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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Edwardsiella tarda MliC: a lysozyme inhibitor that participates in pathogenesis in a manner that parallels Ivy.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Edwardsiella tarda, a bacterial pathogen to farmed fish as well as humans, possesses the genes of two lysozyme inhibitors, i.e. ivyEt and mliCEt. We have recently studied IvyEt and found it implicated in E. tarda virulence. In the present study, we characterized MliCEt in comparison with IvyEt in a turbot model. MliCEt contains the FWSKG motif and two cysteines (C33 and C98) that are highly conserved in subgroup I MliC but unknown in functional importance. To examine the essentialness of these conserved structural features, recombinant MliCEt (rMliC) and its mutants bearing C33S and W79A (of the FWSKG motif) substitutions were prepared. Subsequent analysis showed that rMliC (i) inhibited lysozyme-induced lysis of a Gram-positive bacterium, (ii) reduced serum-facilitated lysozyme killing of E. tarda, and (iii), when introduced into turbot, promoted bacterial dissemination in fish tissues. C33S mutation had no influence on the activity of rMliC, while W79A mutation slightly but significantly enhanced the activity of rMliC. Both the mliCEt (TX?mliC) and the ivyEt knockouts were severely attenuated in the ability of tissue invasion, host lethality, serum surviving, and intracellular replication. The lost virulence of TX?mliC was restored by complementation with an introduced mliCEtgene. Compared to ivyEt or mliCEt single knockout, mliCEt-ivyEt double knockout was significantly impaired in most of the virulence features. Together these results provide the first evidence that the conserved cysteine is functionally dispensable to a subgroup 1 MliC, and that as a virulence factor, MliCEt most likely works in a concerted and parallel manner with Ivy.
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Osteoblast regulation via ligand-activated nuclear trafficking of the oxytocin receptor.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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We report that oxytocin (Oxt) receptors (Oxtrs), on stimulation by the ligand Oxt, translocate into the nucleus of osteoblasts, implicating this process in the action of Oxt on osteoblast maturation. Sequential immunocytochemistry of intact cells or isolated nucleoplasts stripped of the outer nuclear membrane showed progressive nuclear localization of the Oxtr; this nuclear translocation was confirmed by monitoring the movement of Oxtr-EGFP as well as by immunogold labeling. Nuclear Oxtr localization was conclusively shown by Western immunoblotting and MS of nuclear lysate proteins. We found that the passage of Oxtrs into the nucleus was facilitated by successive interactions with ?-arrestins (Arrbs), the small GTPase Rab5, importin-? (Kpnb1), and transportin-1 (Tnpo1). siRNA-mediated knockdown of Arrb1, Arrb2, or Tnpo1 abrogated Oxt-induced expression of the osteoblast differentiation genes osterix (Sp7), Atf4, bone sialoprotein (Ibsp), and osteocalcin (Bglap) without affecting Erk phosphorylation. Likewise and again, without affecting pErk, inhibiting Arrb recruitment by mutating Ser rich clusters of the nuclear localization signal to Ala abolished nuclear import and Oxtr-induced gene expression. These studies define a previously unidentified mechanism for Oxtr action on bone and open possibilities for direct transcriptional modulation by nuclear G protein-coupled receptors.
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[Nucleolus expression in diabetic cardiomyopathy].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To investigate the nucleolus expression in the diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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[Diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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We studied the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen.
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Questioning the association between bisphosphonates and atypical femoral fractures.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Bisphosphonates are the first-line treatment for osteoporosis. Structurally, they are stable analogues of pyrophosphate and therefore exhibit a high affinity for bone mineral. They reduce bone loss by attenuating the ability of the osteoclast to resorb bone, decreasing activation frequency, and the rate of remodeling. Large prospective randomized placebo-control trials provide unequivocal evidence for a reduction in the incidence of fractures. Impressively, 40 years since their first use in patients, the safety profile of bisphosphonates has been equally reassuring. Questions have arisen lately as to whether bisphosphonates could cause atypical fractures, a rare type of atraumatic or minimal trauma femur fracture occurring below the great trochanter. This question has prompted calls for a broader examination of the long-term effects of bisphosphonate use. An attempt by the Food and Drug Administration to garner consensus and provide definitive views was not successful. This has led to continued anxiety among treating physicians and patients alike, resulting in an overall reduction in prescriptions for bisphosphonates and for osteoporosis therapies in general. Here, we provide an overview of the current data on atypical fractures and bisphosphonate use.
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Diagnosis of Fetal Osteogenesis imperfecta by Multidisciplinary Assessment: A Retrospective Study of 10 Cases.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Objective: To describe our 2 year experience in diagnosing prenatal-onset osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) by multidisciplinary assessment. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 10 cases of fetal OI by using prenatal ultrasound evaluation, postnatal radiographic diagnosis, and molecular genetic testing of COL1A1/2. Results: By postnatal radiographic examination, five patients were diagnosed with type II OI and five were diagnosed with type III OI. A causative variant in the COL1A1 gene was found in four cases of type II and one case of type III OI; a causative variant in the COL1A2 gene was found in two cases of type III OI. Conclusion: The definitive diagnosis of fetal OI should be accomplished using a multidisciplinary assessment, which is paramount for proper genetic counseling. With the discovery of COL1A1/2 gene variants as a cause of OI, sequence analysis of these genes will add to the diagnostic process.
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Stable 4 V-class bicontinuous cathodes by hierarchically porous carbon coating on Li3V2(PO4)3 nanospheres.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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A high performance, durable cathode material for lithium ion batteries is achieved by incorporating ?50 nm Li3V2(PO4)3/C core-shell nanospheres into a porous carbon framework. The Li3V2(PO4)3/C nanocomposite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 130 mA h g(-1), approaching its theoretical limit (133 mA h g(-1)). At a high current rate (10 C), the nanocomposite displays an impressive long cycle life and remarkable capacity retention (90% after 1200 cycles). Notably, the Coulombic efficiency is above 99% during the course of cycling. The remarkable power capability and cycle stability derived from our simple and scalable synthesis suggests that this 4 V-class material could be one of the most promising candidates for future batteries.
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Body composition and mortality after adult lung transplantation in the United States.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Obesity and underweight are contraindications to lung transplantation based on their associations with mortality in studies performed before implementation of the lung allocation score (LAS)-based organ allocation system in the United States Objectives: To determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and plasma leptin levels with survival after lung transplantation.
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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Disease Among a Hospital-Based Population in Southeast China.
Eye Contact Lens
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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To investigate the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and distribution of associated risk factors among a hospital-based population.
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Oxytocin and bone.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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One of the most meaningful results recently achieved in bone research has been to reveal that the pituitary hormones have profound effect on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis has become one of the major topics in skeletal physiology. Here, we discuss the relevant evidence about the posterior pituitary hormone oxytocin (OT), previously thought to exclusively regulate parturition and breastfeeding, which has recently been established to directly regulate bone mass. Both osteoblasts and osteoclasts express OT receptors (OTR), whose stimulation enhances bone mass. Consistent with this, mice deficient in OT or OTR display profoundly impaired bone formation. In contrast, bone resorption remains unaffected in OT deficiency because, even while OT stimulates the genesis of osteoclasts, it inhibits their resorptive function. Furthermore, in addition to its origin from the pituitary, OT is also produced by bone marrow osteoblasts acting as paracrine-autocrine regulator of bone formation modulated by estrogens. In turn, the power of estrogen to increase bone mass is OTR-dependent. Therefore, OTR(-/-) mice injected with 17?-estradiol do not show any effects on bone formation parameters, while the same treatment increases bone mass in wild-type mice. These findings together provide evidence for an anabolic action of OT in regulating bone mass and suggest that bone marrow OT may enhance the bone-forming action of estrogen through an autocrine circuit. This established new physiological role for OT in the maintenance of skeletal integrity further suggests the potential use of this hormone for the treatment of osteoporosis.
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Activin B promotes BMSC-mediated cutaneous wound healing by regulating cell migration via the JNK-ERK signaling pathway.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are able to differentiate into various types of skin cells and participate in skin regeneration and repair. Activin signaling can regulate wound healing and reepithelialization. The present study assessed the impact of activin B on BMSC-mediated cutaneous wound healing in rats and explored the possible mechanism involved. We found that CFSE-labeled BMSCs participated in wound healing in vivo, and compared to administration with PBS, activin B, or BMSCs, activin B plus BMSCs significantly promoted wound healing and hair follicle regeneration. Activin B induced actin stress fiber formation and cell migration in BMSCs in vitro. Activation of JNK and ERK, but not p38, was required for activin B-induced actin stress fiber formation and BMSC migration. These results show that activin B may promote BMSC-mediated wound healing by inducing actin stress fiber formation and BMSC migration via the ERK and JNK signal pathways. Combined administration of BMSCs and cytokines may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the management of skin wounds.
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Functional changes in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells associated with BMPR2 mutations.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by abnormal remodeling of small, peripheral pulmonary arteries. Germline mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) gene are a major risk factor for developing PAH. At present, the correlation between the BMPR2 mutation and the patient's prognosis remains controversial despite several investigations. In this study, we explored the functional effects of four BMPR2 mutations to dissect the functional significance of the BMPR2 gene defect. Cellular immunofluorescence assay of four mutants (Tyr67Cys, Thr268fs, Ser863Asn, and Gln433X) revealed that the BMPR2 protein containing Thr268fs, Ser863Asn, or Gln433X exhibited abnormal subcellular localization. The BrdU incorporation and TUNEL assay suggested that any of the BMPR2 mutations Thr268fs, Ser863Asn, or Gln433X could improve endothelial cell apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation. All of the four mutants could inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in HLMVE cells, and ET-1 levels increased in the cells transfected with mutant Ser863Asn. Our results will improve the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlations and mechanisms associated with BMPR2 mutations.
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NKLP27: a teleost NK-lysin peptide that modulates immune response, induces degradation of bacterial DNA, and inhibits bacterial and viral infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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NK-lysin is an antimicrobial protein produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In this study, we examined the biological property of a peptide, NKLP27, derived from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) NK-lysin. NKLP27 is composed of 27 amino acids and shares little sequence identity with known NK-lysin peptides. NKLP27 possesses bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including common aquaculture pathogens. The bactericidal activity of NKLP27 was dependent on the C-terminal five residues, deletion of which dramatically reduced the activity of NKLP27. During its interaction with the target bacterial cells, NKLP27 destroyed cell membrane integrity, penetrated into the cytoplasm, and induced degradation of genomic DNA. In vivo study showed that administration of tongue sole with NKLP27 before bacterial and viral infection significantly reduced pathogen dissemination and replication in tissues. Further study revealed that fish administered with NKLP27 exhibited significantly upregulated expression of the immune genes including those that are known to be involved in antibacterial and antiviral defense. These results indicate that NKLP27 is a novel antimicrobial against bacterial and viral pathogens, and that the observed effect of NKLP27 on bacterial DNA and host gene expression adds new insights to the action mechanism of fish antimicrobial peptides.
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Separation of native allophycocyanin and R-phycocyanin from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed in novel buffer systems.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Three buffer systems of Imidazole-Acetic acid, HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES-Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris-HEPES-MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems.
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[Memory characteristic in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid learning disability].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the memory characteristic in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus learning disability (LD).
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An apocalyptic vision of ageing in China : Old age care for the largest elderly population in the world.
Z Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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According to the National Bureau of Statistics of China, by 2010 the number of people aged 60 or over had reached 178 million in China or 13?% of its population. With the largest elderly population in the world in absolute numbers, China faces a challenge of providing care for the elderly both in the present and the future. Unlike old age pensions and health protection for the elderly, in Chinese society elderly care had never been considered to be a social problem but rather the individual family's responsibility. After the turn of the millennium, as the repercussions of increasingly ageing demographics, the results of the One-Child Policy and drastic changes in traditional family structures gradually became more apparent, this issue of elderly care has increasingly become one of the most pressing concerns for the ageing society. As there is little existing research on this particular topic, this article aims to shed light on elderly care in China, focusing on the care of elderly needing assistance with activities of daily living, since this group of elderly are most in need of care, their numbers having risen to 33 million in 2010. This article argues it is urgent for China to switch from informal family-based elderly care to the state's formal long-term care, illustrates that a model of social insurance (e.g. as in Germany) is advocated by many Chinese scholars and points out the ways in which it is different from both the commercialized models (e.g. as in the USA) and state organized "Beveridge" models (e.g. as in Sweden).
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Sublethal exposure of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos alters cellular iron metabolism in hepatocytes and macrophages.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is commonly used for agricultural and domestic applications, and its contamination is widely detected in environmental media, and in a broad spectrum of field crops, fruits and vegetables. CPF exposure causes many adverse effects on human health including hepatoxicity, neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. However, few studies have been conducted thus far to investigate the potential influence of CPF exposure on iron metabolism at concentrations that do not trigger significant cell death. Iron metabolism is concertedly governed by the hepcidin-ferroportin axis, where hepcidin is the central hormone involved in the regulation of iron absorption and release, while ferroportin is the only known iron exporter that functions by iron egress from cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that CPF treatment at a non-toxic concentration greatly enhanced ferroportin gene transcription in human macrophage THP-1 cells. CPF significantly inhibited hepcidin expression in human hepatocyte HepG2 cells. As a result, the intracellular labile iron pool (LIP) was largely reduced in THP-1 and HepG2 cells. The combined data of this study identified a novel finding of CPF that disrupts iron homeostasis by altering ferroportin and hepcidin expression. These findings would be useful in understanding the biological effects of CPF exposure, especially under relatively low and non-toxic doses.
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Joint analysis of three genome-wide association studies of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese populations.
Chen Wu, Zhaoming Wang, Xin Song, Xiao-Shan Feng, Christian C Abnet, Jie He, Nan Hu, Xian-Bo Zuo, Wen Tan, Qimin Zhan, Zhibin Hu, Zhonghu He, Weihua Jia, Yifeng Zhou, Kai Yu, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jian-Min Yuan, Wei Zheng, Xue-Ke Zhao, She-Gan Gao, Zhi-Qing Yuan, Fu-You Zhou, Zong-Min Fan, Ji-Li Cui, Hong-Li Lin, Xue-Na Han, Bei Li, Xi Chen, Sanford M Dawsey, Linda Liao, Maxwell P Lee, Ti Ding, You-Lin Qiao, Zhihua Liu, Yu Liu, Dianke Yu, Jiang Chang, Lixuan Wei, Yu-Tang Gao, Woon-Puay Koh, Yong-Bing Xiang, Ze-Zhong Tang, Jin-Hu Fan, Jing-jing Han, Sheng-Li Zhou, Peng Zhang, Dong-Yun Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Huang, Chunling Liu, Kan Zhai, Yan Qiao, Guangfu Jin, Chuanhai Guo, Jianhua Fu, Xiaoping Miao, Changdong Lu, Haijun Yang, Chaoyu Wang, William A Wheeler, Mitchell Gail, Meredith Yeager, Jeff Yuenger, Er-Tao Guo, Ai-li Li, Wei Zhang, Xue-Min Li, Liang-Dan Sun, Bao-Gen Ma, Yan Li, Sa Tang, Xiu-Qing Peng, Jing Liu, Amy Hutchinson, Kevin Jacobs, Carol Giffen, Laurie Burdette, Joseph F Fraumeni, Hongbing Shen, Yang Ke, Yixin Zeng, Tangchun Wu, Peter Kraft, Charles C Chung, Margaret A Tucker, Zhi-Chao Hou, Ya-Li Liu, Yan-Long Hu, Li Wang, Guo Yuan, Li-Sha Chen, Xiao Liu, Teng Ma, Hui Meng, Li Sun, Xin-Min Li, Xiu-Min Li, Jian-Wei Ku, Ying-Fa Zhou, Liu-Qin Yang, Zhou Wang, Yin Li, Qirenwang Qige, Wen-jun Yang, Guang-Yan Lei, Long-qi Chen, En-Min Li, Ling Yuan, Wen-Bin Yue, Ran Wang, Lu-Wen Wang, Xue-Ping Fan, Fang-Heng Zhu, Wei-Xing Zhao, Yi-min Mao, Mei Zhang, Guo-Lan Xing, Ji-Lin Li, Min Han, Jing-Li Ren, Bin Liu, Shu-Wei Ren, Qing-Peng Kong, Feng Li, Ilyar Sheyhidin, Wu Wei, Yan-Rui Zhang, Chang-Wei Feng, Jin Wang, Yu-Hua Yang, Hong-Zhang Hao, Qi-De Bao, Bao-Chi Liu, Ai-Qun Wu, Dong Xie, Wan-Cai Yang, Liang Wang, Xiao-Hang Zhao, Shu-Qing Chen, Jun-Yan Hong, Xue-Jun Zhang, Neal D Freedman, Alisa M Goldstein, Dongxin Lin, Philip R Taylor, Li-dong Wang, Stephen J Chanock.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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We conducted a joint (pooled) analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in individuals of Chinese ancestry (5,337 ESCC cases and 5,787 controls) with 9,654 ESCC cases and 10,058 controls for follow-up. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, study and two eigenvectors, two new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by rs7447927 at 5q31.2 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.88; P = 7.72 × 10(-20)) and rs1642764 at 17p13.1 (per-allele OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91; P = 3.10 × 10(-13)). rs7447927 is a synonymous SNP in TMEM173, and rs1642764 is an intronic SNP in ATP1B2, near TP53. Furthermore, a locus in the HLA class II region at 6p21.32 (rs35597309) achieved genome-wide significance in the two populations at highest risk for ESSC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.22-1.46; P = 1.99 × 10(-10)). Our joint analysis identifies new ESCC susceptibility loci overall as well as a new locus unique to the population in the Taihang Mountain region at high risk of ESCC.
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Identification and analysis of three virulence-associated TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors of Pseudomonas fluorescens.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative bacterium that can infect a wide range of farmed fish. However, very little is known about the virulence mechanism of P. fluorescens as a fish pathogen. In this study, we identified and analyzed 3 TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors (TDRs) from a pathogenic P. fluorescens strain isolated from fish. In silico analysis revealed that all 3 proteins (named Tdr1 to 3) possess structural domains typical of TDRs. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that tdr1, tdr2, and tdr3 expressions were upregulated under iron-depleted conditions. Compared to the wild type, mutants defective in tdr1, tdr2, and tdr3 were retarded in growth to different extents. Infection in a turbot Scophthalmus maximus model showed that all 3 mutants were impaired in their ability to desseminate into and colonize host tissues. In addition, the tdr1 and tdr3 mutants exhibited significantly reduced virulence. When used as subunit vaccines, purified recombinant proteins of Tdr1, Tdr2, and, in particular, Tdr3 elicited significant protection in turbot against lethal P. fluorescens challenge. The vaccinated fish produced specific serum antibodies, which, when incubated with P. fluorescens, blocked infection of P. fluorescens in fish cells. Together these results indicate that Tdr1, Tdr2, and Tdr3 are iron-regulated factors that participate in bacterial virulence and induce protective immunity as subunit vaccines.
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The impact of preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment on women with uterine fibroids: a meta-analysis.
Obstet Gynecol Surv
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment before surgery for women with uterine fibroids and to explore potential factors predicting the pooled effect sizes.
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VEGF genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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This meta-analysis aimed to investigate a comprehensive and reliable conclusion on the correlations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene with the risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
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Clinical and electrophysiologic features of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in Northeast China.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Since little has been reported in previous studies, we aimed to find the clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics associated with childhood Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in Northeast China.
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Dexmedetomidine inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Objective: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been implicated in modulating the inflammatory response in central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we evaluate the effects of DEX on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia activation and elucidate its possible signaling pathway involved in its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods: BV2 and primary microglia were pretreated with various concentrations of DEX (0·01, 0·1, 1, and 10 ?M) and/or PD98059 for 1 hour, then microglia were incubated with LPS (1 ?g/ml) for 24 hours. Nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were measured by Griess reagent and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, two intracellular signaling cascades including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were investigated by western blot analysis. Results: Dexmedetomidine significantly attenuated LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression in both BV2 cells and primary microglial cells. Lipopolysaccharide activated both ERK1/2 and JNK signal pathways; however, DEX exerted a specific inhibitory effect on ERK1/2 rather than JNK. Intriguingly, treatment of primary microglia and BV2 cells with DEX in combination with ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) enhanced attenuation of LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression. Discussion: Dexmedetomidine attenuates NO and iNOS accumulation by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in both BV2 cells and primary microglial cells.
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Myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to explore myocardial protection of early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock in pigs. 24 male pigs (34.6 ± 1.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups-control group, drug therapy group, and ECMO group. Myocardial infarction model was created in drug therapy group and ECMO group by ligating coronary artery. When cardiogenic shock occurred, drugs were given in drug therapy group and ECMO began to work in ECMO group. The pigs were killed 24 h after cardiogenic shock. Compared with in drug therapy group, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in ECMO group decreased significantly 6 h after ligation (P < 0.05). At the end of the experiments, LV - dp/dt among three groups was significantly different, drug therapy group < ECMO group < control group. There was no difference in LV + dp/dt between drug therapy group and ECMO group. Compared with drug group, myocardial infarct size of ECMO group did not reduce significantly, but myocardial enzyme and troponin-I decreased significantly. Compared with drug therapy, ECMO improves left ventricular diastolic function, and may improve systolic function. ECMO cannot reduce myocardial infarct size without revascularization, but may have positive effects on ischemic areas by avoiding further injuring.
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Long non-coding RNAs involved in gynecological cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides with little or no protein-coding capacity. Previously, they were considered transcription byproducts without biological functions. Further studies have shown that lncRNAs are involved in multiple biological and pathological processes, including regulation of epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional events. Long non-coding RNA expression patterns in various malignant tumors differ from those of benign tumors and normal tissue, and such alterations may promote or suppress tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The expression profiles of lncRNAs are abnormal in gynecological cancers, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer, suggesting an important role for lncRNAs in tumorigenesis/progression of these cancers. Here, we summarized the research progress on identifying the biological functions of lncRNAs in tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis in gynecological cancers. We provide references for exploring the clinical applications of lncRNAs as early diagnostic biomarkers or ideal therapeutic targets in gynecological cancers.
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[Effect of culture supernatant of Toxoplasma gondii on the proliferation and apoptosis of BGC-823 cells].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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To investigate the effect of culture supernatant of Toxoplasma gondii on the proliferation and Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites with seed counts of 2 x 10(7)/ml, apoptosis of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells.
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Junctional adhesion molecule A of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus): a possible immunomodulator and a target for bacterial immune evasion.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are a family of type I cell surface receptors with two immunoglobulin (Ig) domains in the extracellular region. The family contains three classical members, i.e., JAM-A, -B, and -C. To date very little is known about the function of JAMs in teleost. In this work, we identified a JAM-A homologue (named SoJAMa) from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and examined its expression and biological property. SoJAMa is composed of 347 amino acid residues and was predicted to be a transmembrane protein with a large extracellular region that contains two Ig domains. SoJAMa expression occurred in multiple tissues, in particular immune relevant organs. SoJAMa expression was downregulated by experimental challenge with an extracellular pathogen but upregulated by challenge with an intracellular pathogen that is known to be capable of immune evasion. Likewise, cellular study showed that infection of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) with intracellular pathogen induced significantly higher expression of SoJAMa. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that SoJAMa was localized on the surface of PBL and recognized by antibodies against recombinant SoJAMa. Blockage of the SoJAMa on PBL with antibodies resulted in augmented respiratory burst activity. Consistently, antibody-treated PBL exhibited enhanced resistance against bacterial infection. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that a teleost JAM-A likely possesses immunoregulatory property in a negative manner, and that this property may be taken advantage of by intracellular pathogens as an invasion strategy.
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Activation of PPAR? by 12/15?lipoxygenase during cerebral ischemia?reperfusion injury.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression and activity are increased in brain ischemic injury and its agonists have shown potential for brain injury protection. The influence of 12/15?lipoxygenase (12/15?LOX) on the activity of PPAR? in oxygen?glucose deprivation (OGD) and ischemia?reperfusion (I/R) was investigated. A middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model with Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was established. For I/R intervention, the rats were treated with the 12/15?LOX?derived product 12?hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12?HETE) for 30 min before cerebral artery occlusion. Primary cortical neurons from SD rats were used to establish an OGD cell model. 12?HETE or a 12/15?LOX antisense oligonucleotide (asON?12/15?LOX) was added to OGD?treated neurons. Western blots, immunofluorescence and enzyme?linked immunosorbent assays detected protein. Reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction analyzed the expression of the PPAR? target genes. PPAR??DNA binding activity was determined by peroxisome proliferator responsive element luciferase reporter vectors. 12/15?LOX total protein increased significantly with I/R, and expression of 12?HETE was also upregulated. 12?HETE treatment increased PPAR? protein expression and inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression, which was upregulated with I/R. PPAR? nuclear protein and 12/15?LOX total protein expression in OGD?treated neurons increased significantly. 12?HETE treatment increased the expression of PPAR? nuclear protein, upregulated the mRNA levels of PPAR? target genes (lipoprotein lipase and acyl?CoA oxidase) and enhanced PPAR??DNA binding activity. asON?12/15?LOX treatment inhibited 12/15?LOX and PPAR? protein expression and lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Cerebral I/R injury in rats and OGD treatment in neurons promoted 12/15?LOX expression, and 12?HETE activated PPAR?. Therefore, PPAR? can be activated by the 12/15?LOX pathway during cerebral I/R injury.
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The influence of comorbid chronic diseases and physical activity on quality of life in lung cancer survivors.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the influence of comorbid chronic diseases (CCD) and physical activity (PA) on quality of life (QOL) in lung cancer survivors (LCSs).
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MDM2 molecular imaging for the prediction of chemotherapeutic sensitivity in human breast cancer Xenograft.
Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible use of mouse double-minute 2 (MDM2) molecular imaging to predict chemotherapeutic sensitivity in breast cancer xenografts (BCXs). MCF-7 cells were transfected with MDM2 antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs), and MDM2 expression levels were determined by Western blotting. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in MCF-7 cells transfected with ASONs and treated with paclitaxel. BCXs were established in nude mice by injection of ASONs, and tumor volumes were measured after paclitaxel treatment. MDM2 ASONs were labeled with 99mTc to generate an MDM2 molecular probe, and MDM2 expression levels were evaluated by imaging and Western blotting. MDM2 ASONs downregulated MDM2 expression in a dose-dependent manner and increased the rate of paclitaxel-induced cell growth inhibition. Imaging of tumors revealed significant differences in the tumor to skeletal muscle (T/M) ratio between groups. Tumor MDM2 protein expression was correlated with T/M ratios at 4 hours (R ?=? .880) and 10 hours (R ?=? .886). The effect of paclitaxel varied among nude mice bearing BCXs with different concentrations of ASONs, as shown by differences in tumor growth. MDM2 molecular imaging could be a promising method for predicting the sensitivity of BCXs to chemotherapy.
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The first report of a Pelecaniformes defensin cluster: Characterization of ?-defensin genes in the crested ibis based on BAC libraries.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Defensins play a key role in the innate immunity of various organisms. Detailed genomic studies of the defensin cluster have only been reported in a limited number of birds. Herein, we present the first characterization of defensins in a Pelecaniformes species, the crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), which is one of the most endangered birds in the world. We constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries, including a 4D-PCR library and a reverse-4D library, which provide at least 40 equivalents of this rare bird's genome. A cluster including 14 ?-defensin loci within 129?kb was assigned to chromosome 3 by FISH, and one gene duplication of AvBD1 was found. The ibis defensin genes are characterized by multiform gene organization ranging from two to four exons through extensive exon fusion. Splicing signal variations and alternative splice variants were also found. Comparative analysis of four bird species identified one common and multiple species-specific duplications, which might be associated with high GC content. Evolutionary analysis revealed birth-and-death mode and purifying selection for avian defensin evolution, resulting in different defensin gene numbers among bird species and functional conservation within orthologous genes, respectively. Additionally, we propose various directions for further research on genetic conservation in the crested ibis.
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Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells in treating rats with IgA nephropathy.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Therapeutic options in IgAN are still limited. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of using endothelial progenitor cell to treat IgAN in rat model.
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D-Serine-induced Inactivation of NMDA Receptors in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons Expressing NR2A Subunits is Ca(2+) -Dependent.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Our previous studies indicate that glycine can inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) responses induced by high concentrations of NMDA in rat hippocampal neurons. The present study was designed to observe whether D-serine induces inactivation of NMDARs in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this effect.
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CsIFIT1, an interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeat, inhibits viral infection in tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT) is involved in antiviral immunity in mammalian cells. In fish, the function of this group of proteins is unknown. In this study, we report the identification of an IFIT homologue (named CsIFIT1) from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and examined its antiviral potential. CsIFIT1 is composed of 436 residues and shares 30.9%-58.7% overall sequence identities with the known IFITs of a number of teleost species. In silico analysis identified two tetratricopeptide repeats in CsIFIT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that CsIFIT1 expression was most abundant in immune relevant organs and upregulated, in a time-dependent manner, by experimental infection with the fish viral pathogen megalocytivirus. When CsIFIT1 was overexpressed in tongue sole before megalocytivirus infection, viral replication in fish tissues was blocked to significant extents. Consistently, when CsIFIT1 expression in tongue sole was knocked down by siRNA, viral replication in fish tissues was significantly enhanced. Taken together, these results indicate that CsIFIT1 is likely a key factor of antiviral immunity and is required for optimal defense against viral infection.
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Curcumin prevents diabetic nephropathy against inflammatory response via reversing caveolin-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation influenced TLR4 activation.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Inflammation is involved in the development and/or progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Curcumin has been reported for its anti-inflammation activity in DN. However, the mechanisms involved in the renoprotective effects of curcumin have not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we hypothesized that curcumin affected high glucose (HG)-induced inflammation profiles in vivo and in vitro and then prevented renal injury in diabetic rats via reversing cav-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation that influenced TLR4 activation. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats received vehicle or curcumin for twelve weeks and podocytes were treated with HG in the presence or absence of curcumin in vitro. To further evaluate the effect of cav-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(14) on HG-induced podocyte inflammation response and TLR4 activation, a recombinant plasmid GFP-Cav-1 Y14F with a mutated phosphorylation site of cav-1, was transfected into cultured podocytes. In vivo, curcumin improved histological abnormalities and fibrosis of a diabetic kidney, inhibited renal inflammatory gene expression and reduced cav-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(14) and the expression of TLR4. Pretreatment of podocytes with curcumin reduced HG-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines, TLR4 and the phosphorylation of cav-1. But immunohistochemistry in rat kidney showed that the elevation of TLR4 expression is more evident in the renal interstitum than in the glomerulus where podocytes are located, and the possibility that the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on other cells in the kidney may be mediated through the same molecular pathways as in podocytes. Our study suggests that curcumin treatment ameliorates DN via inhibition of inflammatory gene expression by reversing caveolin-1 Tyr(14) phosphorylation that influenced TLR4 activation.
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MicroRNA library-based functional screening identified miR-137 as a suppresser of gastric cancer cell proliferation.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Uncontrolled proliferation is a key characteristic of gastric carcinogenesis and the precise mechanisms underlying the altered proliferation behaviors of GC cells have not been clearly elucidated. miRNAs has been suggested to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of various cancers. In the present study, we employed an impedance-based real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) system to detect the effects of ectopically expressed miRNAs on GC cell proliferation.
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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy application in environmental monitoring of water quality: a review.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Water quality monitoring is a critical part of environmental management and protection, and to be able to qualitatively and quantitatively determine contamination and impurity levels in water is especially important. Compared to the currently available water quality monitoring methods and techniques, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has several advantages, including no need for sample pre-preparation, fast and easy operation, and chemical free during the process. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the fundamentals of aqueous LIBS analysis and effectively apply this technique to environmental monitoring. This article reviews the research conducted on LIBS analysis for liquid samples, and the article content includes LIBS theory, history and applications, quantitative analysis of metallic species in liquids, LIBS signal enhancement methods and data processing, characteristics of plasma generated by laser in water, and the factors affecting accuracy of analysis results. Although there have been many research works focusing on aqueous LIBS analysis, detection limit and stability of this technique still need to be improved to satisfy the requirements of environmental monitoring standard. In addition, determination of nonmetallic species in liquid by LIBS is equally important and needs immediate attention from the community. This comprehensive review will assist the readers to better understand the aqueous LIBS technique and help to identify current research needs for environmental monitoring of water quality.
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Novosphingobium chloroacetimidivorans sp. nov., a chloroacetamide herbicide-degrading bacterium isolated from activated sludge.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Strain BUT-14(T), a Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming, ellipse-shaped bacterium, was isolated from activated sludge of a chloroacetamide-herbicides-manufacturing wastewater treatment facility. The strain was able to degrade more than 90% of butachlor, acetochlor and alachlor (100 mg l(-1)) within 5 days of incubation. The taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BUT-14(T) was a member of the genus Novosphingobium and showed the highest sequence similarities to Novosphingobium soli DSM 22821(T) (97.9%), N. naphthalenivorans KACC 15258(T) (97.4%), N. pentaromativorans JCM 12182(T) (97.4%) and N. barchaimii DSM 25411(T) (97.1%) and lower (<97%) sequence similarities to all other species of the genus Novosphingobium. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain BUT-14(T) possessed Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone, spermidine as the major polyamine and C(18?:?1)?7c (46.9%), C(17?:?1)?6c (17.9%), summed feature 3, C(14?:?0) 2-OH (4.4%), C(15?:?0) 2-OH (3.1%) and C(16?:?0) (5.51%) as the major fatty acids. The polar lipids included lipid, glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid and phospatidyldimethylethanolamine. Strain BUT-14(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with N. soli DSM 22821(T) (41.5±2.9%), N. naphthalenivorans JCM 12182(T) (49.2±4.2%), N. pentaromativorans KACC 12295(T) (53.2±1.9%) and N. barchaimii DSM 25411 (51.2±4.5%). The DNA G+C content was 66±0.3 mol%. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic data and DNA-DNA hybridization supports the suggestion that strain BUT-14(T) represents a novel species of the genus Novosphingobium, for which the name Novosphingobium chloroacetimidivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BUT-14(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013086(T)?=?KACC 17147(T)?=?JCM 19923(T)).
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The Influence of mtDNA Deletion on Lung Cancer Cells Under the Conditions of Hypoxia and Irradiation.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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This study was to evaluate the influence of mtDNA deletion on the lung cancer cells under the conditions of hypoxia or irradiation.
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Biological characteristics of rat dorsal root ganglion cell and human vascular endothelial cell in mono- and co-culture.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of rat dorsal root ganglion cell (DRGC) and human vascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) in mono- and co-culture. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA were measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blot analysis was used to identify VEGF and NGF protein expressions. Cell injury was assessed by measuring cell viability with methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The results showed that VEGF and NGF mRNA levels in the HMVEC+DRGC group were significantly higher than those in the DRGC and HMVEC groups (all p < 0.05). There were also greater increases in both VEGF and NGF protein expressions in the HMVEC+DRGC group than those in the DRGC and HMVEC groups (all p < 0.05). The results of MTT analysis revealed significant differences in cell viability among the HMVEC+DRGC group and the DRGC and HMVEC groups (all p < 0.05). In summary, our findings provide evidence that DRGC and HMVEC in co-culture may exhibit greater biological activity than DRGC in mono-culture.
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Nocardioides soli sp. nov., a carbendazim-degrading bacterium isolated from soil under the long-term application of carbendazim.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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The taxonomic status of a carbendazim-degrading strain, mbc-2(T), isolated from soil under the long-term application of carbendazim in China was determined by means of a polyphasic study. The cells were Gram-stain-positive, motile and rod-shaped. Strain mbc-2(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0, 30-35 °C and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain mbc-2(T) fell within the genus Nocardioides, forming a coherent cluster with the type strain of Nocardioides hankookensis, with which it exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.9%. The chemotaxonomic properties of strain mbc-2(T) were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides: the cell-wall peptidoglycan type was based on ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid, the predominant menaquinone was MK-8 (H4) and the major fatty acid was iso-C(16?:?0). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, unknown phospholipids and an unknown aminolipid. The DNA G+C content was 72 mol%. Strain mbc-2(T) exhibited DNA-DNA relatedness values of 12.5±1.5%, 23.7±2.7% and 26.3±3.2% with respect to Nocardioides hankookensis DS-30(T), Nocardioides aquiterrae GW-9(T) and Nocardioides pyridinolyticus OS4(T). On the basis of the data obtained, strain mbc-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is mbc-2(T) (?=?KACC 17152(T)?=?CCTCC AB 2012934(T)).
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates seawater-exposure-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting autophagy in lung tissue.
Patholog Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Seawater drowning can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). Several studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) treatment could attenuate ALI. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon still remain elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether BMSC treatment can ameliorate seawater-induced ALI and its underlying mechanisms in a rat model. In this study, arterial blood gas, lung weight coefficient, and TNF-?, and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as histopathology examination, were used to detect the lung injury of seawater exposure. Moreover, western blot and RT-PCR were used to explore autophagy in lung tissues. The results demonstrated that seawater exposure induced ALI including impaired arterial blood gas, pulmonary edema, histopathologic changes, and inflammatory response in lung tissues. What is more, these changes were partly ameliorated by BMSC treatment through inhibition of autophagy in lung tissues. The application of BMSC may be a potential effective treatment for seawater-induced ALI.
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In-depth profiling and analysis of host and viral microRNAs in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with megalocytivirus reveal involvement of microRNAs in host-virus interaction in teleost fish.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding to mRNA transcripts in various biological processes. In mammals and birds, miRNAs are known to play vital parts in both host immune defense and viral infection. However, in lower vertebrates such as teleost, systematic investigations on host and viral miRNAs are lacking.
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Visual learning alters the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain: an fNIRS study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimination task constrained to the right visual field, resting HbO functional connectivity and directed mutual interaction between high-level visual cortex and frontal/central areas involved in the top-down control were significantly modified. Moreover, these changes, which correlated with the degree of perceptual learning, were not limited to the trained left visual cortex. We conclude that the resting oxygenated hemoglobin functional connectivity could be used as a predictor of visual learning, supporting the involvement of high-level visual cortex and the involvement of frontal/central cortex during visual perceptual learning.
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Xenophilus arseniciresistens sp. nov., an arsenite-resistant bacterium isolated from soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, arsenite [As(III)]-resistant bacterium, designated strain YW8(T), was isolated from agricultural soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed over 97% sequence similarity to strains of the environmental species Xenophilus azovorans, Xenophilus aerolatus, Simplicispira metamorpha, Variovorax soli, and Xylophilus ampelinus. However, the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain YW8(T) formed a separate clade from Xenophilus azovorans. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YW8(T) and its closest phylogenetic neighbours were below 24.2-35.5%, which clearly separated the strain from these closely related species. The major cellular fatty acids of strain YW8(T) were C(16?:?0), C(17?:?0) cyclo, C(18?:?1)?7c, and summed feature 3(C(16?:?1)?6c and/or C(16?:?1)?7c). The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, an unknown polar lipid and phosphatidylserine. The major polyamines were 2-hydroxyputrescine and putrescine. On the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, phylogenetic position, DNA-DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic data, strain YW8(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Xenophilus, for which the name Xenophilus arseniciresistens sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YW8(T) (?=?CCTCC AB2012103(T)?=?KACC 16853(T)).
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NR4A1 is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common disorder characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. In the present study, the expression levels of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1 (NR4A1) and the correlation with inflammatory cytokine production and free fatty acids (FFAs) in patients with T2D and healthy participants were investigated. NR4A1 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with T2D (n=30) and healthy controls (n=34) were analyzed. In addition, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin (FIN), FFAs, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed, and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to estimate the insulin resistance (IR). Additionally, PBMCs from healthy subjects were cultured with or without 250 ?M palmitic acid (PA). Levels of NR4A1, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the PBMCs were also analyzed. The basal expression levels of NR4A1, TNF-? and IL-6 were higher in the T2D patients when compared with the controls. In addition, the levels of FFAs, TG and LDL-C, as well as the HOMA-IR, were higher in T2D patients. Furthermore, NR4A1 expression was demonstrated to positively correlate with the HOMA-IR and the levels of FFAs, TNF-?, IL-6, FIN and FBG. Furthermore, 250 ?M PA stimulation was shown to increase NR4A1 expression and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in the cultured PBMCs. Therefore, increased NR4A1 expression levels are correlated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and the disorder of lipid metabolism in patients with T2D.
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Effect of age and eosinophil number on fractional exhaled nitric oxide level in non-asthmatic children in shanghai.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This study aimed to identify the relationship between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level and potential factors in non-asthmatic children from Shanghai, China. From March to April 2012, the school-aged children fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited. The FeNO levels of non-asthmatic children were detected by the Nano Coulomb nitric oxide analyzer. Questionnaires were recorded, including personal data, family illness history and daily habits. In addition, not only the number of leukocytes and eosinophils but also the level of hemoglobin in peripheral blood, were measured via the automated blood cell analyzer. All data were statistically analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software and the correlation of these potential factors with FeNO level was calculated via Kendall's rank correlation. A total of 132 healthy children (aging 6-13 years) were enrolled in Minhang District, Shanghai, China. The mean value of FeNO level was 15.05 ppb. The correlation analyses revealed that age (R=0.190, p=0.029) and eosinophil number (R=0.575, p=0.000) were significantly and positively correlated with FeNO levels. The FeNO levels of individuals aged 10-13 years was significantly higher than those of the individuals aged 6-9 years (22.65± 18.82 ppb vs. 15.28 ± 9.78 ppb, p<0.05). However, other potential factors were not significantly correlated with FeNO level. The FeNO levels in healthy school-aged children may reflect airway eosinophilic inflammation levels, and was affected by eosinophil count and age significantly.
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Transdifferentiation of differentiated ovary into functional testis by long-term treatment of aromatase inhibitor in Nile tilapia.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Females with differentiated ovary of a gonochoristic fish, Nile tilapia, were masculinized by long-term treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole) in the present study. The reversed gonads developed into functional testes with fertile sperm. The longer the fish experienced sex differentiation, the longer treatment time was needed for successful sex reversal. Furthermore, Fadrozole-induced sex reversal, designated as secondary sex reversal (SSR), was successfully rescued by supplement of exogenous 17?-estradiol. Gonadal histology, immunohistochemistry, transcriptome, and serum steroid level were analyzed during SSR. The results indicated that spermatogonia were transformed from oogonia or germline stem cell-like cells distributed in germinal epithelium, whereas Leydig and Sertoli cells probably came from the interstitial cells and granulosa cells of the ovarian tissue, respectively. The transdifferentiation of somatic cells, as indicated by the appearance of doublesex- and Mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (pre-Sertoli cells) and cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 (pre-Leydig cells)-positive cells in the ovary, provided microniche for the transdifferentiation of germ cells. Decrease of serum 17?-estradiol was detected earlier than increase of serum 11-ketotestosterone, indicating that decrease of estrogen was the cause, whereas increase of androgen was the consequence of SSR. The sex-reversed gonad displayed more similarity in morphology and histology with a testis, whereas the global gene expression profiles remained closer to the female control. Detailed analysis indicated that transdifferentiation was driven by suppression of female pathway genes and activation of male pathway genes. In short, SSR provides a good model for study of sex reversal in teleosts and for understanding of sex determination and differentiation in nonmammalian vertebrates.
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Krüppel-like factor 8 contributes to hypoxia-induced MDR in gastric cancer cells.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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We previously reported that hypoxia-induced MDR in gastric cancer (GC) cells is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent. However, the exact mechanisms are still unknown. Our previous study revealed that Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8), a novel transcription factor, was associated with malignant phenotype in GC cells. KLF8 is overexpressed in clear cell renal carcinoma lacking von Hippel-Lindau protein function, which resulted in HIF-1 stabilization. Given this association, we hypothesized that KLF8 contributed to hypoxia-induced MDR in GC cells. Initial experiments revealed that hypoxia could increase KLF8 and HIF-1? expressions in GC cells, and KLF8 levels in GC drug-resistant cell lines were higher than in parental cell lines. Subsequent experiments showed that in normoxia, exogenous KLF8 could promote the MDR phenotype; however, blocking KLF8 expression could effectively reverse the MDR phenotype induced by hypoxia. Overexpressed KLF8 increased resistance-associated gene MDR1 mRNA levels, Bcl-2 and P-gp protein levels, and decreased Bax and caspase-3 protein levels in GC cells, and knockout KLF8 reversed these effects. Dual luciferase reporter and ChIP assays showed that KLF8 could promote MDR1 transcriptional activity by combining with KLF8 binding sites located in the upstream of MDR1 transcriptional start site. These results suggest that KLF8 is involved in hypoxia-induced MDR through inhibiting apoptosis and increasing the drug release rate by directly regulating MDR1 transcription.
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Roseomonas rhizosphaerae sp. nov., a triazophos-degrading bacterium isolated from soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A novel aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, Gram-stain-negative, coccoid to short-rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated YW11(T), was isolated from soil under long-term application of triazophos. The strain was able to hydrolyse triazophos. Strain YW11(T) grew at 15-40 °C (optimum at 28 °C), at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum at pH 7.5) and with 0-5.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 0.5?%). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) and the major cellular fatty acids were C18?:?1?7c, C16?:?0, C18?:?1 2-OH and C18?:?0. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YW11(T) was 69.6±0.5 mol%. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown glycolipid and two unknown aminolipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain YW11(T) was a member of the genus Roseomonas, and showed the highest sequence similarity to Roseomonas cervicalis KACC 11686(T) (97.9?%) and Roseomonas aestuarii KACC 19645(T) (97.8?%) and then to Roseomonas ludipueritiae KACC 13843(T) (96.9?%). Strain YW11(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with R. cervicalis KACC 11686(T) (32.3±2.9?%), R. aestuarii KACC 16549(T) (28.2±2.6?%) and R. ludipueritiae KACC 13843(T) (30.2±2.6?%). Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, the whole-cell fatty acid composition as well as biochemical characteristics, strain YW11(T) was clearly distinguished from all recognized species of the genus Roseomonas and should be assigned to a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas rhizosphaerae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YW11(T) (?=?KACC 17225(T)?=?CCTCC AB2013041(T)).
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Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.
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Poly(I:C) Induces Antiviral Immune Responses in Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) That Require TLR3 and MDA5 and Is Negatively Regulated by Myd88.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) is a ligand of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 that has been used as an immunostimulant in humans and mice against viral diseases based on its ability to enhance innate and adapt immunity. Antiviral effect of poly(I:C) has also been observed in teleost, however, the underling mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential and signaling mechanism of poly(I:C) as an antiviral agent in a model of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with megalocytivirus. We found that poly(I:C) exhibited strong antiviral activity and enhanced activation of head kidney macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes. In vivo studies showed that (i) TLR3 as well as MDA5 knockdown reduced poly(I:C)-mediated immune response and antiviral activity to significant extents; (ii) when Myd88 was overexpressed in flounder, poly(I:C)-mediated antiviral activity was significantly decreased; (iii) when Myd88 was inactivated, the antiviral effect of poly(I:C) was significantly increased. Cellular study showed that (i) the NF-?B activity induced by poly(I:C) was upregulated in Myd88-overexpressing cells and unaffected in Myd88-inactivated cells; (ii) Myd88 overexpression inhibited and upregulated the expression of poly(I:C)-induced antiviral genes and inflammatory genes respectively; (iii) Myd88 inactivation enhanced the expression of the antiviral genes induced by poly(I:C). Taken together, these results indicate that poly(I:C) is an immunostimulant with antiviral potential, and that the immune response of poly(I:C) requires TLR3 and MDA5 and is negatively regulated by Myd88 in a manner not involving NK-?B. These results provide insights to the working mechanism of poly(I:C), TLR3, and Myd88 in fish.
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The loss of efficiency caused by agents' uncoordinated routing in transport networks.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Large-scale daily commuting data were combined with detailed geographical information system (GIS) data to analyze the loss of transport efficiency caused by drivers' uncoordinated routing in urban road networks. We used Price of Anarchy (POA) to quantify the loss of transport efficiency and found that both volume and distribution of human mobility demand determine the POA. In order to reduce POA, a small number of highways require considerable decreases in traffic, and their neighboring arterial roads need to attract more traffic. The magnitude of the adjustment in traffic flow can be estimated using the fundamental measure traffic flow only, which is widely available and easy to collect. Surprisingly, the most congested roads or the roads with largest traffic flow were not those requiring the most reduction of traffic. This study can offer guidance for the optimal control of urban traffic and facilitate improvements in the efficiency of transport networks.
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Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning.
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[Simplification of NIR model for citruss sugar content based on sensory methods].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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The prediction of sugar content (SC) in citrus by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and sensory test was investigated the validation whether the result of non-destructive determination methods by NIRS can meet the request of consumers sensory or not, and the simplification of the prediction model of NIRS for citruss SC with variables selection on the basis of meeting their demands. Result of the latter analyzed by one-way ANOVA shows that there was a significant difference influenced by individual diversity, but not by gender. After excluding the sensuous outliers, root mean standard error of deviation (RMSED) of every participator was calculated and the minimum equaled to 0.633, which was chosen as borderline of NIR models RMSEP to meet the sensory request Then, combined with spectral preprocessing and variables selection methods, SPA-MLR model was obtained by its robustness with Rp = 0.86, as well as RMSEP = 0.567 for prediction set, furthermore, prediction time just costs 6.8 ms. The achievement that not only meets the customers sensory, but also simplifies the prediction model can be a good reference for real time application in future.
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Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Renders Cancer Cells More Sensitive to Vitamin C-Induced Toxicity.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Megadose vitamin C (Vc) is one of the most enduring alternative treatments for diverse human diseases and is deeply engrafted in popular culture. Preliminary studies in the 1970s described potent effects of Vc on prolonging the survival of patients with terminal cancer, but these claims were later criticized. An improved knowledge of Vcs pharmacokinetics and recent reports using cancer cell lines, have renewed the interest in this subject. Despite these findings, using Vc as an adjuvant for anticancer therapy remains questionable, among other things because there is no proper mechanistic understanding. Here, we show that a Warburg effect triggered by activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway greatly enhances Vc-induced toxicity in multiple cancer cell lines, including von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) defective renal cancer cells. HIF increases the intracellular uptake of oxidized Vc through its transcriptional target glucose-transporter 1 (GLUT1), synergizing with the uptake of its reduced form through sodium-dependent Vc transporters (SVCTs). The resulting high levels of intracellular Vc induce oxidative stress and massive DNA damage, which then causes metabolic exhaustion by depleting cellular ATP reserves. HIF positive cells are particularly sensitive to Vc-induced ATP reduction because they mostly rely on the rather inefficient, glycolytic pathway for energy production. Our experiments thus link Vc-induced toxicity and cancer metabolism, providing a new explanation for Vcs preferential effect on cancer cells.
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Plasma Activity of Endothelial Lipase Impacts High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism and Coronary Risk Factors in Humans.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Aim: Endothelial lipase(EL) is a determinant of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). However, little is known about the impact of EL activity on plasma lipid profile. We aimed to establish a new method to evaluate EL-specific phospholipase activity in humans. Methods: Plasma samples were obtained from 115 patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) and 154 patients without CAD. Plasma EL protein was immunoprecipitated using an anti-EL monoclonal antibody after plasma non-specific immunoglobulins were removed by incubation with ProteinA. The phospholipase activity of the immunoprecipitated samples was measured using a fluorogenic phospholipase substrate, Bis-BODIPY FL C11-PC. Results: The EL-specific phospholipase assay revealed that plasma EL activity was inversely correlated with HDL-C levels(R=-0.3088, p?0.0001). In addition, the EL activity was associated with cigarette smoking. Furthermore, EL activity in CAD patients was significantly higher than that in nonCAD patients. Concomitantly, the HDL-C level in CAD patients were significantly lower than that in non-CAD patients. Conclusion: We have established a method for human plasma EL-specific phospholipase activity by combination of EL immunoprecipitation and a fluorogenic phospholipid substrate. Plasma EL activity was associated with not only plasma HDL-C levels but also the risks for CAD.
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Accuracy of Early DMSA Scan for VUR in Young Children With Febrile UTI.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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To evaluate the accuracy of an acute (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) among young children with a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI).
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[Curative effects on standardized management of community patients with coronary heart disease complicated with chronic heart failure].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To explore the effects on the standardized management of patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease complicated with chronic heart failure.
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The influence of YS-1 on the Dll4-Notch1 signaling pathway.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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In this study, we investigated the role and molecular mechanism of p43 and YS-1 (recombinant human p43 protein) in Dll4-Notch1 signaling pathway. Active, small interfering RNA and recombinant plasmid targeting of p43 protein were used to infect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Three-dimensional sprouting model, endothelial cell migration assay, and sprouting and tube formation assay were used to deduce the function of p43 and YS-1 in angiogenesis. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to detect the efficiency of p43 in Dll4-Notch1 signaling in HUVECs. It was found that silencing and overexpression of p43 could upregulate Dll4-Notch and stimulate angiogenesis. p43 plays a complex role in angiogenesis. When the concentration is under 100 nM, it promotes angiogenesis; instead, when the concentration is over 100 nM, it inhibits angiogenesis. In this study, we found that the expression level of p43 was under 60 nM. However, recombinant human p43 protein, YS-1, inhibited endothelial cell sprouting, and 500 ?g/ml of YS-1 attenuated the activation of Dll4-Notch1 signaling. These results suggested that YS-1 could directly inhibit angiogenesis through Dll4-Notch1 signal transduction pathway, while p43 plays a modulating role in this signaling pathway.
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Gasification kinetic analysis of the three pseudocomponents of biomass-cellulose, semicellulose and lignin.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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The gasification kinetic analysis of the three pseudocomponents (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of biomass decomposition in the agent of CO2 were investigated. The Multi-peaks method was used to fit the Gaussian distribution model of DTG curves. The Friedman method was used to estimate the effective E?, and the master plot method was used for the determination of the kinetic model. The results showed that there were two reaction stages for semi-cellulose and lignin. The DTG curves of semicellulose and lignin cannot be fitted by Gaussian distribution model. The E? were ranged from 80 to 220kJmol(-1) for the three pseudocomponents. The Fn model could describe the kinetic process of stage I of semi-cellulose decomposition. Both cellulose and stage II of semicellulose decomposition could be described by An model and the two reaction stages of the lignin were fitted the Rn model very well.
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Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles for precision plasmonics.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles were prepared by a cyclic process of slow growth followed by slow chemical etching, which selectively removes edges and vertices. The etching process effectively makes the surface tension isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even showing Fano-like resonances in small clusters. The high monodispersity of the particles we demonstrate should facilitate the self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters with uniform optical resonances, which could in turn be used to fabricate optical metafluids. Narrow size distributions are required to control not only the spectral features but also the morphology and yield of clusters in certain assembly schemes.
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Age-stage two-sex life tables of Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae), on different apple varieties.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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To understand the influence of different apple varieties on the development and reproduction of the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), age-stage two-sex life tables of P. ulmi on Fuji, Starkrimson Delicious, Golden Delicious, and Granny Smith varieties were constructed under laboratory conditions at 23 +/- 1 degrees C, 75 +/- 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Results showed that total development time of immature females was shorter on Fuji than on the other varieties, and this was because of its shorter egg duration. Immature survival of P. ulmi was 74.51-78.00% among four apple varieties, and no significant differences were found. The total fecundity per female was significantly higher on Golden Delicious (34.12 eggs per female) than that on Fuji (27.15 eggs per female), Starkrimson Delicious (25.15 eggs per female), and Granny Smith (20.62 eggs per female). Based on the intrinsic rate of population increase, Fuji and Golden Delicious were more suitable than Starkrimson Delicious and Granny Smith.
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LSPR-dependent SERS performance of silver nanoplates with highly stable and broad tunable LSPRs prepared through an improved seed-mediated strategy.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The application of the silver plates as a proper substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was performed to give deep insight on LSPR-dependent SERS performance. Firstly, an improved seed-mediated method is developed to synthesize silver nanoplates (NP) with broad-tuning localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and high stability. The LSPR peaks could be tuned in the range from 485 to ?1200 nm by controlling the experimental parameters. With the treatment of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), silver NPs exhibit high stability for SERS tests. The LSPR-dependent SERS study was performed by taking four typical silver NPs with LSPR peaks at 485 nm, 614 nm, 906 nm and 1130 nm as substrates. Also, two probe molecules, 4-amino-thiophenol (4-ATP) and rhodamine-6G (R-6G), were used, and both the 458 nm and 633 nm lasers were selected as excitation for the LSPR-dependent SERS study. Our results indicated that the SERS performance is largely dependent on the LSPR of the silver NP substrate at a given excitation wavelength. Specifically, the Raman signals were greatly enhanced when the laser excitation line matched (close to the LSPR band) the peak position of LSPR band. When at the excitation of 633 nm, two orders of magnitude stronger SERS signals would be observed for the Ag-614 substrate than that of the Ag-485 and Ag-1130 substrates with their LSPR peak positions far away from 633 nm. The same result can also be observed when the laser excitation at 458 nm was selected for the Ag-485 substrate. Our study gives a deep insight into LSPR-dependent SERS performance. It also gives a method for giving large SERS enhancement just by selecting a proper excitation wavelength matched to the LSPR of the substrate.
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[Host preference and fitness of aphis citricola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to mature and young apple leaves].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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In order to understand the differences of Aphis citricola in its original and final selectivity to the apple leaves with different leaf age, and to ascertain the effects of mature and young apple leaves on the growth and development, survival, and fecundity of A. citricola, this paper studied the host preference of A. citricola to mature and young apple leaves, with the related age-stage two-type life tables constructed. A. citricola more preferred to oviposit on the young leaves. There existed differences in the behaviors between oriented selectivity and penetration selectivity, and the latter was the key factor determining whether A. citricola fed and oviposited on the host. The total development time of immature A. citricola on the mature leaves was significantly longer than that on the young leaves, and the survival rate was also lower, with the aphids died at the first and fourth instar stages and at mature stage. As compared with those on the young leaves, the apterae rate of A. citricola adults on the mature leaves was lower, and the longevity and fecundity were significantly shorter and lower. The population dynamic parameters suggested that the population growth of A. citricola was quicker on the young leaves than on the mature leaves, and it was difficult for A. citricola to establish a stable population on the mature leaves.
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The road to memory: an early rest for the long journey.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Central memory T lymphocytes were reported to develop after acute but not chronic infection, which prompted this feasibility study on generating long-term CD8 T cells ex vivo, by applying a culture condition that simulates an acute infection. During 35 d of culture, naive T cells (CD45RA(+), CD127(+), CCR7(+), CD62L(+), CXCR3(+)) first developed into effector T cells (CD45RA(+/-), CD127(+/-), CCR7(+/-), CD62L(+), CXCR3(+)), followed by three intermediate stages: intermediate T cells 1 (CD45RO(+), CD127(+/-), CCR7(+), CD62L(+), CXCR3(+)), intermediate T cells 2 (CD45RO(+), CD127(-), CCR7(-), CD62L(+), CXCR3(+)), and intermediate T cells 3 (CD45RO(+/-), CD127(+), CCR7(+), CD62L(-), CXCR3(+)) before reverting to stable CD45RA(+) central memory T cells (CD45RA(+), CD127(+), CCR7(+), CD62L(+), CXCR3(+)). If both anti-CD3 and the inflammatory milieu persisted beyond day 10, intermediate T cells 2 gradually developed into effector memory T cells (CD45RO(+), CD127(-), CCR7(-), CD62L(-), CXCR3(+)). Furthermore, intermediate T cells 2 or effector memory T cells, when cultured in persistent inflammatory cytokines devoid of anti-CD3, were converted to central memory T cells (CD45RO(+), CCR7(+), CD62L(+)). Overall, these results support ex vivo memory-like T lymphocyte production and favor a developmental pathway including both divergent and linear relationships.
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Regulation of bone remodeling by vasopressin explains the bone loss in hyponatremia.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Although hyponatremia is known to be associated with osteoporosis and a high fracture risk, the mechanism through which bone loss ensues has remained unclear. As hyponatremic patients have elevated circulating arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels, we examined whether AVP can affect the skeleton directly as yet another component of the pituitary-bone axis. Here, we report that the two Avp receptors, Avpr1? and Avpr2, coupled to Erk activation, are expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. AVP injected into wild-type mice enhanced and reduced, respectively, the formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Conversely, the exposure of osteoblast precursors to Avpr1? or Avpr2 antagonists, namely SR49059 or ADAM, increased osteoblastogenesis, as did the genetic deletion of Avpr1?. In contrast, osteoclast formation and bone resorption were both reduced in Avpr1?(-/-) cultures. This process increased bone formation and reduced resorption resulted in a profound enhancement of bone mass in Avpr1?(-/-) mice and in wild-type mice injected with SR49059. Collectively, the data not only establish a primary role for Avp signaling in bone mass regulation, but also call for further studies on the skeletal actions of Avpr inhibitors used commonly in hyponatremic patients.
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Antagonistic Roles of Dmrt1 and Foxl2 in Sex Differentiation via Estrogen Production in Tilapia as Demonstrated by TALENs.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are a powerful approach for targeted genome editing and have been proved to be effective in several organisms. In this study, we reported that TALENs can induce somatic mutations in Nile tilapia, an important species for worldwide aquaculture, with reliably high efficiency. Six pairs of TALENs were constructed to target genes related to sex differentiation, including dmrt1, foxl2, cyp19a1a, gsdf, igf3, and nrob1b, and all resulted in indel mutations with maximum efficiencies of up to 81% at the targeted loci. Effects of dmrt1 and foxl2 mutation on gonadal phenotype, sex differentiation, and related gene expression were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR. In Dmrt1-deficient testes, phenotypes of significant testicular regression, including deformed efferent ducts, degenerated spermatogonia or even a complete loss of germ cells, and proliferation of steroidogenic cells, were observed. In addition, disruption of Dmrt1 in XY fish resulted in increased foxl2 and cyp19a1a expression and serum estradiol-17? and 11-ketotestosterone levels. On the contrary, deficiency of Foxl2 in XX fish exhibited varying degrees of oocyte degeneration and significantly decreased aromatase gene expression and serum estradiol-17? levels. Some Foxl2-deficient fish even exhibited complete sex reversal with high expression of Dmrt1 and Cyp11b2. Furthermore, disruption of Cyp19a1a in XX fish led to partial sex reversal with Dmrt1 and Cyp11b2 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrated that TALENs are an effective tool for targeted gene editing in tilapia genome. Foxl2 and Dmrt1 play antagonistic roles in sex differentiation in Nile tilapia via regulating cyp19a1a expression and estrogen production.
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BAIAP2 exhibits association to childhood ADHD especially predominantly inattentive subtype in Chinese han subjects.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with a high heritability. Much evidence of hemisphere asymmetry has been found for ADHD probands from behavioral level, electrophysiological level and brain morphology. One previous research has reported possible association between BAIAP2, which is asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres, with ADHD in European population. The present study aimed to investigate the association between BAIAP2 and ADHD in Chinese Han subjects.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.