports the goal of accelerating the rates of genetic gain in domestic cattle while at the same time considering animal health and welfare by providing the annotated sequence variants and genotypes of key ancestor bulls. In the first phase of the 1000 bull genomes project, we sequenced the whole genomes of 234 cattle to an average of 8.3-fold coverage. This sequencing includes data for 129 individuals from the global Holstein-Friesian population, 43 individuals from the Fleckvieh breed and 15 individuals from the Jersey breed. We identified a total of 28.3 million variants, with an average of 1.44 heterozygous sites per kilobase for each individual. We demonstrate the use of this database in identifying a recessive mutation underlying embryonic death and a dominant mutation underlying lethal chrondrodysplasia. We also performed genome-wide association studies for milk production and curly coat, using imputed sequence variants, and identified variants associated with these traits in cattle.
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Definitive Reirradiation for Locoregionally Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Proton Beam Therapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Predictors of High-Grade Toxicity and Survival Outcomes.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after initial treatment remains a dominant cause of death. We report our experience using proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for reirradiation in such cases, focusing on patterns of failure, criteria for patient selection, and predictors of toxicity.
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A Meta-Analysis on the Relations between EGFR R521K Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer.
Int J Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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The EGFR R521K polymorphism has been shown to reduce the activity of EGFR; however, the association between EGFR R521K polymorphism and the risk of cancer remains inconclusive; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between EGFR R521K polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer. Our results suggest that the EGFR R521K polymorphism is not associated with risk of cancer, but the different chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs may need further investigation.
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International outreach: what is the responsibility of ASTRO and the major international radiation oncology societies?
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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In this era of globalization and rapid advances in radiation oncology worldwide, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is committed to help decrease profound regional disparities through the work of the International Education Subcommittee (IES). The IES has expanded its base, reach, and activities to foster educational advances through a variety of educational methods with broad scope, in addition to committing to the advancement of radiation oncology care for cancer patients around the world, through close collaboration with our sister radiation oncology societies and other educational, governmental, and organizational groups.
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Targeting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)- bromodomain containing 7 (BRD7) pathway for human osteosarcoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in childhood and adolescence and has a propensity for local invasion and early lung metastasis. However, the current therapies often result in chemoresistance, and a therapeutic target is not available in the clinic for osteosarcoma. Here, we report that BRD7 forms a complex with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and is degraded by APC/C(cdh1) and APC/C(cdc20) during the cell cycle. Moreover, BRD7 is a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma, and the BRD7 mutant resistant to degradation by APC/C is more efficient than the wild-type protein at suppressing proliferation, colony formation, and tumor growth of osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. The combination of proTAME, an inhibitor of APC/C, with chemotherapeutic drugs efficiently targets osteosarcoma in vitro. Furthermore, there is a strong inverse correlation of protein levels between BRD7 and Cdh1 or Cdc20, and lower BRD7 expression is an indicator for poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Collectively, our results indicate that targeting the APC/C-BRD7 pathway may be a novel strategy for treating osteosarcoma.
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Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of Comprehensive Local Therapy for Oligometastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Did Not Progress After Front-Line Chemotherapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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To retrospectively analyze factors influencing survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer presenting with ?3 synchronous metastatic lesions.
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[Analysis of clinicopathological features of 1879 cases of gastric cancer in Southern China: a single center experience].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastric cancer in Southern China, and provide a base of research and therapy for gastric cancer.
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Clinical Implementation of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Thoracic Malignancies.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) can improve dose conformality and better spare normal tissue over passive scattering techniques, but range uncertainties complicate its use, particularly for moving targets. We report our early experience with IMPT for thoracic malignancies in terms of motion analysis and management, plan optimization and robustness, and quality assurance.
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Evaluation of the systematic error in using 3D dose calculation in scanning beam proton therapy for lung cancer.
J Appl Clin Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand the systematic error between the planned three-dimensional (3D) dose and the delivered dose to patient in scanning beam proton therapy for lung tumors. Single-field and multifield optimized scanning beam proton therapy plans were generated for ten patients with stage II-III lung cancer with a mix of tumor motion and size. 3D doses in CT datasets for different respiratory phases and the time-weighted average CT, as well as the four-dimensional (4D) doses were computed for both plans. The 3D and 4D dose differences for the targets and different organs at risk were compared using dose-volume histogram (DVH) and voxel-based techniques, and correlated with the extent of tumor motion. The gross tumor volume (GTV) dose was maintained in all 3D and 4D doses, using the internal GTV override technique. The DVH and voxel-based techniques are highly correlated. The mean dose error and the standard deviation of dose error for all target volumes were both less than 1.5% for all but one patient. However, the point dose difference between the 3D and 4D doses was up to 6% for the GTV and greater than 10% for the clinical and planning target volumes. Changes in the 4D and 3D doses were not correlated with tumor motion. The planning technique (single-field or multifield optimized) did not affect the observed systematic error. In conclusion, the dose error in 3D dose calculation varies from patient to patient and does not correlate with lung tumor motion. Therefore, patient-specific evaluation of the 4D dose is important for scanning beam proton therapy for lung tumors.
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Prognostic Value and Reproducibility of Pretreatment CT Texture Features in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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To determine whether pretreatment CT texture features can improve patient risk stratification beyond conventional prognostic factors (CPFs) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Influence of preoperative radiation field on postoperative leak rates in esophageal cancer patients after trimodality therapy.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Postoperative morbidities, such as anastomotic leaks, are common after trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) for esophageal cancer. We investigated for factors associated with an increased incidence of anastomotic leaks.
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Lymphopenia association with gross tumor volume and lung V5 and its effects on non-small cell lung cancer patient outcomes.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Radiation therapy (RT) can both suppress and stimulate the immune system. We sought to investigate the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced lymphopenia and its associations with patient outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Factors Predictive of Improved Outcomes With Multimodality Local Therapy After Palliative Chemotherapy for Stage IV Esophageal Cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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We reviewed survival outcomes and factors associated with improved outcomes for patients with stage IVB esophageal cancer who received multimodality therapy with initial chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CRT)±surgery.
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The genome of the intracellular bacterium of the coastal bivalve, Solemya velum: a blueprint for thriving in and out of symbiosis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Symbioses between chemoautotrophic bacteria and marine invertebrates are rare examples of living systems that are virtually independent of photosynthetic primary production. These associations have evolved multiple times in marine habitats, such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents and reducing sediments, characterized by steep gradients of oxygen and reduced chemicals. Due to difficulties associated with maintaining these symbioses in the laboratory and culturing the symbiotic bacteria, studies of chemosynthetic symbioses rely heavily on culture independent methods. The symbiosis between the coastal bivalve, Solemya velum, and its intracellular symbiont is a model for chemosynthetic symbioses given its accessibility in intertidal environments and the ability to maintain it under laboratory conditions. To better understand this symbiosis, the genome of the S. velum endosymbiont was sequenced.
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Clinical research of genetically modified dendritic cells in combination with cytokine-induced killer cell treatment in advanced renal cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant disease that demonstrates resistance to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Yet Active immunization using genetically modified dendritic cells holds promise for the adjuvant treatment of malignancies to eradicate or control residual disease. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of effector CD8+ T cells with diverse TCR specificities, possessing non-MHC-restricted cytolytic activities against tumor cells. Clinical studies have confirmed benefit and safety of CIK cell-based therapy for patients with malignancies. This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of genetically modified dendritic cells in combination with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cell (gmDCs-CIK) treatment of patients with RCC.
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Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk.
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Chemerin C9 peptide induces receptor internalization through a clathrin-independent pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The chemerin receptor CMKLR1 is one type of G protein-coupled receptors abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, which plays a key role in the entry of a subset of immunodeficiency viruses including HIV/SIV into lymphocytes and macrophages. The aim of this work was to investigate how CMKLR1 was internalized and whether its internalization affected cell signaling in vitro.
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Infrequent ERBB2 mutations in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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ERBB2 mutations have been reported to occur in a subset of patients with lung adenocarcinomas or lung squamous cell carcinomas for some ethnicities, but it is unclear for Chinese patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas up to now. We retrospectively evaluated the status of ERBB2 mutations in a large cross-sectional cohort of 212 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosed in several hospitals from southern China during a time period of 1.5 years by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based direct sequencing and PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. ERBB2 mutation was found in 1 of 49 lung adenocarcinomas (2.0%) and none in lung squamous cell carcinomas and lung adenosquamous carcinomas. It implies the occurrence of ERBB2 mutations is infrequent in Chinese patients with NSCLC, especially in lung squamous cell carcinomas.
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Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35±1°C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369-466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000-3000 mgNH4-N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production.
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Individual patterns of alcohol use.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We present methodology to identify statistically distinct patterns of daily alcohol use and classify them into categories that could be further used in monitoring of transitions between patterns such as transitions from regular to problem use.
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Evaluation and mitigation of the interplay effects of intensity modulated proton therapy for lung cancer in a clinical setting.
Pract Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the interplay effects of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans for lung cancer in the clinical setting. The secondary aim was to explore the technique of isolayered rescanning to mitigate these interplay effects.
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?-Opioid receptor activation reduces ?-synuclein overexpression and oligomer formation induced by MPP(+) and/or hypoxia.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Hypoxic/ischemic brain injury is a potential cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) with ?-synuclein playing a critical role in the pathophysiology. Since ?-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic insults, we sought to determine if DOR regulates ?-synuclein under hypoxia and/or MPP(+) stress. We found that in HEK293 cells 1) MPP(+) in normoxia enhanced ?-synuclein expression and the formation of ?-synuclein oligomers thereby causing cytotoxic injury; 2) hypoxia at 1% O2 for 48h or at 0.5% O2 for 24h also induced ?-synuclein overexpression and its oligomer formation with cell injury; 3) however, hypoxia at 1% O2 for 24h, though increasing ?-synuclein expression, did not cause ?-synuclein oligomer formation and cell injury; 4) UFP-512 mediated DOR activation markedly attenuated the hypoxic cell injury and ?-synuclein overexpression, which was largely attenuated by DOR antagonism with naltrindole or siRNA "knock-down" of the DOR; and 5) DOR activation enhanced CREB phosphorylation and prevented the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). These findings suggest that DOR activation attenuates MPP(+) or severe hypoxia induced ?-synuclein expression/aggregation via a CREB pathway.
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Effect of RNA interference therapy on the mice eosinophils CCR3 gene and granule protein in the murine model of allergic rhinitis.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To observe the clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis mice and the expression changes of the eosinophils CCR3 and the granule protein mRNA in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid.
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On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer.
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Clinicopathological features and trend changes of gastric carcinoma in Southern China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastric carcinoma in southern China and disease trends changes over the last 18 years.
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Atypical neurological complications of ipilimumab therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Ipilimumab is a novel FDA-approved recombinant human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and has been used to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Immune-related neurological adverse effects include inflammatory myopathy, aseptic meningitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis-type syndrome, sensorimotor neuropathy, and inflammatory enteric neuropathy. To date, there is no report for ipilimumab-induced chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), transverse myelitis (TM), or concurrent myositis and myasthenia gravis-type syndrome. Our objective is to raise early recognition of atypical neurological adverse events and to share our therapeutic approach.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms for feed efficiency and performance in crossbred beef cattle.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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This study was conducted to: (1) identify new SNPs for residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits within candidate genes identified in a genome wide association study (GWAS); (2) estimate the proportion of variation in RFI explained by the detected SNPs; (3) estimate the effects of detected SNPs on carcass traits to avoid undesirable correlated effects on these economically important traits when selecting for feed efficiency; and (4) map the genes to biological mechanisms and pathways. A total number of 339 SNPs corresponding to 180 genes were tested for association with phenotypes using a single locus regression (SLRM) and genotypic model on 726 and 990 crossbred animals for feed efficiency and carcass traits, respectively.
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Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new reference genomes were reconstructed to support our comparative genome analyses. Comparative sequence alignment revealed group-, species- and accession-specific polymorphisms, explaining characteristic fruit traits and growth habits in the various cultivars. Using gene models from the annotated Heinz 1706 reference genome, we observed differences in the ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs (dN/dS) in fruit diversification and plant growth genes compared to a random set of genes, indicating positive selection and differences in selection pressure between crop accessions and wild species. In wild species, the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeds 10 million, i.e. 20-fold higher than found in most of the crop accessions, indicating dramatic genetic erosion of crop and heirloom tomatoes. In addition, the highest levels of heterozygosity were found for allogamous self-incompatible wild species, while facultative and autogamous self-compatible species display a lower heterozygosity level. Using whole-genome SNP information for maximum-likelihood analysis, we achieved complete tree resolution, whereas maximum-likelihood trees based on SNPs from ten fruit and growth genes show incomplete resolution for the crop accessions, partly due to the effect of heterozygous SNPs. Finally, results suggest that phylogenetic relationships are correlated with habitat, indicating the occurrence of geographical races within these groups, which is of practical importance for Solanum genome evolution studies.
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Primary natural killer/T-cell lymphoma presenting as leptomeningeal disease.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Primary central nervous system natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (primary-CNS-NK/TCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To our knowledge, only five patients have been described previously, all of whom were male, with brain parenchymal involvement and previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, it has never been reported to present as leptomeningeal disease as our case. Our objective is to report a rare case of primary-CNS-NK/TCL presenting as leptomeningeal disease and to share our diagnostic/therapeutic approach to this rare disease.
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[Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells from estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis mice regulate T cell migration and apoptosis through expressing MCP-1].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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To reveal the role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the development of osteoporosis by comparing the differences in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and T cells' migration and apoptosis induced by BMSCs from ovariectomy (OVX) group and sham group.
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Genetic variants of the LIN28B gene predict severe radiation pneumonitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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LIN28 is an RNA-binding protein that not only plays key roles in multiple cellular developmental processes and tumourigenesis, but also is involved in tissue inflammatory response. However, no published study has investigated associations between genetic variants in LIN28 and radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation therapy.
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Lipopolysaccharide differentially affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through Toll-like receptor 4 mediated nuclear factor ?B pathway.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Periodontitis is initiated and sustained by bacteria. However, the mechanism of bacteria induced periodontitis is still unknown. We hypothesized that bacterial components can affect the functions of stem cells in the periodontium. In this study, we comparatively investigated the influence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the osteogenesis potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs).
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Low-cost adsorbent prepared from sewage sludge and corn stalk for the removal of COD in leachate.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Sewage sludge (SS) with corn stalk (CS) was used to prepare SS-based activated carbon (SAC) by pyrolysis with ZnCl2. The effects of mixing ratio on surface area and pore size distribution, elemental composition, surface chemistry, and morphology were investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of CS into SS samples improved the surface area (from 92 to 902 m(2)/g) and the microporosity (from 1.2 to 4.1%) of the adsorbents and, therefore, enhancing the adsorption performance. The removal of leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also determined. It was found that the COD removal rate reached 85% at pH 4 with the SAC (90 wt% CS) dosage of 2% (g/mL) and an adsorption time of 40 min. The adsorption experimental data were fitted by both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Long-chain alkanes and refractory organics were found in raw leachate, but could be removed by SAC largely.
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Sorption behavior of nonylphenol (NP) on sewage-irrigated soil: kinetic and thermodynamic studies.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established resources management practice but has the disadvantage of inputting various forms of contaminants into the terrestrial environment including nonylphenol (NP), a well known endocrine disrupting substance. To elucidate the environmental fate and transport of NP, the sorption behavior on sewage-irrigated soil was studied by batch experiment. It was found that sorption processes of NP on different sorbents (soil, humic acid (HA) and silica) could be expressed well using two compartment pseudo first-order model, where both surface and intra-particle diffusion were probable rate-controlling processes. Linear model could better express the sorption of NP on soil, black carbon (BC) and mineral (e.g., SiO2) except HA than Freundlich model. The large value of distribution coefficients of normalized organic carbon (Koc) on soils indicated that NP was limited to migrate to deep soil. The higher desorption partition coefficient of NP on soil showed enhanced hysteresis. According to the experimental data, the calculated thermodynamic parameters implied that the sorption reaction on sewage-irrigation was spontaneous, exothermic and entropy decreasing process. The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) dominated the sorption capacity, whereas the sorption behavior of NP on soil showed no significant correlation with ionic strength.
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CCR7 guides migration of mesenchymal stem cell to secondary lymphoid organs: a novel approach to separate GvHD from GvL effect.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Inefficient homing of systemically infused mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) limits the efficacy of existing MSC-based clinical graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) therapies. Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are the major niches for generating immune responses or tolerance. MSCs home to a wide range of organs, but rarely to SLOs after intravenous infusion. Thus, we hypothesized that targeted migration of MSCs into SLOs may significantly improve their immunomodulatory effect. Here, chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) gene, encoding a receptor that specifically guides migration of immune cells into SLOs, was engineered into a murine MSC line C3H10T1/2 by retrovirus transfection system (MSCs/CCR7). We found that infusion of MSCs/CCR7 potently prolonged the survival of GvHD mouse model. The infused MSCs/CCR7 migrate to SLOs, relocate in proximity with T lymphocytes, therefore, potently inhibited their proliferation, activation, and cytotoxicity. Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the early control of leukemia relapse. Although MSCs/CCR7 inhibited NK cell activity in vitro coculture, they did not impact on the proportion and cytotoxic capacities of NK cells in the peripheral blood of GvHD mice. In an EL4 leukemia cell loaded GvHD model, MSCs/CCR7 infusion preserved the graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CCR7 guides migration of MSCs to SLOs and thus highly intensify their in vivo immunomodulatory effect while preserving the GvL activity. This exciting therapeutic strategy may improve the clinical efficacy of MSC based therapy for immune diseases.
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Cyclin D1 G870A Polymorphism and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cyclin D1 (CCND1) plays a key role in cell cycle regulation. It is a well-established human oncogene which is frequently amplified or overexpressed in cancers. The association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and cancer risk has been widely assessed. However, a definitive conclusion between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains elusive.
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Development of aminoglycoside and ?-lactamase resistance among intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportion of resistant bacteria, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance as compared to the day before antimicrobial administration (day 0) were observed. Importantly, a positive correlation between antimicrobial resistance gene expression in different categories, especially those encoding aminoglycoside and ?-lactamase and antimicrobial resistance, was observed. These findings demonstrate an important role of antimicrobial usage in animals in the development of antimicrobial resistance, and support the notion that prudent use of antimicrobials in swine is needed to reduce the risk of the emergence of multi-drug resistant zoonotic pathogens.
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NK/T cell lymphoma involving mediastinum: report of a case and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is a very aggressive malignant neoplasia with a poor prognosis. Herein we reported a case of NK/T cell lymphoma involving mediastinum. It was a 28-year-old Chinese male patient. The tumor cells were medium-sized, had irregularly folded nuclei, and inconspicuous or small nucleoli with coagulative necrosis. The tumor cells were positive for CD3?, TIA-1, but negative for CD56. In situ hybridization revealed that tumor cells also expressed Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NK/T cell lymphoma involving mediastinum.
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Study on the promotion of bacterial biofilm formation by a salmonella conjugative plasmid and the underlying mechanism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the effect of the pRST98 plasmid, originally isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), on biofilm (BF) formation, we carried out in vitro experiments using S. Typhi, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). We further explored the effects of pRST98 in vivo by establishing two animal models, a tumor-bearing mouse model and a mouse urethral catheter model. Moreover, we examined the relationship between the quorum-sensing (QS) system and pRST98-mediated BF formation. These studies showed that pRST98 enhanced BF formation in different bacteria in vitro. In both animal models, pRST98 promoted BF formation and caused more severe pathological changes. It was previously reported that Salmonella senses exogenous N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) through the regulatory protein SdiA and regulates the expression of genes including the virulence gene rck, which is located on the virulence plasmid of some serotypes of Salmonella. In this study, we confirmed the locus of the rck gene on pRST98 and found that AHLs increased rck expression in pRST98-carrying strains, thereby enhancing bacterial adherence, serum resistance and bacterial BF formation. In conclusion, the Salmonella conjugative plasmid pRST98 promotes bacterial BF formation both in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism may relate to the AHL-SdiA-Rck signaling pathway.
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Sequence, structural and expression divergence of duplicate genes in the bovine genome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gene duplication is a widespread phenomenon in genome evolution, and it has been proposed to serve as an engine of evolutionary innovation. In the present study, we performed the first comprehensive analysis of duplicate genes in the bovine genome. A total of 3131 putative duplicated gene pairs were identified, including 712 cattle-specific duplicate gene pairs unevenly distributed across the genome, which are significantly enriched for specific biological functions including immunity, growth, digestion, reproduction, embryonic development, inflammatory response, and defense response to bacterium. Around 97.1% (87.8%) of (cattle-specific) duplicate gene pairs were found to have distinct exon-intron structures. Analysis of gene expression by RNA-Seq and sequence divergence (synonymous or non-synonymous) revealed that expression divergence is correlated with sequence divergence, as has been previously observed in other species. This analysis also led to the identification of a subset of cattle-specific duplicate gene pairs exhibiting very high expression divergence. Interestingly, further investigation revealed a significant relationship between structural and expression divergence while controlling for the effect of synonymous sequence divergence. Together these results provide further insight into duplicate gene sequence and expression divergence in cattle, and their potential contributions to phenotypic divergence.
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Whole-genome analyses of Korean native and Holstein cattle breeds by massively parallel sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A main goal of cattle genomics is to identify DNA differences that account for variations in economically important traits. In this study, we performed whole-genome analyses of three important cattle breeds in Korea--Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein--using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform. We achieved 25.5-, 29.6-, and 29.5-fold coverage of the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and Korean Holstein genomes, respectively, and identified a total of 10.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 54.12% were found to be novel. We also detected 1,063,267 insertions-deletions (InDels) across the genomes (78.92% novel). Annotations of the datasets identified a total of 31,503 nonsynonymous SNPs and 859 frameshift InDels that could affect phenotypic variations in traits of interest. Furthermore, genome-wide copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected by comparing the Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, and previously published Chikso genomes against that of Korean Holstein. A total of 992, 284, and 1881 CNVRs, respectively, were detected throughout the genome. Moreover, 53, 65, 45, and 82 putative regions of homozygosity (ROH) were identified in Hanwoo, Jeju Heugu, Chikso, and Korean Holstein respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable foundation for further investigations to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying variation in economically important traits in cattle and to develop genetic markers for use in cattle breeding.
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A functional variant of PTPN22 confers risk for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome but not for ankylosing spondylitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22) is a key negative regulator of T lymphocytes and has emerged as an important candidate susceptibility factor for a number of immune-related diseases. This study aimed to examine the predisposition of PTPN22 SNPs to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and acute anterior uveitis (AAU) associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
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[Role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To investigate the therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from C57BL/6 mice on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis.
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Patient-specific quantification of respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty for step-and-shoot IMRT of lung cancer.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to quantify respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty at the planning stage for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using an analytical technique.Methods: Ten patients with stage II?III lung cancer who had undergone a planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomographic scan and step-and-shoot IMRT planning were selected with a mix of motion and tumor size for this retrospective study. A step-and-shoot IMRT plan was generated for each patient. The maximum and minimum doses with respiratory motion were calculated for each plan, and the mean deviation from the 4D dose was calculated, taking delivery time, fractionation, and patient breathing cycle into consideration.Results: For all patients evaluated in this study, the mean deviation from the 4D dose in the planning target volume (PTV) was <2.5%, with a standard deviation <1.2%, and maximum point dose variation from the 4D dose was <6.2% in the PTV assuming delivery dose rate of 200 MU?min and patient breathing cycle of 8 s. The motion-induced dose uncertainty is a function of motion, fractionation, MU (plan modulation), dose rate, and patient breathing cycle.Conclusions: Respiratory motion-induced dose uncertainty varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the dose uncertainty on a patient-specific basis, which could be useful for plan evaluation and treatment strategy determination for selected patients.
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Automatic contouring of brachial plexus using a multi-atlas approach for lung cancer radiotherapy.
Pract Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To demonstrate a multi-atlas segmentation approach to facilitating accurate and consistent delineation of low-contrast brachial plexuses on CT images for lung cancer radiotherapy.
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The Role of Superoxide Dismutase in the Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Macrophages.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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There is a large amount of information available regarding the chemical structure and biological activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is abundantly generated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the early stages of growth. SOD is a strong superoxide radical scavenger, which plays a significant role in resisting oxidative stress. On the other hand, SOD mutant strains have been constructed to define the role of this molecule in the immune response to M. tuberculosis infection. These studies have suggested that the absence or attenuation of SOD can motivate innate immunity and SOD avoid destruction or growth inhibition of M. tuberculosis. For detailed investigation of how SOD proteins aid M. tuberculosis survival within macrophages, we cloned 2 SOD genes (SODA and SODC) from the M. tuberculosis H37Rv genome, overexpressed, identified, and purified the proteins, and then exposed macrophages to the proteins. Following this, we assessed NO production, the secretion of cytokine interferon-? (IFN-?) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, the expression of IFN-? receptor and Toll-like receptor 2 on the surface of macrophages, and caspase-3 enzyme activity as well as macrophage apoptosis. Our results showed that both SODA and SODC proteins considerably reduced the production of NO and oxygen radicals and impaired cell immunologic function in early infection.
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Itch, an E3 ligase of Oct4, is required for embryonic stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency induction.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Itch, a C2-WW-HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligase, plays an important role in various biological processes. However, its role in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. Here, we report that Itch interacts with and targets pluripotency-associated transcription factor Oct4 for ubiquitination. Moreover, Itch enhances Oct4 transcriptional activities and controls Oct4 protein stability dependent on its catalytic activity. Importantly, silencing Itch expression compromises ESC self-renewal capacity and somatic cell reprogramming efficiency. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a regulator of Oct4 stability and transcriptional activity, establishing a functional link between an E3 ligase and the regulation of pluripotency.
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Prognostic and predictive value of a microRNA signature in stage II colon cancer: a microRNA expression analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Current staging methods do not accurately predict the risk of disease recurrence and benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients who have had surgery for stage II colon cancer. We postulated that expression patterns of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) could, if combined into a single model, improve postoperative risk stratification and prediction of chemotherapy benefit for these patients.
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Factors associated with local-regional failure after definitive chemoradiation for locally advanced esophageal cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Locally advanced esophageal cancer is often treated with a trimodality approach. While a substantial proportion of such patients initially achieve a clinical complete response (cCR) after chemoradiation, only a small proportion achieve durable control. We analyzed patients who reached cCR after definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer to identify clinical predictors of local disease recurrence.
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[Role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in treating colitis through Fas/FasL-mediated immune regulation].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To investigate the difference in the therapeutic effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) of mice from ovariectomy (OVX) group and sham group in treating colitis, and then further study the differences of Fas/FasL expression and downstream T cell migration and apoptosis between the two groups.
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Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the PI3K-PTEN-AKT-mTOR pathway and increased risk of brain metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasizes fairly often to the brain, but identifying which patients will develop brain metastases is problematic. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway is important in the control of cell growth, tumorigenesis, and cell invasion. We hypothesized that genotype variants in this pathway could predict brain metastasis in patients with NSCLC. Methods: We genotyped 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in five core genes (PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, AKT2, and FRAP1) by using DNA from blood samples of 317 patients with NSCLC, and evaluated potential associations with the subsequent development of brain metastasis, the cumulative incidence of which was estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze correlations between genotype variants and the occurrence of brain metastasis.
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Is there an impact of heart exposure on the incidence of radiation pneumonitis? Analysis of data from a large clinical cohort.
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Background. The goal of the present study was to determine, in a large clinical cohort, whether incidental radiation exposure to the heart during definitive radiotherapy of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) detectably increased the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) beyond that resulting from radiation exposure to lung. Material and methods. Data were analyzed from all patients who received definitive three-dimensional (3D) concurrent radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of NSCLC over a 10-year period at our institution, except those who had previous lung cancer or for whom radiation treatment plans were unavailable for calculation of heart and lung dose-volume histograms (DVHs). Parameters computed from heart and lung DVHs included mean lung dose (MLD), effective lung dose computed using volume parameter n = 0.5 (Deff), mean heart dose (MHD), percentage of heart receiving > 65 Gy (V65), and minimum dose to the hottest 10% of heart (D10). Univariate and multivariate normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were used to analyze incidence of Grade ? 2 or Grade ? 3 RP as a function of these and other parameters. Results. The study cohort included 629 patients, with crude rates of Grade ? 2 RP and Grade ? 3 RP of N = 263 (42%) and N = 124 (20%), respectively. Univariate NTCP models based on dosimetric lung parameters (MLD and Deff) fit the data better than models based on univariate heart parameters (heart D10, heart V65 or MHD). In multivariate modeling, incorporation of heart parameters did not significantly improve the fit of RP risk models based on lung parameters alone (p > 0.38 in each case). Conclusions. In this large clinical cohort, there was no evidence that incidental heart exposure during radiotherapy of NSCLC had a detectable impact on the occurrence of moderate or severe RP.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.