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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Expression of transcript factors SALL4 and OCT4 in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC).
Transl Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2014
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SALL4 and OCT4 are transcription factors and play essential roles in stem cell development and oncogenesis. However, the expression of these transcription factors has not been well studied in lung cancers. In this study, we evaluated the expression of SALL4 and OCT4 in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) by immunochemistry. NSCLC tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed with a total of 77 primary lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 90 primary lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs). A mouse monoclonal anti-human SALL4 (1:400 dilution) and a polyclonal anti-human OCT4 (1:200 dilution) antibodies were used. Nuclear staining of SALL4 and OCT4 was scored semi-quantitatively using a three tiered scale. The expressions of SALL4 and OCT4 were correlated with the tumor differentiation, pathological stage, and patients' clinical information.
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New cyclopeptide alkaloid and lignan glycoside from Justicia procumbens.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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This study reported a new cyclopeptide alkaloid, justicianene A (1), and a new lignan glycoside, procumbenoside H (2), isolated from Justicia procumbens. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic analysis, including extensive 2D NMR studies and mass spectrometry. Cyclopeptide alkaloids were first observed from the genus Justicia. Compound 2 was cytotoxic against human LoVo colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 17.908 ± 1.949 ?M.
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Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The regulation of AMPK in the ischemic heart remains incompletely understood. Recent evidence implicates the role of Sestrin2 in the AMPK signaling pathway, and it is hypothesized that Sestrin2 plays an influential role during myocardial ischemia to promote AMPK activation. Sestrin2 protein was found to be expressed in adult cardiomyocytes and accumulated in the heart during ischemic conditions. Sestrin2 knockout (KO) mice were used to determine the importance of Sestrin2 during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When wild-type (WT) and Sestrin2 KO mice were subjected to in vivo I/R, myocardial infarct size was significantly greater in Sestrin2 KO compared with WT hearts. Similarly, Langendorff perfused hearts indicated exacerbated postischemic contractile function in Sestrin2 KO hearts compared with WT. Ischemic AMPK activation was found to be impaired in the Sestrin2 KO hearts. Immunoprecipitation of Sestrin2 demonstrated an association with AMPK. Moreover, liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major AMPK upstream kinase, was associated with the Sestrin2-AMPK complex in a time-dependent manner during ischemia, whereas this interaction was nearly abolished in Sestrin2 KO hearts. Thus, Sestrin2 plays an important role in cardioprotection against I/R injury, serving as an LKB1-AMPK scaffold to initiate AMPK activation during ischemic insults.-Morrison, A., Chen, L. Wang, J., Zhang, M., Yang, H., Ma, Y., Budanov, A., Lee, J. H., Karin, M., Li, J. Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart.
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Lossless Predictive Coding for Images with Bayesian Treatment.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Adaptive predictor has long been used for lossless predictive coding of images. Most of existing lossless predictive coding techniques mainly focus on suitability of prediction model for training set with the underlying assumption of local consistency, which may not hold well on object boundaries and cause large predictive error. In this paper, we propose a novel approach based on the assumption that local consistency and patch redundancy exist simultaneously in natural images. We derive a family of linear models and design a new algorithm to automatically select one suitable model for prediction. From the Bayesian perspective, the model with maximum posterior probability is considered as the best. Two types of model evidence are included in our algorithm. One is traditional Training Evidence, which represents the models' suitability for current pixel under the assumption of local consistency. The other is Target Evidence, which is proposed to express the preference for different models from the perspective of patch redundancy. It is shown that the fusion of Training Evidence and Target Evidence jointly exploits the benefits of local consistency and patch redundancy. As a result, our proposed predictor is more suitable for natural images with textures and object boundaries. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed predictor achieves higher efficiency compared with the state-of-the-art lossless predictors.
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Status of nurse staffing and nursing care delivery in Pudong, Shanghai.
Contemp Nurse
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract Aim To evaluate nurse staffing levels and nursing care delivery in adult general medical or surgical wards of hospitals in the Pudong district of Shanghai, China. Background Rapid economic development and improved Chinese living standards have spurred increased demands for high quality health care. Thus, the quality of nursing services has become a focus of attention. Design A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used for the study. Methods We used an anonymous survey to collect data from 1614 nurses from 98 wards in seven general hospitals in Pudong, Shanghai. Results During day shifts, the nurse-to-patient ratios were >1:10. However, these ratios were much higher during evening and night shifts. The clinical front-line nursing workforce primarily consisted of nurses with junior college degrees that had limited working experience. Junior nurses with different educational backgrounds, professional levels, and work experiences were assigned almost similar nursing care work as senior nurses. Conclusions In the surveyed hospitals in the Pudong district, nurse staffing levels and skill mix may be inadequate to meet the increasing demands of patient care. The clinical nursing workforce needs to be strengthened and used effectively to enhance the quality and safety of patient care. Relevance to clinical practice We should focus on the quantity and quality of the nursing workforce, as well as nursing skill utilization.
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Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial.
J Am Med Inform Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection.
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Super-oscillation focusing lens based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this paper, we numerically demonstrate the advantage of utilizing continuous amplitude and phase modulation in super-oscillation focusing lens design. Numerical results show that compared with simple binary amplitude modulation, continuous amplitude and phase modulation can greatly improve the super-oscillation focusing performance by increasing the central lobe intensity and the ratio of its energy to the total energy, reducing the sidelobe intensity, and substantially extending the field of view. Our study also reveals the role of phase distribution in reducing the spatial frequency bandwidth of the super-oscillation optical field on the focal plane. Based on continuous amplitude and binary phase modulation, a lens was designed with double layer metal slit array for wavelength of 4.6 µm. COMSOL is used to carry out the 2D simulation. The lens focal length is 40.18? and the focal spot FWHM is 0.308?. Two largest sidelobes are located right next to the central lobe with intensity about 40% of the central lobe intensity. Except for the two sidelobes, other sidelobes have intensity less than 25% of the central lobe intensity, which leads to a clear field of view on the whole focal plane.
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[Analysis of ornithine transcarbamylase gene mutations in three boys affected with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To identify the types of OTC gene mutations in three male patients with late onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD, MIM #311250).
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The Survey on Implementation of Evidence-Based Nursing in Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and the Effect Observation.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The objective is to survey the effect of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia and to observe the effect, providing a reference for clinical nursing intervention. 146 patients with mechanical ventilator were included and randomly divided into control group (n = 73) and observation group (n = 73). Patients in control group received conventional nursing method, and patients in observation group received EBN according to the nursing principles. The questions were raised and the literatures were retrieved to formulate the optimum nursing strategy according to clinical experience and patient need. After nursing, morbidity of VAP in observation group was significantly lower than control group, and length of stay, length of stay in ICU, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were also significantly lower than control group; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). After nursing, the physiological function, physical role, somatic pain, and mental health scores in observation group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05). Oral hygiene status in observation group was significantly better than control group; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). After nursing, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-? in two groups were both decreased (P < 0.05); IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-? in observation group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). When patients were discharged, satisfaction degree in observation group was significantly higher than control group; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The implementation of EBN can effectively prevent the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia and improve the clinical nursing quality, which is worthy of clinical application.
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Paroxysmal non-epileptic events in infants and toddlers: a phenomenologic analysis.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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To analyze in detail the clinical phenomenology of paroxysmal non-epileptic events (PNEEs) in infants and toddlers.
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Yeast Importin-? (Srp1) Performs Distinct Roles in the Import of Nuclear Proteins and in Targeting Proteasomes to the Nucleus.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Srp1 (importin-?) can translocate proteins that contain a nuclear localization signal (NLS) into the nucleus. The loss of Srp1 is lethal, although several temperature-sensitive mutants have been described. Among these mutants, srp1-31 displays the characteristic nuclear import defect of importin-? mutants, whereas srp1-49 shows a defect in protein degradation. We characterized these and additional srp1 mutants to determine whether distinct mechanisms were required for intracellular proteolysis and the import of NLS-containing proteins. We determined that srp1 mutants that failed to import NLS-containing proteins (srp1-31 and srp1-55) successfully localized proteasomes to the nucleus. In contrast, srp1 mutants that did not target proteasomes to the nucleus (srp1-49 and srp1-E402Q) were able to import NLS-containing proteins. The proteasome targeting defect of specific srp1 mutants caused stabilization of nuclear substrates and overall accumulation of multiubiquitylated proteins. Co-expression of a member of each class of srp1 mutants corrected both the proteasome localization defect and the import of NLS-containing proteins. These findings indicate that the targeting of proteasomes to the nucleus occurs by a mechanism distinct from the Srp1-mediated import of nuclear proteins.
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Identification of a Novel Aminotetralin Class of HDAC6 and HDAC8 Selective Inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Herein we report the identification of a novel class of HDAC6 and HDAC8 selective inhibitors through a unique chemistry and phenotypic screening strategy. Tetrahydroisoquinoline 12 was identified as a potent HDAC6 and HDAC8 dual inhibitor from a focused library through cellular tubulin acetylation and p21 induction screening assays. Scaffold hopping from 12 led to the discovery of an aminotetralin class of HDAC inhibitors. In particular, the 3-R stereoisomer 32 showed highly potent inhibition against HDAC6 and HDAC8 with IC50 values of 50 and 80 nM, respectively. Treatment of neuroblastoma BE(2)C cells with 32 resulted in elevated levels of acetylated tubulin, TrkA, and neurite outgrowth with only marginal effects on p21 induction and histone H3 acetylation. Consistent with its weak enzymatic inhibition of HDAC1, 32 showed significantly less cytotoxicity than SAHA and moderately inhibited the growth of myeloma NCI-H929 and OPM-2 cells.
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Nutrition Information In Community Newspapers: Goal Framing, Story Origins, and Topics.
Health Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Obesity rates are high in the rural United States. Because small communities often have few health care practitioners, nutrition news in community newspapers may be a useful source of information. This content analysis of a random sample of 164 nutrition stories from 10 community newspapers in the rural West North Central Midwest was guided by concepts from goal-framing theory. Locally generated stories comprised nearly half of the sample, suggesting that nutrition is a salient topic in many rural communities. Hedonic frames related to food enjoyment were twice as frequent as health improvement frames. Results suggest food promotion was the most common topic of nutrition stories, with guidelines for a healthy diet appearing about half as often. Stories about a healthy diet and food promotion were most often written locally. Findings are discussed with recommendations for improvement of community news coverage of nutrition.
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[Effect and clinical significance of glucocorticoid on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with hepatitis B virus-related pre-liver failure].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To investigate the effect and clinical significance of glucocorticoid on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related pre-liver failure.
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Identification of reference miRNAs in human tumors by TCGA miRNA-seq data.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Although the accuracy of detecting the expression of miRNAs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on reliable reference miRNAs, many commonly used reference miRNAs are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. To solve this problem, we analyzed the global expression profiles of thousands of samples in 14 types of common human tumors released by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified the most stably and highly expressed miRNAs as candidate reference miRNAs in each type of tumor. We found that miR-361-5p and let-7i-5p were the most recommended candidate reference miRNAs in nine and eight types of tumors, respectively, followed by let-7a-5p, mir-28-5p and miR-99b-5p. Our results are of important value to those researchers focused on miRNA; however, these candidate reference miRNAs still need to be validated prior to their use in qRT-PCR studies.
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Association between a polymorphism in miR-34b/c and susceptibility to cancer--a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as tumor suppressors or promoters in neoplasia by regulating relative gene expression. The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4938723 in miR-34b/c and susceptibility to cancers was inconsistent in previous studies. In this study, we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Web of Science and Embase to identify all relevant studies in this meta-analysis with 6,036 cases and 6,204 controls. We found that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of cancers in the heterozygous model (TC versus TT, OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.18, P=0.02). Subgroup analysis also revealed increased risk for Asian ethnicity in the heterozygous model (TC versus TT, OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.02-1.22, P=0.02), but decreased risk of colorectal cancer in homozygote model (CC versus TT, OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.47-0.92, P=0.02) and in the recessive model (CC versus TC+TT, OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.48-0.93, P=0.02) by cancer type. The current meta-analysis indicated that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism may decrease susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Well-designed studies with larger sample size are required to further validate the results.
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Intensive low-glycaemic-load dietary intervention for the management of glycaemia and serum lipids among women with gestational diabetes: a randomized control trial.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The present study aimed to compare the effects of a general dietary intervention and an intervention with low glycaemic load (GL) on glycaemic control, blood lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
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The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of Wuyi Black pig (Sus Scrofa).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract Wuyi Black pig is a native breed of Fujian province in China. It is the first time that the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Wuyi Black pig is reported in this work, which is determined through the PCR-based method. The total length of the mitognome is 16,709?bp, which contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 PCGs and 1 control region (D-loop region). The total base composition of Wuyi Black pig mitochondrial genome is 34.67% for A, 26.20% for C, 25.81% for T and 13.33% for G, in the order A?>?C?>?T?>?G. The complete mitochondrial genome of Wuyi Black pig provides an important data in genetic mechanism and the evolution genomes.
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GmPRP2 promoter drives root-preferential expression in transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Promoters play important roles in gene expression and function. There are three basic types of promoters: constitutive, specific, and inducible. Constitutive promoters are widely used in genetic engineering, but these promoters have limitations. Inducible promoters are activated by specific inducers. Tissue-specific promoters are a type of specific promoters that drive gene expression in specific tissues or organs. Here, we cloned and characterized the GmPRP2 promoter from soybean. The expression pattern indicated that this promoter is root-preferential in transgenic Arabidopsis and the hairy roots of soybean. It can be used to improve the root resistance or tolerance to pathogens, pests, malnutrition and other abiotic stresses which cause extensive annual losses in soybean production.
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A revision of the genus Nyctimenius Gressitt, 1951 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), with description of a new species.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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A taxonomic revision of the genus Nyctimenius Gressitt is presented. A new species, N. chiangi sp. nov., is described from China. Two new combinations, N. mamutensis (Hayashi, 1975) comb. nov. and N. sabahensis (Hayashi, 1975) comb. nov., are proposed. A new status, N. palawanicus (Aurivillius, 1922) stat. n., is proposed, and a lectotype is designated for N. palawanicus. The male terminalia and aedeagus of N. ochraceovittatus are described for the first time. Nyctimenius is redescribed, and a key to Nyctimenius species is presented.
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A recessive variant of XRCC4 predisposes to non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer in chinese women and impairs the DNA damage response via dysregulated nuclear localization.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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XRCC4 plays a crucial role in the non-homologous end joining pathway that maintains genome stability. In this two-stage case-control study with 1,764 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients and 1,623 cancer-free controls, we investigated the contribution of genetic variants of XRCC4 to breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. We identified a recessive missense variant, rs3734091 (c.739G>T, p.Ala247Ser), of XRCC4 that was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.92, P = 0.007), particularly with the risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (OR = 18.65, P < 0.0001). This p.Ala247Ser variant disturbed the nuclear localization of XRCC4 in cells homozygous for the rs3734091-T allele but not in heterozygous cells at both the cellular and tissue levels. In heterozygous cells, wild-type XRCC4 facilitated the nuclear localization of the XRCC4A247S mutant, thus compensating for the impaired localization of XRCC4A247S. This provided a biological mechanism by which rs3734091 conferred an increased susceptibility to non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer exclusively under a recessive model. Further functional analyses revealed that p.Ala247Ser impaired the DNA damage repair capacity and ultimately perturbed genomic stability. Taken together, our findings document the role of XRCC4 in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer predisposition and reveal its underlying biological mechanism of action.
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CUL4B promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Cullin 4B (CUL4B) is a component of the Cullin4B-Ring E3 ligase complex (CRL4B) that functions in proteolysis and is implicated in tumorigenesis. Here, we report that CUL4B is associated with tumorigenesis by promoting proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells. We performed RNA interference (RNAi) with a lentiviral vector system to silence the CUL4B gene using osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. The negative control included the normal target cells infected with the negative control virus whereas the knockdown cells included the normal target cells transfected with the RNAi target virus. We assessed the inhibition resulting from the decreased expression of the CUL4B gene on the proliferation rate of SAOS-2 cells, and also evaluated the cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and clonability. Compared with the negative control, the CUL4B gene expression was significantly inhibited in the SAOS-2 cells at the mRNA and protein levels in the knockdown group (P<0.01). Furthermore, in the knockdown group, the cell proliferation rate and clonability were also significantly inhibited (P<0.01). The apoptosis rate increased significantly (P<0.05). A significant decrease in the number of cells in the G1 phase (P<0.01) and significant increases in the S (P<0.01) and G2 phases (P<0.05) were observed. The silencing of CUL4B gene expression can effectively inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. These findings may provide a novel biomarker for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
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Genome re-sequencing suggested a weedy rice origin from domesticated indica-japonica hybridization: a case study from southern China.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Whole-genome re-sequencing of weedy rice from southern China reveals that weedy rice can originate from hybridization of domesticated indica and japonica rice. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Rosh.), which harbors phenotypes of both wild and domesticated rice, has become one of the most notorious weeds in rice fields worldwide. While its formation is poorly understood, massive amounts of rice genomic data may provide new insights into this issue. In this study, we determined genomes of three weedy rice samples from the lower Yangtze region, China, and investigated their phylogenetics, population structure and chromosomal admixture patterns. The phylogenetic tree and principle component analysis based on 46,005 SNPs with 126 other Oryza accessions suggested that the three weedy rice accessions were intermediate between japonica and indica rice. An ancestry inference study further demonstrated that weedy rice had two dominant genomic components (temperate japonica and indica). This strongly suggests that weedy rice originated from indica-japonica hybridization. Furthermore, 22,443 novel fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the weedy genomes and could have been generated after indica-japonica hybridization for environmental adaptation.
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CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes suppress ovarian tumor growth by repressing slug-mediated EMT and canonical Wnt signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Human ovarian cancer is diagnosed in the late, metastatic stages but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We report a surprising functional link between CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes and the malignancy of serous-type ovarian cancer. Analyses of clinical specimens indicate that CD151 expression is significantly reduced or diminished in 90% of metastatic lesions, while it remains detectable in 58% of primary tumors. These observations suggest a putative tumor-suppressing role of CD151 in ovarian cancer. Indeed, our analyses show that knocking down CD151 or ?3 integrin enhances tumor cell proliferation, growth and ascites production in nude mice. These changes are accompanied by impaired cell-cell contacts and aberrant expression of E-cadherin, Mucin 5AC and fibronectin, largely reminiscent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like change. Importantly, Slug, a master regulator of EMT, is markedly elevated. Knocking down Slug partially restores CD151-?3?1 integrin complex-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Moreover, disruption of these adhesion protein complexes is accompanied by a concomitant activation of canonical Wnt signaling, including elevated levels of ?-catenin and Axin-2 as well as resistance to the inhibition in ?-catenin-dependent transcriptional complexes. Together, our study demonstrates that CD151-?3?1 integrin complexes regulate ovarian tumor growth by repressing Slug-mediated EMT and Wnt signaling.
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Prognostic Value of Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography in Patients After Heart Transplant.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a key prognostic determinant after heart transplant. Detection and risk stratification of patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy are problematic. Positron emission tomography using rubidium-82 allows quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow and may have utility for risk stratification in this population.
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Metallo-supramolecular nanogels for intracellular pH-responsive drug release.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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A simple process is developed to fabricate metallo-supramolecular nanogels (MSNs) by the metallo-supramolecular-coordinated interaction between histidine and iron-meso-tetraphenylporphin. MSNs are composed of histidine-modified dextran (DH) and iron-meso-tetraphenylporphin (Fe-Por) and exhibit excellent biocompatibility and stability. MSNs show pH responsiveness in the intracellular mildly acidic environment, which has great potential for acid-triggered drug release delivery. In vitro drug release profiles demonstrate that the pH-dependent disassembly of MSNs to histidine and Por results in a quicker release rate of loaded-DOX at pH 5.3, while at pH 7.4 MSNs could hinder the release of loaded-DOX due to the enhanced stability of MSNs.
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Electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on a silicon chip using Berry's phase.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The continued convergence of electronics and photonics on the chip scale can benefit from the voltage control of optical polarization for applications in communications, signal processing and sensing. It is challenging, however, to electrically manipulate the polarization state of light in planar optical waveguides. Here we introduce out-of-plane optical waveguides, allowing access to Berry's phase, a quantum-mechanical phenomenon of purely topological origin. As a result, electrically tunable optical polarization rotation on the chip scale is achieved. Devices fabricated in the silicon-on-insulator material platform are not limited to a single static polarization state. Rather, they can exhibit dynamic tuning of polarization from the fundamental transverse electric mode to the fundamental transverse magnetic mode. Electrical tuning of optical polarization over a 19?dB range of polarization extinction ratio is demonstrated with less than 1?dB of conversion loss at infrared wavelengths. Compact system architectures involving dynamic control of optical polarization in integrated circuits are envisioned.
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Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, ER has a profound impact on breast cancer characteristics, including a retained impact when co-expressed with HER2. Similarly, HER2 dramatically modulates ER-positive breast cancer making it more aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen levels.
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New insights into the echinocandins and other fungal non-ribosomal peptides and peptaibiotics.
Nat Prod Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are a primary modality for fungal peptidic natural product assembly and are responsible for some of the best known, most useful, and most destructive fungal metabolites. Through genome sequencing and computer-assisted recognition of modular motifs of catalytic domains, one can now confidently identify most NRPS biosynthetic genes of a fungal strain. The biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for two of the most important classes of NRP fungal derived drugs, cyclosporine and the echinocandins, have been recently characterized by genomic sequencing and annotation. Complete biosynthetic gene clusters for the pneumocandins and echinocandins have been mapped at the genetic level and functionally characterized to some extent. Genomic sequencing of representative strains of most of the variants in the echinocandin family, including the wild-type of the three fungal strains employed for industrial-scale production of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulofungin, has enabled characterization of the basic architecture of the echinocandin NRPS pathways. A comparative analysis of how pathway genes cause variations in lipoinitiation, biosynthesis of the non-proteinogenic amino acids, amino acid substitutions, and hydroxylations and sulfonations of the core peptide and contribute to the molecular diversity of the family is presented. We also review new information on the natural functions of NRPs, the differences between fungal and bacterial NRPSs, and functional characterization of selected NRPS gene clusters. Continuing discovery of the new fungal nonribosomal peptides has contributed new structural diversity and potential insights into their biological functions among other natural peptides and peptaibiotics. We therefore provide an update on new peptides, depsipeptides and peptaibols discovered in the Fungi since 2009.
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[Guillain-Barre syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: two cases report and literature review].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
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[Intensive care unit survey of cognition status of donation after brain death].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To explore the development approach of donation after brain death through analyzing the cognition status of donation after brain death among medical staff and potential donor (PD) family members of intensive care unit (ICU).
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Boronic Acid Shell-Crosslinked Dextran-b-PLA Micelles for Acid-Responsive Drug Delivery.
Macromol Biosci
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Herein, 3-carboxy-5-nitrophenylboronic acid (CNPBA) shell-crosslinked micelles based on amphiphilic dextran-block-polylactide (Dex-b-PLA) are prepared and used for efficient intracellular drug deliveries. Due to the reversible pH-dependent binding with diols to form boronate esters, CNPBA modified Dex-b-PLA shows excellent pH-sensitivity. In neutral aqueous conditions, CNPBA-Dex-b-PLA forms shell-crosslinked micelles to enable DOX loading, while in acid conditions, the boronate esters hydrolyze and the micelles de-crosslink to release loaded DOX. In vitro release studies indicate that the release of the DOX cargo is minimized at physiological conditions, while there is a burst release in response to low pHs. The cell viability of CNPBA-Dex-b-PLA investigated by MTT assay was more than 90%, indicating that, as a drug delivery system, CNPBA-Dex-b-PLA has good cytocompatibility. These features suggest that the pH-responsive biodegradable CNPBA-Dex-b-PLA can efficiently load and deliver DOX into tumor cells and enhance the inhibition of cellular proliferation in vitro, providing a favorable platform as a drug delivery system for cancer therapy.
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Secondary damage in left-sided frontal white matter detected by diffusion tensor imaging is correlated with executive dysfunction in patients with acute infarction at the ipsilateral posterior corona radiata.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Executive dysfunction has been observed in patients with left-sided anterior corona radiata infarction. However, whether left-sided posterior corona radiata infarction could cause executive dysfunction is unclear. Also, whether secondary damage in the left frontal white matter following ipsilateral posterior corona radiata infarct is causal or not and contributes to the occurrence and development of executive dysfunction, is still uncertain.
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Production of a bioflocculant from chromotropic acid waste water and its application in steroid estrogen removal.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A novel strain (designated as SW-2) which could convert chromotropic acid into bioflocculants was isolated from chromotropic acid wastewater. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 7.74%, initial pH 6.9, and CODCr of the chromotropic acid wastewater 425mg/L. The yielded bioflocculant was primarily consisting of polysaccharide and protein. It could maintain its flocculating activity to 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 3-9 and 20-80°C. In addition, conditions for the removal of estrogens with the bioflocculant were investigated and determined to be bioflocculant dosage 50mg/L, initial pH 3, reaction time 60min, and temperature 45°C. Under these optimal conditions, the removal efficiencies of E1, E2, EE2, and E3 were 87%, 92%, 88% and 96%, respectively. The bioflocculant was shown to offer a promising alternative method of removing estrogens from water in pretreatment applications.
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Efficient in vivo deletion of a large imprinted lncRNA by CRISPR/Cas9.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Recent genome-wide studies have revealed that the majority of the mouse genome is transcribed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and growing evidence supports the importance of ncRNAs in regulating gene expression and epigenetic processes. However, the low efficiency of conventional gene targeting strategies has hindered the functional study of ncRNAs in vivo, particularly in generating large fragment deletions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with multiple expression variants. The bacterial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has recently been applied as an efficient tool for engineering site-specific mutations of protein-coding genes in the genome. In this study, we explored the potential of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate large genomic deletions of lncRNAs in mice. We developed an efficient one-step strategy to target the maternally expressed lncRNA, Rian, on chromosome 12 in mice. We showed that paired sgRNAs can precisely generate large deletions up to 23kb and the deletion efficiency can be further improved up to 33% by combining multiple sgRNAs. The deletion successfully abolished the expression of Rian from the maternally inherited allele, validating the biological relevance of the mutations in studying an imprinted locus. Mutation of Rian has differential effects on expression of nearby genes in different somatic tissues. Taken together, we have established a robust one-step method to engineer large deletions to knockout lncRNA genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Our work will facilitate future functional studies of other lncRNAs in vivo.
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Molecular pathways reflecting poor intrauterine growth are found in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Are molecular pathways reflecting the biology of small for gestational age (SGA) neonates preserved in umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)?
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Caveolin-1 Limits the Contribution of BKCa Channel to MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Increasing evidence suggests that caveolin-1 and large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BKCa) channels are implicated in the carcinogenesis processes, including cell proliferation and invasion. These two proteins have been proven to interact with each other in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and modulate vascular contractility. In this study, we investigated the probable interaction between caveolin-1 and BKCa in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We identified that caveolin-1 and BKCa were co-localized and could be reciprocally co-immunoprecipitated in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. siRNA mediated caveolin-1 knockdown resulted in activation and increased surface expression of BKCa channel, and subsequently promoted the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. These effects were attenuated in the presence of BKCa-siRNA. Conversely, up-regulated caveolin-1 suppressed function and surface expression of BKCa channel and exerted negative effects on breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Similarly, these opposing effects were abrogated by BKCa up-regulation. Collectively, our findings suggest that BKCa is a critical target for suppression by caveolin-1 in suppressing proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. The functional complex of caveolin-1 and BKCa in the membrane microdomain may be served as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.
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Reduction of pre-analytical errors in clinical laboratory through multiple aspects and whole course intervention measures.
J Evid Based Med
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Errors in pre-analytical phase decrease the accuracy of reports from clinical laboratory department. Considering the disqualified rate of pre-analytical sample in our hospital, we performed several intervention measures to improve the situation.
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Chrysin Protects against Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice through Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Inflammation and oxidative stress play an important part in the pathogenesis of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, resulting in neuronal death. The signaling pathways involved and the underlying mechanisms of these events are not fully understood. Chrysin, which is a naturally occurring flavonoid, exhibits various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective properties of chrysin in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To this end, male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with chrysin once a day for seven days and were then subjected to 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Our data show that chrysin successfully decreased neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes, compared with the vehicle group. The increases in glial cell numbers and proinflammatory cytokine secretion usually caused by ischemia/reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by chrysin pretreatment. Moreover, chrysin also inhibited the MCAO-induced up-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), compared with the vehicle. These results suggest that chrysin could be a potential prophylactic agent for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury mediated by its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
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The relationship between the inflammatory response and cell adhesion on alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) microcapsules after transplantation.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Cell microencapsulation technology is a potential alternative therapy, but cell overgrowth and adhesion on the microcapsules after transplantation shortens their time of therapeutic efficacy. Inflammatory cells were the main cells that adhered to the microcapsules, so understanding the body's inflammatory processes would help to better identify the mechanisms of cell adhesion to the outer surface of the microcapsules. Our study measured the inflammatory cells and the cytokines and characterized the associated changes in the alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) microcapsules 1, 7, 14, and 28 days after implantation in the peritoneal cavity. Then the relationship between the inflammatory response and cell adhesion on the microcapsules was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the microcapsules did not evoke a systemic inflammatory response, but initiated a local inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, the correlation analysis showed that the level of cell adhesion on the microcapsules was related to the number of lymphocytes and macrophages, and the amount of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in the peritoneal cavity. Our results may provide a foundation for reducing the immune response to these microcapsules, prolonging graft survival and improving the efficacy of these treatments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Rad23 interaction with the proteasome is regulated by phosphorylation of its ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Rad23 was identified as a DNA repair protein; although a role in protein degradation has been described. The protein degradation function of Rad23 contributes to cell cycle progression, stress response, ER proteolysis, DNA repair. Rad23 binds the proteasome through a ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain, and contains ubiquitin-associated (UBA) motifs that bind multiubiquitin chains. These domains allow Rad23 to function as a substrate shuttle-factor. This property is shared by structurally similar proteins (Dsk2 and Ddi1), and is conserved among the human and mouse counterparts of Rad23. Despite much effort, the regulation of Rad23 interactions with ubiquitinated substrates and the proteasome is unknown. We report here that Rad23 is extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro. Serine residues in UbL are phosphorylated, and influence Rad23 interaction with proteasomes. Replacement of these serine residues with acidic residues, to mimic phosphorylation, reduced proteasome binding. We reported that when UbL is overexpressed, it can compete with Rad23 for proteasome interaction and inhibit substrate turnover. This effect is not observed with UbL containing acidic substitutions, consistent with results that phosphorylation inhibits interaction with the proteasome. Loss of both Rad23 and Rpn10 caused pleiotropic defects that were suppressed by overexpressing either Rad23 or Rpn10. Rad23 bearing a UbL domain with acidic substitutions failed to suppress rad23? rpn10?, confirming the importance of regulated Rad23/proteasome binding. Strikingly, Threonine-75 in human HR23B also regulates interaction with the proteasome, suggesting that phosphorylation is a conserved mechanism for controlling Rad23/proteasome interaction.
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Polyoxometalates acid treatment for preparing starch nanoparticles.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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In this article, a new way of preparing starch-based nanoparticles (SNPs) with high yields by a polyoxometalates acid treatment is presented. The particle morphology, mean size and size distribution of the obtained SNPs are characterized using a dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). By changing parameters such as temperature, concentration of polyoxometalates and treating time the size of SNPs can be controlled. In addition, there are no changes in the structures of the starch granules as confirmed by IR or (1)H NMR. Freeze-dried SNPs are amorphous as characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD).
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Melting of icosahedral nickel clusters under hydrostatic pressure.
J Comput Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The thermal stabilities and melting behavior of icosahedral nickel clusters under hydrostatic pressure have been studied by constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulation. The potential energy and Lindemann index are calculated. The overall melting temperature exhibits a strong dependence on pressure. The Lindemann index of solid structure before melting varies slowly and is almost independent of pressure. However, after the clusters melt completely, the Lindemann index at the overall melting point strongly depends on pressure. The overall melting temperature is found to be increasing nonlinearly with increasing pressure, while the volume change during melting decreases linearly with increasing pressure. Under a high pressure and temperature environment, similar angular distributions were found between liquid and solid structures, indicating the existence of a converging local structure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A new method using xenogeneicacellular dermal matrix in the reconstruction of lacrimal drainage.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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To prospectively evaluate the reliability and efficacy of a new treatment for the reconstruction of the lacrimal duct using a new histo-engineered material, xenogeneic (bovine) acellular dermal matrix.
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Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass through pretreatment with plasma electrolysis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A comprehensive research on plasma electrolysis as pretreatment method for water hyacinth (WH) was performed based on lignin content, crystalline structure, surface property, and enzymatic hydrolysis. A large number of active particles, such as HO and H2O2, generated by plasma electrolysis could decompose the lignin of the biomass samples and reduce the crystalline index. An efficient pretreatment process made use of WH pretreated at a load of 48 wt% (0.15-0.18 mm) in FeCl3 solution for 30 min at 450 V. After the pretreatment, the sugar yield of WH was increased by 126.5% as compared with unpretreated samples.
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Development of A Reference Dose for BDE-47, 99, and 209 Using Benchmark Dose Methods.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Eleven recently completed toxicological studies were critically reviewed to identify toxicologically significant endpoints and dose-response information. Dose-response data were compiled and entered into the USEPA's benchmark dose software (BMDS) for calculation of a benchmark dose (BMD) and a benchmark dose low (BMDL). After assessing 91 endpoints across the nine studies, a total of 23 of these endpoints were identified for BMD modeling, and BMDL estimates corresponding to various dose-response models were compiled for these separate endpoints. Thyroid, neurobehavior and reproductive endpoints for BDE-47, -99, -209 were quantitatively evaluated. According to methods and feature of each study, different uncertainty factor (UF) value was decided and subsequently reference doses (RfDs) were proposed. Consistent with USEPA, the lowest BMDLs of 2.10, 81.77, and 1698 µg/kg were used to develop RfDs for BDE-47, -99, and -209, respectively. RfDs for BDE-99 and BDE-209 were comparable to EPA results, and however, RfD of BDE-47 was much lower than that of EPA, which may result from that reproductive/developmental proves to be more sensitive than neurobehavior for BDE-47 and the principal study uses very-low-dose exposure.
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The preservation of islet with alginate encapsulation in the process of transportation.
Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Restoration of insulin secretion by transplantation of isolated islets is a treatment for type ? diabetes mellitus. One of the major issues with clinical treatment of islet transplantation is how to maintain islet viability during transportation from the donor to the patient.
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Irisin has no effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Irisin, a newly identified myokine responsible for browning of white or beige adipocytes, has been reported to be present at reduced levels in diabetic patients and associated with obesity, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, and intrahepatic TG levels. We wondered whether irisin could directly affect fatty acid and TG metabolism in adipocytes and hepatocytes. We examined the effects of various concentrations of irisin on lipolysis (according to Oil Red O staining, free fatty acid release, and glycerol release), protein expression of HSL and ATGL, and mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes (UCP-1, PPAR?, FABP-4, HSL, ATGL, PPAR?, and CPT-1) in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as mRNA levels of genes involved in the synthesis (SREBP-1C and FAS) and ?-oxidation (PPAR? and CPT-1) of fatty acids in HepG2 hepatocytes under physiological or hyperglycemic conditions. Our results revealed that although irisin significantly increased the mRNA levels of UCP-1 and PPAR?, it failed to show detectable effects on lipolysis, HSL or ATGL protein levels, or the mRNA expression of other lipid-related genes in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In HepG2 hepatocytes, high glucose induced the upregulation of SREBP-1C and FAS and the downregulation of PPAR?; however, no significant effect of irisin on gene expression was observed under either physiological or hyperglycemic conditions. We therefore conclude that irisin has no significant direct effect on lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or on fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 hepatocytes.
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Everolimus-Induced Hematologic Changes in Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer.
Clin. Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Everolimus, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is increasingly used in breast cancer and familiarity with its full range of toxicity is critical for practicing oncologists.
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Effects of individual and multiple fatty acids (palmitate, oleate and docosahaexenoic acid) on cell viability and lipid metabolism in LO2 human liver cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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This study was designed to investigate the direct effects of fatty acids (FAs) on the cell viability and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism in LO2 human liver cells. Palmitate (PA), oleate (OA) and docosahaexenoic acid (DHA) were used to represent saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs, respectively. At concentrations of ?3.2 µg/ml, treatment with single FAs increased the viability of the LO2 cells. At FA concentrations of >3.2 µg/ml, cell viability following OA treatment was increased, but PA or DHA treatment at these concentrations reduced cell viability. Administration of mixtures of these FAs in three ratios (PA:OA:DHA = 1:2:1, 1:1:1 and 1:1:2, respectively) increased the cell viability compared with the control group. The intracellular triglyceride (TG) levels following all types of treatment were significantly increased and the accumulation of TGs was markedly increased with high doses of DHA. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? was significantly upregulated in all groups, with the exception of the 1:1:1 group at 3.2 µg/ml and the 1:1:2 group at 12.8 µg/ml. The expression levels of sterol regulatory-element binding protein?1c, liver X receptor ? and apolipoprotein C?I were significantly reduced in all groups with the exception of the DHA?treated group and the 1:2:1 groups at 3.2 and 12.8 µg/ml. In conclusion, these results indicate that the type, concentration and mixture ratios of FAs are all important in determining the cell viability and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in LO2 hepatocytes.
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Assessment of Exposure to Polybrominated Dipheny Ethers via Inhalation and Diet in China.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This paper is to assess the current status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contamination in the environment in China and estimate the exposure to PBDEs in non-occupational populations.
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Ethnic differences translate to inadequacy of high-risk screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in an Asian population: a cohort study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Universal and high-risk screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been widely studied and debated. Few studies have assessed GDM screening in Asian populations and even fewer have compared Asian ethnic groups in a single multi-ethnic population.
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Ethanol supports macrophage recruitment and reinforces invasion and migration of lewis lung carcinoma.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer progression, and our data suggested that ethanol (EtOH) could promote the progression of breast cancer via increased monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Thus, we investigated the effects of EtOH on lung cancer growth and metastasis to explore whether immunosuppression had a role.
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Hemodynamic Study with Duplex Ultrasonography on Combined (Direct/Indirect) Revascularization in Adult Moyamoya Disease.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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To evaluate the hemodynamic changes by duplex ultrasonography in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) patients who underwent combined direct and indirect revascularization surgery.
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Surg Obes Relat Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for the treatment of obesity leads to long-term diabetes remission in approximately 80% of cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RYGB on hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic rats and their possible mechanisms. We also tested the hypothesis that RYGB reduces lipid content and improves insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes and skeletal muscle cells.
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High glucose inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor??B ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation via downregulation of v?ATPase V0 subunit d2 and dendritic cell?specific transmembrane protein.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The balance between bone formation and resorption is compromised in diabetes, which may contribute to the high risk of fractures in diabetic patients. However, the mechanism by which high glucose affects bone turnover remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that high glucose inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor??B ligand (RANKL)?induced osteoclastogenesis. In order to examine the mechanism involved in the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, the present study examined several key molecules involved in osteoclast differentiation, including v?ATPase V0 subunit d2 (Atp6V0d2), dendritic cell?specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), c?fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). The expression levels of Atp6V0d2 and DC?STAMP are regulated by NFATc1 and c?fos, and are required for osteoclast fusion, which is important for osteoclast maturation. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrated for the first time that high glucose decreased the gene expression of ATP6v0d2 and DC?STAMP in RAW264.7 cells mediated by RANKL. Therefore, the suppression of pre?osteoclast or osteoclast fusion may be essential for the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation.
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A novel ATP7B gene mutation in a liver failure patient with normal ceruloplasmin and low serum alkaline phosphatase.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism resulting in accumulation of copper in liver and other organs. We present a liver failure patient, who was misdiagnosed for two years, with normal ceruloplasmin and low serum alkaline phosphatase. Molecular testing revealed a novel p.Ala982Thr mutation within ATP7B gene. The pathology of liver sample showed a large amount of copper deposition in the hepatocytes and confirmed the diagnosis of WD. Our data highlighted the importance of molecular testing in the early diagnosis of atypical WD.
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A rhodamine derivative as selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for mercury (II) in buffer solution, test strips and living cells.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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In this paper, we reported a new rhodamine derivative bearing 2,4-dichloroquinazoline as a selective fluorescent chemosensor for Hg(2+). The ring-opening process of spirolactam enabled the large fluorescent enhancement and colorimetric change by Hg(2+) induced configuration transformation of the rhodamine. Moreover, the fluorescence changes of the chemosensor were dramatically specific for Hg(2+) in the presence of other metal ions, which could meet the selective requirements for practical application. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear response range covered the concentration range of Hg(2+) from 0 to 1.0×10(-6)M, and the limit of detection was calculated to be 2.7×10(-8)M. In addition, the probe was also successfully applied to the determination of Hg(2+) in water samples, test strips and living cells.
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Human RAD6 Promotes G1-S Transition and Cell Proliferation through Upregulation of Cyclin D1 Expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein ubiquitinylation regulates protein stability and activity. RAD6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which that has been substantially biochemically characterized, functions in a number of biologically relevant pathways, including cell cycle progression. In this study, we show that RAD6 promotes the G1-S transition and cell proliferation by regulating the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that RAD6 influences the transcription of CCND1 by increasing monoubiquitinylation of histone H2B and trimethylation of H3K4 in the CCND1 promoter region. Our study presents, for the first time, an evidence for the function of RAD6 in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human cells, raising the possibility that RAD6 could be a new target for molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer therapeutics.
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Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis.
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Unsupervised deconvolution of dynamic imaging reveals intratumor vascular heterogeneity and repopulation dynamics.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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With the existence of biologically distinctive malignant cells originated within the same tumor, intratumor functional heterogeneity is present in many cancers and is often manifested by the intermingled vascular compartments with distinct pharmacokinetics. However, intratumor vascular heterogeneity cannot be resolved directly by most in vivo dynamic imaging. We developed multi-tissue compartment modeling (MTCM), a completely unsupervised method of deconvoluting dynamic imaging series from heterogeneous tumors that can improve vascular characterization in many biological contexts. Applying MTCM to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancers revealed characteristic intratumor vascular heterogeneity and therapeutic responses that were otherwise undetectable. MTCM is readily applicable to other dynamic imaging modalities for studying intratumor functional and phenotypic heterogeneity, together with a variety of foreseeable applications in the clinic.
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Fluctuation between Fasting and 2-H Postload Glucose State Is Associated with Glomerular Hyperfiltration in Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Patients with HbA1c < 7%.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate whether fluctuations between the fasting and 2-h postload glucose ([2-hPBG]-fasting blood glucose [FBG]) states are associated with glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.
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Serum MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), which are extremely stable and protected from RNAse-mediated degradation in body fluids, have emerged as candidate biomarkers for many diseases. The present study aimed to identify a serum microRNA (miRNA) expression profile that could serve as a novel diagnostic biomarker for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).
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Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear.
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Integrated analysis of whole-genome paired-end and mate-pair sequencing data for identifying genomic structural variations in multiple myeloma.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We present a pipeline to perform integrative analysis of mate-pair (MP) and paired-end (PE) genomic DNA sequencing data. Our pipeline detects structural variations (SVs) by taking aligned sequencing read pairs as input and classifying these reads into properly paired and discordantly paired categories based on their orientation and inferred insert sizes. Recurrent SV was identified from the discordant read pairs. Our pipeline takes into account genomic annotation and genome repetitive element information to increase detection specificity. Application of our pipeline to whole-genome MP and PE sequencing data from three multiple myeloma cell lines (KMS11, MM.1S, and RPMI8226) recovered known SVs, such as heterozygous TRAF3 deletion, as well as a novel experimentally validated SPI1 - ZNF287 inter-chromosomal rearrangement in the RPMI8226 cell line.
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Triglyceride levels are closely associated with mild declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal serum lipid levels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in subjects with normal serum lipid levels.
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A serum microRNA panel as potential biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma related with hepatitis B virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The identification of new high-sensitivity and high-specificity markers for HCC are essential. We aimed to identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers to be used in diagnosing hepatitis B virus (HBV) -related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Care-seeking and quality of care for outpatient sick children in rural Hebei, China: a cross-sectional study.
Croat. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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Aim. To assess the quality of outpatient pediatric care provided by township and village doctors, prevalence of common childhood diseases, care-seeking behavior, and coverage of key interventions in Zhao County in China. Methods. We conducted two cross-sectional surveys: 1) maternal, newborn, and child health household survey including1601 caregivers of children younger than two years; 2) health facility survey on case management of 348 sick children younger than five years by local health workers and assessment of the availability of drugs and supplies in health facility. Results. Our household survey showed that the prevalence of fever, cough, and diarrhea was 16.8%, 9.2%, and 15.6% respectively. Caregivers of children with fever, cough, and diarrhea sought care primarily in village clinics and township hospitals. Only 41.2% of children with suspected pneumonia received antibiotics, and very few children with diarrhea received oral rehydration solutions (1.2%) and zinc (4.4%). Our facility survey indicated that very few sick children were fully assessed, and only 43.8% were correctly classified by health workers when compared with the gold standard. Use of antibiotics for sick children was high and not according to guidelines. Conclusion. We showed poor quality of services for outpatient sick children in Zhao County. Since Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy has shown positive effects on child health in some areas of China, it is advisable to implement it in other areas as well.
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mHealth Series: Factors influencing sample size calculations for mHealth-based studies - A mixed methods study in rural China.
J Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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An important issue for mHealth evaluation is the lack of information for sample size calculations.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.