Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency induced by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) resulted in hypertension. L-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to L-arginine to generate NO. We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent L-NAME-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: control, L-NAME, control + citrulline (CIT), and L-NAME + citrulline (L-NAME+CIT). Pregnant rats received L-NAME administration at 60 mg/kg per day subcutaneously during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% L-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were sacrificed at 12 wk of age. L-NAME exposure during pregnancy induces hypertension in the 12-wk-old offspring. Maternal CIT therapy prevented L-NAME-induced programmed hypertension, which was associated with decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and increased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio in the kidney, increased urinary cGMP levels, and decreased renal protein levels of type 3 sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE3). Together, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to its ability to increase NO level in the kidney, and inhibition of NHE3 expression. Our results suggest that supplementing CIT to pregnant women with NO deficiency can improve fetal development and prevent programmed hypertension.
Heat-producing beige/brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes in white adipose tissue have the potential to suppress metabolic disease in mice and hold great promise for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (hASCs) from sc white adipose tissue can be efficiently converted into beige adipocytes. Upon pharmacological activation of PPAR?, hASC-derived adipocytes activated beige fat-selective genes and a brown/beige fat-selective electron transport chain gene program. Importantly, hASC-derived beige fat cells displayed the bioenergetic characteristics of genuine brown fat cells, including a capacity for increased respiratory uncoupling in response to ?-adrenergic agonists. Furthermore, knock-down experiments reveal that the thermogenic capacity of human beige fat cells was entirely dependent on the presence of uncoupling protein 1. In summary, this study reveals that hASCs can be readily differentiated into beige adipocytes that, upon activation, undergo uncoupling protein 1-dependent thermogenesis.
Resistin is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreting adipokine, which may play a critical role in modulating cancer pathogenesis. Chondrosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor known to frequently metastasize; however, the role of resistin in the metastasis of human chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of resistin was higher in chondrosarcoma biopsy tissues than in normal cartilage. Moreover, treatment with resistin increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression and promoted cell migration in human chondrosarcoma cells. Co-transfection with microRNA (miR)-519d mimic resulted in reversed resistin-mediated cell migration and MMP-2 expression. Additionally, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 inhibitors or siRNAs reduced the resistin-increased cell migration and miR-519d suppression, and inhibition of resistin expression resulted in suppression of MMP-2 expression and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, our results indicate that resistin promotes chondrosarcoma metastasis and MMP-2 expression through activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and down-regulation of miR-519d expression. Therefore, resistin may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis.
-Angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi), beyond blocking angiotensin II (AngII)-signalling, augment natriuretic peptides by inhibiting their breakdown by neprilysin (NEP). The myocardial effects of ARNi have been little studied until recently. We hypothesized that LCZ696 attenuates left ventricular (LV) remodeling after experimental myocardial infarction (MI), and that this may be contributed to by inhibition of hypertrophy and fibrosis in cardiac cells.
Chemokines modulate angiogenesis and metastasis that dictate cancer development in tumor microenvironment. Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor and is characterized by a high metastatic potential. Chemokine CCL5 (previously called RANTES) has been reported to facilitate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the crosstalk between chemokine CCL5 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment has not been well explored. In this study, we found that CCL5 increased VEGF expression and production in human osteosarcoma cells. The conditioned medium (CM) from CCL5-treated osteosarcoma cells significantly induced tube formation and migration of human endothelial progenitor cells. Pretreatment of cells with CCR5 antibody or transfection with CCR5 specific siRNA blocked CCL5-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis. CCL5/CCR5 axis demonstrably activated protein kinase C? (PKC?), c-Src, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) signaling cascades to induce VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of CCL5 suppressed VEGF expression and attenuated osteosarcoma CM-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. CCL5 knockdown dramatically abolished tumor growth and angiogenesis in the osteosarcoma xenograft animal model. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of CCL5 and VEGF were correlated with tumor stage according the immunohistochemistry analysis of human osteosarcoma tissues. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma microenvironment through PKC?/c-Src/HIF-1? signaling pathway. CCL5 may represent a potential therapeutic target against human osteosarcoma.
Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Rongshui Xiang duck was measured by PCR-based methods. Our research findings reveal that the entire mitochondrial genome of the Rongshui Xiang duck is a circular molecule consisting of 16,605?bp (GenBank accession number: KJ833587). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the mitochondrial genome were found to be 29.20%, 22.20%, 32.82% and 15.79%, respectively, similar to the majority of avian species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rongshui Xiang duck contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. The characteristics of the mitochondrial genome were analyzed in detail. Our complete mitochondrial genome sequence should provide essential information for understanding phylogenetic relationships among duck mitochondrial genomes.
We report here two complete genome sequences of porcine circovirus 2. The complete genomes of BH5 and BH6 were amplified and analyzed. Sequence analysis demonstrated that strains BH5 and BH6 belonged to PCV2d and PCV2b, respectively. Knowledge regarding the complete genome sequences of strains BH5 and BH6 will be useful for epidemiological surveillance.
In this study, the presence of Legionella in major water reservoirs of Taiwan was examined with respect to seasonal variation, geographical variation, and water quality parameters using TaqMan real-time qPCR. Water samples were collected quarterly at 19 reservoirs in Taiwan between November 2012 and August 2013. The detection rate for Legionella was 35.5 % (27/76), and Legionella was detected in all seasons. The Legionella concentration was relatively high in spring and summer, reaching 3.86?×?10(8) and 7.35?×?10(8) cells/L, respectively. By sampling the area, Legionella was detected at a higher proportion in reservoirs in the northern and southern areas, and the difference was consistent in all seasons. Significant association was found between detection of Legionella and various water quality parameters, including conductivity, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen (Mann-Whitney U test, P?0.05). Results of Spearman rank test showed negative correlation for Legionella detection with pH (P?=?0.030, R?=?-0.497) and dissolved oxygen (P?=?0.007, R?=?-0.596) in fall and positive correlation with Carlson's trophic state index (P?=?0.049, R?=?0.457) in spring. The identified species included Legionella pneumophila and Legionella drancourtii. The detection of Legionella in reservoirs was indicative of a potential public health risk and should be further evaluated.
We report here the complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant H4N2 avian influenza virus strain, A/duck/Guangxi/125D17/2012(H4N2) (GX125D17), isolated from a duck in Guangxi Province, China in 2012. We obtained the complete genome sequence of the GX125D17 virus isolation by PCR, cloning, and sequencing. Sequence analysis revealed that this H4N2 virus strain was a novel reassortant avian in?uenza virus (AIV). Information about the complete genome sequence of the GX125D17 virus strain will be useful for epidemiological studies.
Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xilin small partridge duck was measured by PCR-based methods. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of the Xilin small partridge duck was 16,604?bp (GenBank accession number: KJ833586). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the mitochondrial genome were 29.20%, 22.19%, 32.82% and 15.79%, respectively, which were similar to the majority of most avian species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xilin small partridge duck contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region. Components of the Xilin small partridge duck's mitochondrial genome were similar to those of other Anatidae in gene arrangement and composition. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xilin small partridge duck should provide essential information for understanding phylogenetic relationships of duck mitochondrial genome.
Inflammatory response and articular destruction are common symptoms of osteoarthritis. Cysteine-rich 61 (CCN1 or Cyr61), a secreted protein from the CCN family, is associated with the extracellular matrix involved in many cellular activities like growth and differentiation. Yet the mechanism of CCN1 interacting with arthritic inflammatory response is unclear. This study finds CCN1 increasing expression of oncostatin m (OSM) in human osteoblastic cells. Pretreatment of ?v?3 monoclonal antibody and inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), c-Src, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and NF-?B inhibited CCN1-induced OSM expression in osteoblastic cells. Stimulation of cells with CCN1 increased phosphorylation of FAK, c-Src, PI3K, and NF-?B via ?v?3 receptor; CCN1 treatment of osteoblasts increased NF-?B-luciferase activity and p65 binding to NF-?B element on OSM promoter. Results indicate CCN1 heightening OSM expression via ?v?3 receptor, FAK, c-Src, PI3K, and NF-?B signal pathway in osteoblastic cells, suggesting CCN1 as a novel target in arthritis treatment.
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in various aquatic environments. Several amoebae species are pathogenic and host other pathogens such as Legionella, but the presence of FLA and its parasites as well as the related infection risk are not well known. In this study, the presence of pathogenic FLA and Legionella in various water bodies was investigated. Water samples were collected from a river, intake areas of drinking water treatment plants, and recreational hot spring complexes in central and southern Taiwan. A total of 140 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, and Legionella. In addition, phylogenetic characteristics and water quality parameters were also assessed. The pathogenic genotypes of FLA included Acanthamoeba T4 and Naegleria australiensis, and both were abundant in the hot spring water. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila was detected in different aquatic environments. Among the FLA assessed, V. vermiformis was most likely to coexist with Legionella spp. The total bacteria level was associated with the presence of FLA and Legionella especially in hot spring water. Taken together, FLA contamination in recreational hot springs and drinking water source warrants more attention on potential legionellosis and amoebae infections.
CSF-1/CSF-1R (colony-stimulating factor-1/colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor) is the primary growth factor regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of cells of the mononuclear phagocytic lineage. Multiple studies have demonstrated that CSF-1/CSF-1R plays a certain role in tumor tissues. CSF-1 binding to CSF-1R through the class III RTKs leads to a series of signal molecules responding to CSF-1 via various signaling pathway. Through these pathways, all signal molecules would promote development of tumor directly or contribute to progress of various cancers indirectly by increasing tumor-associated macrophages, for instance promoting tumor growth, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix breakdown, invasion, and metastasis. Thus, in this paper, we analysis multiple experimental results comprehensively, making a review about the mechanism of CSF-1/CSF-1R promoting tumor progression.
Brown adipocytes and muscle and dorsal dermis descend from precursor cells in the dermomyotome, but the factors that regulate commitment to the brown adipose lineage are unknown. Here, we prospectively isolated and determined the molecular profile of embryonic brown preadipose cells. Brown adipogenic precursor activity in embryos was confined to platelet-derived growth factor ?(+), myogenic factor 5(Cre)-lineage-marked cells. RNA-sequence analysis identified early B-cell factor 2 (Ebf2) as one of the most selectively expressed genes in this cell fraction. Importantly, Ebf2-expressing cells purified from Ebf2(GFP) embryos or brown fat tissue did not express myoblast or dermal cell markers and uniformly differentiated into brown adipocytes. Interestingly, Ebf2-expressing cells from white fat tissue in adult animals differentiated into brown-like (or beige) adipocytes. Loss of Ebf2 in brown preadipose cells reduced the expression levels of brown preadipose-signature genes, whereas ectopic Ebf2 expression in myoblasts activated brown preadipose-specific genes. Altogether, these results indicate that Ebf2 specifically marks and regulates the molecular profile of brown preadipose cells.
Triglycerides are the main part of fats and half of the lipids in hepatocytes, and play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. In this study, 33 derivatives based on 3-methyl-5-phenylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione were synthesized and evaluated for their lipid-lowering activity. Among them, compound 1i was found to exhibit potent triglyceride-lowering potency in 3T3-L1 adipocytes which was comparable to that of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist Acadesine (AIACR). Furthermore, oral administration of 1i at a dose of 50?mg?kg(-1)?d(-1) for 5 weeks could reduce the mean body weight and liver weight by 12.02% and 32.00%, respectively, and regulated serum levels of triglycerides in diet-induced obese mice. The results indicate that compound 1i is a potential small-molecule for the treatment of diet-induced obesity and related diseases.
In contrast to conventional stepwise synthesis of molecular Borromean rings, a self-assembly synthetic method which proceeds without the aid of a template has been developed. In the formation of molecular rectangles, by adjustment of the long-arm length of the rectangles, a series of size-dependent Borromean-link frameworks were constructed. Both the shortest length of two arms and the relative proportion of the length of the long arm to that of the short arm play a key role in the formation of Borromean rings. DFT calculations were used to provide theoretical support for the formation of discrete interlocked frameworks.
In order to detect the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba along with geographical variations, water quality variations and seasonal change of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan was investigated by 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected quarterly at 19 drinking water reservoir sites from November 2012 to August 2013. Acanthamoeba was detected in 39.5 % (30/76) of the water sample, and the detection rate was 63.2 % (12/19) from samples collected in autumn. The average concentration of Acanthamoeba was 3.59?×?10(4) copies/L. For geographic distribution, the detection rate for Acanthamoeba at the northern region was higher than the central and southern regions in all seasons. Results of Spearman rank test revealed that heterotrophic plate count (HPC) had a negative correlation (R?=?-0.502), while dissolved oxygen (DO) had a positive correlation (R?=?0.463) in summer. Significant differences were found only between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and HPC in summer (Mann-Whitney U test, P?0.05). T2 and T4 genotypes of Acanthamoeba were identified, and T4 was the most commonly identified Acanthamoeba genotypes. The presence of Acanthamoeba in reservoirs presented a potential public health threat and should be further examined.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether IL-27 regulates macrophage ABCA1 expression, foam cell formation, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that IL-27 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux and increasing ABCA1 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Our study further demonstrated that IL-27 increased ABCA1 level via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of Janus kinase 2, (JAK2)/STAT3 suppressed the stimulatory effects of IL-27 on ABCA1 expression. The present study concluded that IL-27 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cell by upregulating ABCA1 expression via JAK2/STAT3. Therefore, targeting IL-27 may offer a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Previous studies have demonstrated that hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between HIF-1a polymorphisms and HCC has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to determine whether HIF-1a polymorphisms are associated with HCC through a case-control study. Two polymorphisms in the HIF-1a gene (rs11549465 and rs115494657) were examined in 157 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients and 173 healthy controls using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. DNA sequencing was used to validate genotype results. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of HIF-1a rs11549465 and rs115494657 polymorphisms between the HBV-related HCC patients and healthy controls. However, the data revealed that subjects with the CG haplotype have a higher susceptibility to HBV-related HCC [odds ratio (OR)=2.327, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.578-4.721, P=0.008]. In contrast, the CA haplotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HBV-related HCC (OR=0.416, 95% CI=0.172-0.910, P=0.025). HIF-1a rs11549465 and rs115494657 polymorphisms appeared to be irrelevant to HBV-related HCC. However, the HIF-1a CG and CA haplotypes might be a risk factor and a protective marker, respectively, for HBV-related HCC in a Chinese population. Further investigations with a larger sample size may be required to validate the genetic effects of HIF-1a polymorphisms on HBV-related HCC.
Elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency are associated with the development of hypertension. Metformin, an antidiabetic agent, is a structural analog of ADMA. We examined whether metformin can prevent the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by restoration of ADMA-NO balance. SHRs and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were assigned to 4 groups (N = 8 for each group): untreated SHRs and WKY rats, metformin-treated SHRs and WKY rats. Metformin-treated rats received metformin 500 mg/kg per day via oral gavage for 8 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the age of 12 weeks. We found an increase in the blood pressure of SHRs was prevented by metformin. ADMA levels in the plasma and lung were elevated in SHRs, which metformin prevented. Lung dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, ADMA-metabolizing enzyme) activity was lower in SHRs than WKY rats. Next, metformin had no effect on protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (ADMA-synthesizing enzyme), DDAH-1, DDAH-2, NO synthase enzymes, and DDAH activity in the kidney. Moreover, metformin increased the levels of NO in kidney. Conclusively, the observed antihypertensive effect of metformin in SHRs is because of the restoration of the ADMA-NO pathway. Our findings support the consideration of metformin as an antihypertensive agent for diabetic patients with prehypertension.
The emergence of supramolecular chemistry has led to the discovery of a rising number of macrocycles and cages with a range of functionalities. Most of these supramolecular aggregates are metal coordination networks, whereas pure organic assemblies are less developed. Organic macrocycles and cages have the advantages of chemical robustness, processability in organic solvents, and suitability for pilot-scale applications. They are constructed primarily from covalent bonds, with irreversible and reversible bond types. We herein highlight the use of different versatile bonding approaches in engineering these soft materials, as well as their emerging applications, such as gas storage, thin films, liquid crystals, and catalysis.
In Arabidopsis thaliana, acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are encoded by a family of six genes (ACBP1 to ACBP6), and are essential for diverse cellular activities. Recent investigations suggest that the membrane-anchored ACBPs are involved in oxygen sensing by sequestration of group VII ethylene-responsive factors under normoxia. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Arabidopsis ACBP3 in hypoxic tolerance. ACBP3 transcription was remarkably induced following submergence under both dark (DS) and light (LS) conditions. ACBP3-overexpressors (ACBP3-OEs) showed hypersensitivity to DS, LS and ethanolic stresses, with reduced transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the rosettes. In contrast, suppression of ACBP3 in ACBP3-KOs enhanced plant tolerance to DS, LS and ethanol treatments. By analyses of double combinations of OE-1 with npr1-5, coi1-2, ein3-1 as well as ctr1-1 mutants, we observed that the attenuated hypoxic tolerance in ACBP3-OEs was dependent on NPR1- and CTR1-mediated signaling pathways. Lipid profiling revealed that both the total amounts and very-long-chain species of phosphatidylserine (C42:2- and C42:3-PS) and glucosylinositolphosphorylceramides (C22:0-, C22:1-, C24:0-, C24:1-, and C26:1-GIPC) were significantly lower in ACBP3-OEs but increased in ACBP3-KOs upon LS exposure. By microscale thermophoresis analysis, the recombinant ACBP3 protein bound VLC acyl-CoA esters with high affinities in vitro. Further, a knockout mutant of MYB30, a master regulator of very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis, exhibited enhanced sensitivities to LS and ethanolic stresses, phenotypes that were ameliorated by ACBP3-RNAi. Taken together, these findings suggest that Arabidopsis ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating VLCFA metabolism.
Although the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical dysplasia as well as cervical cancer is well established, studies on the relationship between HPV infection and risk of preterm birth (PTB) have yielded inconclusive and inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between HPV infection and PTB. The electronic database was searched until July 1, 2014. Relevant studies reporting the association between HPV infection and the risk of PTB were included and for further evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed using Revmen 5.3 and Stata 10.0. Six observational cohort studies and 2 case-control studies were included. A significant association between HPV infection and PTB was observed (odds ratio=2.12, 95% CI 1.51-2.98, P<0.001, random effect model). Stratification according to diagnostic methods indicated that both positive HPV DNA status and abnormal cervical cytology were associated with increased risk of PTB. Moreover, our data suggested a higher risk of PTB in Caucasian HPV-infected population, while no significant association was observed in the Asian population. Although the causality remains unclear, findings from our meta-analysis indicate that HPV infection might increase the risk of PTB. In the future, prospective cohorts with larger samples sizes are warranted to ascertain the causality and pathophysiological studies are required to explore the possible biological mechanisms involved.
Inflammatory response and articular destruction are common symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Yet, the mechanism of leptin interacting with the arthritic inflammatory response is unclear. This study finds that leptin increased expression of oncostatin M (OSM) in human osteoblasts in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, OBRl, but not OBRs receptor antisense oligonucleotide, abolished the leptin-mediated increase of OSM expression. On the other hand, leptin inhibited miR-93 expression; an miR-93 mimic reversed leptin-increased OSM expression. Stimulation of osteoblasts with leptin promoted Akt phosphorylation, while pretreatment of cells with Akt inhibitor or siRNA reversed leptin-inhibited miR-93 expression. Our results showed that leptin heightened OSM expression by downregulating miR-93 through the Akt signaling pathway in osteoblasts, suggesting leptin as a novel target in arthritis treatment.
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are members of a family of tetrameric intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels (CRCs). While it is well known in mammals that RyRs and IP3Rs modulate multiple physiological processes, the roles of these two CRCs in the development and physiology of insects remain poorly understood. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized RyR and IP3R cDNAs (named TcRyR and TcIP3R) from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The composite TcRyR gene contains an ORF of 15,285?bp encoding a protein of 5,094 amino acid residues. The TcIP3R contains an 8,175?bp ORF encoding a protein of 2,724 amino acids. Expression analysis of TcRyR and TcIP3R revealed significant differences in mRNA expression levels among T. castaneum during different developmental stages. When the transcript levels of TcRyR were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi), an abnormal folding of the adult hind wings was observed, while the RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcIP3R resulted in defective larval-pupal and pupal-adult metamorphosis. These results suggested that TcRyR is required for muscle excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in T. castaneum, and that calcium release via IP3R might play an important role in regulating ecdysone synthesis and release during molting and metamorphosis in insects.
A series of deazaxanthine-based derivatives were rationally prepared and evaluated. 8g was exhibited the most potent glucose lowering effect on HepG2 cell line and on modulated adiponectin and leptin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration of 8g manifested therapeutic effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet at 25 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for four weeks by decreasing the weights of the body, liver, and fat. 8g also modulated the serum levels of fasting glucose and adiponectin, as well as the hepatic concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase. Moreover, 8g significantly decreased steatosis and blocked the increase of adipocytes and the size of adipose tissues from NAFLD. In the DIO mice model, 8g ameliorated the obesity-related symptoms and normalized serum biomarkers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Melatonin is an endogenously produced indoleamine and secreted by the pineal gland. Melatonin has pleiotropic bioactivities and is involved in epigenetic regulation. Suboptimal conditions during maternal and perinatal phases can elicit epigenetic regulation of genes for nephrogenesis and reset physiological responses to develop programmed hypertension. This review discusses the early utility of melatonin to prevent programmed hypertension in later life by epigenetic regulation in the kidney, with an emphasis on: (1) the role of melatonin in epigenetic regulation; (2) the beneficial effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension; (3) epigenetic regulation of maternal melatonin therapy in different developmental windows of offspring kidneys analyzed by whole-genome RNA next-generation sequencing; and (4) current blocks in the application of melatonin in preventing programmed hypertension.
?-asarone, a major component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott, has positive effects in neurodegeneration disease, however, its effect on the Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. In this study, the effects of ?-asarone on behavioral tests, neurotransmitters, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and ?-synuclein (?-syn) were investigated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rats. Furthermore, the JNK/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 autophagy pathway was also studied. The results showed that ?-asarone improved the behavioral symptoms of rats in the open field, rotarod test, initiation time, and stepping time. And it increased the HVA, Dopacl, and 5-HIAA levels in striatum but not the DA and 5-HT levels. After administration of ?-asarone, the TH level was elevated but the ?-syn was declined in rats. It inhibited the expressions of LC3-II, but increased the p62 expression in SN4741 cells. Moreover, it affected the expressions of Beclin-1, Bcl-2, JNK, and p-JNK in vivo. We deduced that ?-asarone may firstly downregulate expressions of JNK and p-JNK, and then indirectly increase the expression of Bcl-2. And the function of Beclin-1 could be inhibited, which could inhibit autophagy activation. Collectively, all data indicated that ?-asarone may be explored as a potential therapeutic agent in PD therapy.
Influenza A virus infection causes a contagious respiratory illness that poses a threat to human health. However, there are limited anti-influenza A therapeutics available, which is further compounded by the emergence of drug resistant viruses. In this study, Sophora quinolizidine alkaloids were identified as a new class of anti-influenza A virus agents. Among the tested Sophora alkaloids, dihydroaloperine exhibited the most potent activity with an EC50 of 11.2 ?M. The potency of the quinolizidine alkaloids was improved by approximately 5-fold with chemical modifications on the aloperine molecule. These compounds were effective against an H1N1 influenza A virus that was resistant to the two antiflu drugs oseltamivir and amantadine. The identification of the quinolizidine alkaloids as effective and novel anti-influenza A agents may aid in the development of new therapeutics.
Mai Tong Fang (MTF), a Chinese herbal combination, has been used for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in traditional medical clinics in China. However, the anti-adipogenic and anti-hyperglycemic effects of MTF have not been fully elucidated, so this study explored these pharmacological activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and ob/ob mice, respectively, of the water fraction of milkvetch root, salviae miltiorrhizae and mulberry as key components of MTF. MTF was found to inhibit adipogenesis and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oral administration of MTF in ob/ob mice for 8 weeks, exhibited positive controls on blood glucose and body weight, and further improved glucose tolerance according to an oral glucose tolerance test. Importantly, MTF extract alleviated fat deposition and ballooning degeneration in liver tissue and blocked the increase of adipocyte size in adipose tissue from treated ob/ob mice. These results indicated that the extract of key components in the traditional Chinese prescription MTF continue a potent anti-adipogenic and glucose-lowering agent.
The 26S proteasome is a cellular proteolytic complex containing 19S regulatory particles and the 20S core proteasome. It was reported that the small molecule b-AP15 targets the proteasome by inhibiting deubiquitination of the 19S regulatory particles of the proteasome complex. An investigation of b-AP15 on the 20S proteasome core suggested that this compound can also inhibit the 20S proteasome with a potency equivalent to that found to inhibit the 19S regulatory particles.
Cell migration and invasion are key processes in the metastasis of cancer, and suppression of these steps is a promising strategy for cancer therapeutics. The aim of this study was to explore small molecules for treating colorectal cancer (CRC) and to investigate their anti-metastatic mechanisms. In this study, six CRC cell lines were used. We showed that YH-306 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YH-306 inhibited cell adhesion and protrusion formation of HCT116 and HT-29 CRC cells. Moreover, YH-306 potently suppressed uninhibited proliferation in all six CRC cell lines tested and induced cell apoptosis in four cell lines. Furthermore, YH-306 inhibited CRC colonization in vitro and suppressed CRC growth in a xenograft mouse model, as well as hepatic/pulmonary metastasis in vivo. YH-306 suppressed the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), c-Src, paxillin, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), Rac1 and the expression of matrix metalloproteases (MMP) 2 and MMP9. Meanwhile, YH-306 also inhibited actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex-mediated actin polymerization. Taken together, YH-306 is a candidate drug in preventing growth and metastasis of CRC by modulating FAK signalling pathway.
Despite the use of extensive antihypertensive therapy in patients with hypertension, little attention has been paid to early identification and intervention of individuals at risk for developing hypertension. The imbalance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension. NO deficiency can precede the development of hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can inhibit nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and regulate local NO/ROS balance. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that ADMA-induced NO-ROS imbalance is involved in the development and progression of hypertension. Thus, this review summarizes recent experimental approaches to restore ADMA-NO balance in order to prevent the development of hypertension. Since hypertension might originate in early life, we also discuss the putative role of the ADMA-NO pathway in programmed hypertension. Better understanding of manipulations of the ADMA-NO pathway prior to hypertension in favor of NO will pave the way for the development of more effective medicine for the treatment prehypertension and programmed hypertension. However, more studies are needed to confirm the clinical benefit of these interventions.
Diabetes is associated with hyperglycemia and increased thrombin production. However, it is unknown whether a combination of high glucose and thrombin can modulate the expression of NAPDH oxidase (Nox) subtypes in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Moreover, we investigated the role of a diabetes-associated microRNA (miR-146a) in a diabetic atherothrombosis model. We showed that high glucose (HG) exerted a synergistic effect with thrombin to induce a 10.69-fold increase in Nox4 mRNA level in HAECs. Increased Nox4 mRNA expression was associated with increased Nox4 protein expression and ROS production. Inflammatory cytokine kit identified that the treatment increased IL-8 and IL-6 levels. Moreover, HG/thrombin treatment caused an 11.43-fold increase of THP-1 adhesion to HAECs. In silico analysis identified the homology between miR-146a and the 3'-untranslated region of the Nox4 mRNA, and a luciferase reporter assay confirmed that the miR-146a mimic bound to this Nox4 regulatory region. Additionally, miR-146a expression was decreased to 58% of that in the control, indicating impaired feedback restraint of HG/thrombin-induced endothelial inflammation. In contrast, miR-146a mimic transfection attenuated HG/thrombin-induced upregulation of Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and inflammatory phenotypes. In conclusion, miR-146a is involved in the regulation of endothelial inflammation via modulation of Nox4 expression in a diabetic atherothrombosis model.
BackgroundSuicide is a global issue among the elderly, but few studies have explored the experiences of suicide ideation in older Asian psychiatric outpatients.MethodOlder psychiatric outpatients (N¿=¿24) were recruited by convenience from one medical centre and one regional hospital in northern Taiwan. Participants were recruited if they met these inclusion criteria: 1) ¿65 years old, 2) without severe cognitive deficit, 3) outpatients in the psychiatric clinics at the selected hospitals, and 4) self-reported first episode of suicidal ideation within the previous year. Data were collected in individual interviews using a semi-structured guide and analysed by content analysis.ResultsSuicide ideation was triggered by illness and physical discomfort, conflicts with family members/friends, illness of family members, death of family members/friends, and loneliness. Participants¿ reasons for not executing suicide were family members¿ and friends¿ support, receiving treatment, finding a way to shift their attention, fear of increasing pressure on one¿s children, religious beliefs, and not knowing how to execute suicide.ConclusionUnderstanding these identified triggers of suicide ideation may help psychiatrists open a channel for conversation with their elderly clients and more readily make their diagnosis. Understanding these identified protective factors against executing suicide can help psychiatrists not only treat depression, but also enhance protective factors for their clients.
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is involved in hypertension. We tested whether aliskiren treatment in early postnatal life can reduce ADMA and regulate the renin-angiotensin system to prevent hypertension in rat offspring exposed to maternal caloric restriction (CR).
Adulthood hypertension can be programmed by corticosteroid exposure in early life. Oxidative stress, epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs), and alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the developmental programming of hypertension. We examined whether melatonin prevented neonatal dexamethasone (DEX)-induced programmed hypertension and how melatonin prevented these processes. We also examined whether HDAC inhibition by trichostatin A (TSA, a HDAC inhibitor) had similar effects. Male offspring were assigned to 5 groups (n=6/group): control, DEX, melatonin, DEX+melatonin, and DEX+TSA. Male rat pups were injected i.p. with DEX on day 1 (0.5mg/kg BW), day 2 (0.3mg/kg BW), and day 3 (0.1mg/kg BW) after birth. Melatonin was administered in drinking water at the dose of 0.01% during the lactation period. The DEX+TSA group received DEX and 0.5mg/kg TSA subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week. All rats were killed at 16 weeks of age. Neonatal DEX exposure induced hypertension in male offspring at 16 weeks of age, which melatonin prevented. Neonatal DEX exposure decreased gene expression related to apoptosis, nephrogenesis, RAS, and sodium transporters. Yet DEX treatment increased protein levels of HDAC-1, -2, and -3 in the kidney. Melatonin therapy preserved the decreases of gene expression and decreased HDACs. Similarly, HDAC inhibition prevented DEX-induced programmed hypertension. In conclusion, melatonin therapy exerts a long-term protection against neonatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension. Its beneficial effects include alterations of RAS components and inhibition of class I HDACs. Given that the similar protective effects of melatonin and TSA, melatonin might inhibit HDACs to epigenetic regulation of hypertension-related genes to prevent programmed hypertension.
Myocardial energy expenditure (MEE) and 2-oxoglutarate are elevated in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients compared with healthy controls. To explore whether 2-oxoglutarate could reflect the levels of MEE and predict the prognosis of CHF, 219 CHF patients and 66 healthy controls were enrolled. 2-Oxoglutarate was assayed with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). CHF patients were divided into 4 groups according to interquartile range of MEE and followed for death or recurrent hospital admission due to CHF for the mean follow-up time 6.64±0.16months. 2-Oxoglutarate was increased in CHF patients compared with controls (P<0.01) and correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=0.142, P=0.036), age (r=-0.269, P<0.01) and MEE levels (r=0.307, P<0.01) in a multiple linear correlation analysis in CHF patients. Furthermore, 2-oxoglutarate (OR=3.470, 95% CI=1.557 to 7.730, P=0.002), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (OR=4.013, 95% CI=1.553 to 10.365, P=0.004), age (OR=1.611, 95% CI=1.136 to 2.283, P=0.007) and left ventricular ejection fraction (OR=7.272, 95% CI=3.110 to 17.000, P<0.001) were independently associated with MEE on multiple logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier event curves showed that high 2-oxoglutarate levels were associated with adverse outcomes (Log Rank, Chi(2)=4.026, P=0.045). This study showed that serum 2-oxoglutarate is associated with MEE levels, which can be used as potential biomarkers for MEE, and it can reflect the clinical severity and short-term outcome of CHF.
In this study, TaqMan fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR was performed to quantify Legionella species in reservoirs. Water samples were collected from 19 main reservoirs in Taiwan, and 12 (63.2%) were found to contain Legionella spp. The identified species included uncultured Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii. The concentrations of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the water samples were in the range of 1.8×10(2)-2.6×10(3) and 1.6×10(2)-2.4×10(2) cells/L, respectively. The presence and absence of Legionella spp. in the reservoir differed significantly in pH values. These results highlight the importance that L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii are potential pathogens in the reservoirs. The presence of L. pneumophila in reservoirs may be a potential public health concern that must be further examined.
The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1), an important component of ginseng, in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGDR) and to elucidate the related mechanisms. PC12 cells were used as the model of OGDR. GRg1 administration was started 12 h before OGD and lasted for 12 h. After OGD, the cells were incubated in drug-free and full culture medium under normoxic condition for 24 h. Cell viability was then measured using MTT assay. Cell morphology was studied under a microscope. The expressions of survivin, caspase-3 and Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) were measured by immunocytology. Results showed that pretreatment with GRg1 significantly increased the viability and survivin expression, and decreased the expressions of caspase-3 and TUNEL in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it dramatically increased the number of cells and improved the cellular morphology. These results demonstrate the effect of GRg1 in preventing OGDR-induced PC12 cell apoptosis and partly reveal the mechanisms of the protective effect. It is suggested that GRg1 has potential beneficial effects in ischemic diseases.
Uranyl ion exists at trace levels in the environment and can cause severe adverse effects to human health. Therefore, it is desirable to develop analytical methods that can determine the trace uranyl ion in aqueous medium. We report here a new method using a thermo-responsive polymeric fluorescent sensor. Specifically, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphyrin terminated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (TCPP-PNIPAM) was synthesized by controlled free radical polymerization for the detection of uranyl ion. The maximum fluorescence intensity at ~ 658 nm of TCPP-PNIPAM increases with molecular weights and is also closely related to the temperature. The polymeric sensor is sensitive to pH (1.0 ~ 5.0) with a fast responsive time (~ 3 min). Under optimized experimental conditions, the sensor exhibits a stable response for uranyl ion with high selectivity over a concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-3) to 1.0 × 10(-7)mol/L. For the trace uranyl ion (such as 1.0 × 10(-8) or 10(-9)mol/L), the determination could be successfully achieved after concentrating 100 times by centrifugation above 32°C. The properties enable the polymeric sensor to have great potential for environmental application.
In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3? chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 ?m; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway.
Antibiotics are widely used in livestock for infection treatment and growth promotion. Wastes from animal husbandry are a potential environmental source of antibiotic-insensitive pathogens, and the removal efficiency of the resistance genotypes in current wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is unknown. In this study, quantitative PCR was used for evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes. Six wastewater treatment plants in different swine farms were included in this study, and five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were tested for each treatment procedure. All of the tested ARGs including tetA, tetW, sulI, sulII, and blaTEM genes were detected in six swine farms with considerable amounts. The results showed that antibiotic resistance is prevalent in livestock farming. The ARG levels were varied by wastewater treatment procedure, frequently with the highest level at anaerobic treatment tank and lowest in the activated sludge unit and the effluents. After normalizing the ARG levels to 16S rRNA gene copies, the results showed that ARGs in WWTP units fluctuated partly with the quantity of bacteria. Regardless of its importance in biodegradation, the anaerobic procedure may facilitate bacterial growth thus increasing the sustainability of the antibiotic resistance genotypes. After comparing the copy numbers in influx and efflux samples, the mean removal efficiency of ARGs ranged between 33.30 and 97.56%. The results suggested that treatments in the WWTP could partially reduce the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and additional procedures such as sedimentation may not critically affect the removal efficiency.
Disrupted sleep may be a prodromal symptom or a predictor of depressive disorders. In this study we investigated the relationship between depression symptoms and disrupted sleep using a novel model of stress-mimicked sleep disorders in rats.
High-technology industries have grown continuously in Taiwan and elsewhere in the world. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise the highest percentage of emissions in these industries. The objectives of this study were to identify VOC sources and to apportion their contributions by using a three-step approach. These included estimating concentration distributions, performing principal component analysis (PCA), and mapping concentration contours. The results showed that the dominant compound groups were aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The PCA resolved four emission sources: vehicular traffic, industrial solvents, waste water plants, and cleaning/degreasing agents. Spatial distributions showed that concentrations of vehicular traffic-related compounds (benzene and isooctane) were highest at the entrances to the science park, and strongly related to traffic volume, and that the emissions of industry-related compounds (xylene and ethylbenzene) were closest to the associated sources. This study provided an accurate, practical and efficient method of characterizing emission sources in an industrial complex.
Salmonella is a leading cause of waterborne diseases. Salmonella can survive for a long time in aquatic environments, and its persistence in the environment is of great concern to public health. Nonetheless, the presence and diversity of Salmonella in the aquatic environments in most areas remain relatively unknown. In this study, we examined three analytical processes for an optimum Salmonella detection method, and the optimized method was used to evaluate seasonal variations of Salmonella in aquatic environments. In addition, Salmonella strains were isolated by selective culture medium to identify the serotypes by biochemical testing and serological assay, and to identify the genotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis based on the genetic patterns. A total of 136 water samples were collected in the study area in 9 months. Forty-one (30.1%) samples were found to contain Salmonella-specific invA gene, and most (24/41) of the detections occurred in summer. The serovars of Salmonella enterica were identified, including Bareilly, Isangi, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, Potsdam and Typhimurium.
Choroid plexus epithelial cells secrete numerous biologically active neurotrophic factors, which may be beneficial to the transplantation site. Encapsulated cells are often used in tissue transplantation. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the secretory function of choroid plexus epithelial cells. Neonatal rat choroid plexus epithelial cells were primarily cultured. After 9 days of culture, the cells were distributed into two groups, and one group of cells was encapsulated in vitro. The initial culture conditions such as cell numbers and medium volumes were the same. Supernatants in the free and encapsulated choroid plexus epithelial cells were collected at the time points of day 1 through day 7. Quantitative determination of the BDNF and GDNF levels was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess the secretory function of the cells in the two forms. Statistical analyses were performed using a Student t test. P<0.05 was set to indicate statistical significance. A very similar secretion pattern was observed in both groups. In the first 4 days of encapsulation, the release of BDNF and GDNF in the encapsulated cells was significantly lower than that in the free cells, while the difference diminished after day 5. This in vitro study demonstrates that the secretion of BDNF and GDNF in encapsulated choroid plexus epithelial cells is different from that in non-encapsulated cells in the early stage of encapsulation treatment, whereas it is similar in the later stage.
One-pot reactions of carborane carboxylic acids (L), [Cp*IrCl2]2, and silver salt are reported, which lead to regioselective B-H or C-H bond activation at ambient temperature in good yields. This process is demonstrated for three carborane (o-, m-, p-) dicarboxylates, and metal-mediated B-H functionalization of a p-carborane derivative is accomplished for the first time. Two metal-induced self-assembly routes to tetra-nuclear metallacycles 3 and 5 were performed through B(4, 7)/H and B(2, 10)/H activation, respectively, and the two metallacycles were found to be stable and to exist in solution as discrete complexes. Different activation modes in the carborane cage were ascribed to the characteristic structure of the products and the electronic density differences. The analogous reaction of o-carborane monocarboxylate with the same metal precursor gave the C-H activation complex 6, indicating that the B-H bond is more stable than the C-H bond in this carborane cage. The selective activation was confirmed by DFT calculation results. In this study, a facile and efficient synthetic route has been developed through specific B-H bond activation to construct carborane-based metallacycles that are unavailable by conventional methods.
Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats exhibit cholestasis, increased systemic oxidative stress, and liver fibrosis, which ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that can decrease the synthesis of nitric oxide. BDL rats have higher plasma and hepatic ADMA levels, which may be due to increased hepatic protein arginine methyltransferase-1 and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase expression. BDL rats also exhibit renal and brain damage characterized by increased tissue ADMA concentrations. The increased plasma ADMA levels and multiple organ damages seen here are also observed following multiple organ failures associated with critical illness. This review discusses the dysregulation of ADMA in major organs in BDL rats and the role of increased ADMA in multiple organ damages.
Although antenatal corticosteroid is recommended to accelerate fetal lung maturation, prenatal dexamethasone exposure results in hypertension in the adult offspring. Since melatonin is a potent antioxidant and has been known to regulate blood pressure, we examined the beneficial effects of melatonin therapy in preventing prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension. Male offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 12/group): control, dexamethasone (DEX), control + melatonin, and DEX + melatonin. Pregnant rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Blood pressure was measured by an indirect tail-cuff method. Gene expression and protein levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. At 16 weeks of age, the DEX group developed hypertension, which was partly reversed by maternal melatonin therapy. Reduced nephron numbers due to prenatal dexamethasone exposure were prevented by melatonin therapy. Renal superoxide and NO levels were similar in all groups. Prenatal dexamethasone exposure led to increased mRNA expression of renin and prorenin receptor and up-regulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1 expression in the kidneys of 4-month-old offspring. Maternal melatonin therapy augmented renal Mas protein levels in DEX + melatonin group, and increased renal mRNA expression of HDAC-1, HDAC-2, and HDAC-8 in control and DEX offspring. Melatonin attenuated prenatal DEX-induced hypertension by restoring nephron numbers, altering RAS components, and modulating HDACs.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients are characterized by hepatic steatosis. Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure can result in steatosis. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanism and cellular apoptosis of prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure in rats and whether melatonin can rescue the prenatal glucocorticoid-induced steatosis and apoptosis in neonatal rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestational days 14 to 21 were administered dexamethasone. Acute effects of prenatal programming liver were assessed at postnatal day 7. The expression of proteins involved in the apoptotic and methylation pathways was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis and steatosis were examined by histology staining. The liver steatosis and apoptosis were increased in prenatal glucocorticoid group more than in control group and decreased in melatonin group. The expression of leptin decreased in prenatal glucocorticoid and increased in melatonin group by liver RT-PCR and Western blot study. Caspase 3, TNF- ? proteins expression, and TUNEL stains increased in prenatal glucocorticoid compared with control and decreased in melatonin group. The liver histone deacetylase, DNA methyltransferase activity, and DNA methylation were increased in prenatal glucocorticoid and decreased in melatonin group. The present study showed that the prenatal glucocorticoid induced programming liver steatosis at day 7 after delivery, possibly via altered leptin expression. Melatonin can reverse the methylation of leptin and decreased liver steatosis.
Cancer-related deregulation of miRNA biogenesis has been suggested, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we report a previously unrecognized effect of hypoxia in the downregulation of Drosha and Dicer in cancer cells that leads to dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis and increased tumour progression. We show that hypoxia-mediated downregulation of Drosha is dependent on ETS1/ELK1 transcription factors. Moreover, mature miRNA array and deep sequencing studies reveal altered miRNA maturation in cells under hypoxic conditions. At a functional level, this phenomenon results in increased cancer progression in vitro and in vivo, and data from patient samples are suggestive of miRNA biogenesis downregulation in hypoxic tumours. Rescue of Drosha by siRNAs targeting ETS1/ELK1 in vivo results in significant tumour regression. These findings provide a new link in the mechanistic understanding of global miRNA downregulation in the tumour microenvironment.
Immediate neurochemical alterations produced by 6-OHDA could explain the general toxic pattern in the central nervous system. However, no evidences describe the effects of 6-OHDA on early changes of neurotransmitters in rats' striatum, cortex and hippocampus. In our study, unilateral 6-OHDA injection into medial forebrain bundle (MFB) was used in rats, then five neurotransmitters were analyzed at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Results showed that 6-OHDA injection caused a sharp decline of striatal dopamine (DA) levels in the first 12h followed by a further reduction between 12 and 48 h. However, striatal levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) were stable in the first 12h and showed a marked reduction between 12 and 24h. Striatal levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) decreased linearly for 72 h, whereas levels of norepinephrine (NE) showed a slight reduction in the first 48 h, and returned back to normal afterwards. Striatal HVA/DA ratio increased significantly in the first 12h, but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio showed a sharp increase between 12 and 72 h. Besides, neurochemical alterations were also found in hippocampus and cortex, and the correlations of neurotransmitters were analyzed. Our study indicated that NE system had little influence in the early phase of 6-OHDA injection, moreover, early neurochemical alterations were involved with striatum, hippocampus and cortex.
Japanese encephalitis virus is one of the most common causes for epidemic viral encephalitis in humans and animals. Herein we demonstrated that cellular helicase DDX3 is involved in JEV replication. DDX3 knockdown inhibits JEV replication. The helicase activity of DDX3 is crucial for JEV replication. GST-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DDX3 could interact with JEV non-structural proteins 3 and 5. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that DDX3 interacts and colocalizes with these viral proteins and viral RNA during the infection. We determined that DDX3 binds to JEV 5' and 3' un-translated regions. We used a JEV-replicon system to demonstrate that DDX3 positively regulates viral RNA translation, which might affect viral RNA replication at the late stage of virus infection. Collectively, we identified that DDX3 is necessary for JEV infection, suggesting that DDX3 might be a novel target to design new antiviral agents against JEV or other flavivirus infections.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) typically migrates and metastasizes. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine associated with disease status and cancer outcomes. The effect of IL-6 on human OSCC cells, however, is unknown. Here, we showed that IL-6 increased cell migration and Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in OSCC cells. Pretreatment of OSCC cells with IL-6R monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly abolished IL-6-induced cell migration and ICAM-1 expression. By contrast, IL-6-mediated cell motility and ICAM-1 upregulation were attenuated by the Syk and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Stimulation of OSCC cells with IL-6 promoted Syk and JNK phosphorylation. Furthermore, IL-6 enhanced AP-1 activity, and the IL-6R mAb, Syk inhibitor, or JNK inhibitor all reduced IL-6-mediated c-Jun phosphorylation, c-Jun binding to the ICAM-1 promoter, and c-Jun translocation into the nucleus. Our results indicate that IL-6 enhances the migration of OSCC cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through the IL-6R receptor and the Syk, JNK, and AP-1 signal transduction pathways.
Most HLA association studies with NPC focus on Southern part of China. Thus, little is known about the genetic association of HLA with NPC in people from Northern China where the genetic background, environmental factors, and lifestyle are very different.
Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, a condition that can originate early in life. We examined whether NO deficiency contributed to programmed hypertension in offspring from mothers with calorie-restricted diets and whether melatonin therapy prevented this process. We examined 3-month-old male rat offspring from four maternal groups: untreated controls, 50% calorie-restricted (CR) rats, controls treated with melatonin (0.01% in drinking water), and CR rats treated with melatonin (CR + M). The effect of melatonin on nephrogenesis was analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The CR group developed hypertension associated with elevated plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), decreased L-arginine, decreased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR), and decreased renal NO production. Maternal melatonin treatment prevented these effects. Melatonin prevented CR-induced renin and prorenin receptor expression. Renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein levels in the M and CR + M groups were also significantly increased by melatonin therapy. Maternal melatonin therapy had long-term epigenetic effects on global gene expression in the kidneys of offspring. Conclusively, we attributed these protective effects of melatonin on CR-induced programmed hypertension to the reduction of plasma ADMA, restoration of plasma AAR, increase of renal NO level, alteration of renin-angiotensin system, and epigenetic changes in numerous genes.
Canopy FGF signaling regulator 2 (CNPY2) is a FGF21-modulated protein containing a saposin B-type domain. In vitro studies have shown CNPY2 is able to enhance neurite outgrowth in neurons and stabilize the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor in macrophages and hepatocytes. However, no in vivo data are available on the normal expression of CNPY2 and information is lacking on which cell types express this protein in tissues. To address this, the present study examined CNPY2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Quantitative PCR and ELISA examination of mouse tissues showed that CNPY2 varies between organs, with the highest expression in the heart, lung and liver. Immunohistochemistry detected CNPY2 in a variety of cell types including skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle myocytes, endothelial cells and epithelial cells. CNPY2 was also detectable in mouse blood and human and mouse uteri. These data demonstrate CNPY2 is widely distributed in tissues and suggest the protein has biological functions that have yet to be identified. Using these new observations we discuss possible functions of the protein.
Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro.
Rnd3/RhoE is a small Rho GTPase involved in the regulation of different cell behaviors. Dysregulation of Rnd3 has been linked to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in the West and around the world. The expression of Rnd3 and its ectopic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain to be explored. Here, we reported that Rnd3 was down-regulated in three NSCLC cell lines: H358, H520 and A549. The down-regulation of Rnd3 led to hyper-activation of Rho Kinase and Notch signaling. The reintroduction of Rnd3 or selective inhibition of Notch signaling, but not Rho Kinase signaling, blocked the proliferation of H358 and H520 cells. Mechanistically, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) protein abundance in H358 cells was regulated by Rnd3-mediated NICD proteasome degradation. Rnd3 regulated H358 and H520 cell proliferation through a Notch1/NICD/Hes1 signaling axis independent of Rho Kinase.
Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed.
Ras mutations are frequent in cancer cells where they drive proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However in primary cells, mutant Ras instead can cause oncogene-induced senescence, a tumor suppressor function linked to repression of the polycomb factor Bmi1, which normally regulates cell cycle inhibitory cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (cdki). It is unclear how Ras causes repression of Bmi1 in primary cells to suppress tumor formation while inducing the gene in cancer cells to drive tumor progression. Ras also induces the EMT transcription factor ZEB1 to trigger tumor invasion and metastasis. Beyond its well-documented role in EMT, ZEB1 is important for maintaining repression of cdki. Indeed, heterozygous mutation of ZEB1 is sufficient for elevated cdki expression, leading to premature senescence of primary cells. A similar phenotype is evident with Bmi1 mutation. We show that activation of Rb1 in response to mutant Ras causes dominant repression of ZEB1 in primary cells, but loss of the Rb1 pathway is a hallmark of cancer cells and in the absence of such Rb1 repression Ras induces ZEB1 in cancer cells. ZEB1 represses miR-200 in the context of a mutual repression loop. Because miR-200 represses Bmi1, induction of ZEB1 leads to induction of Bmi1. Rb1 pathway status then dictates the opposing effects of mutant Ras on the ZEB1-miR-200 loop in primary vs. cancer cells. This loop not only triggers EMT, surprisingly we show it acts downstream of Ras to regulate Bmi1 expression and thus the critical decision between oncogene-induced senescence and tumor initiation.
Background:?Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with Kawasaki disease (KD), the most commonly acquired heart disease in developed countries. This study investigated the involvement of VEGF-A expression and its related signaling pathway in Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced murine coronary artery lesions (CALs), and analyzed this in regard to the inhibition of CALs by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Methods and Results:?Wild-type BALB/C mice were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1mg/ml) to induce CALs. The aortic roots, ventricular myocardium, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), spleen, liver, kidneys, and lungs were analyzed for VEGF-A expression. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and zymosan-treated mice served as controls, and an oral Syk inhibitor served as an arteritis-ameliorated reagent. In aortic roots and PBLs, LCWE induced an early upregulation and a late downregulation of VEGF-A expression. No differential VEGF-A expression was observed in the other organs. Most importantly, Syk inhibition significantly attenuated the LCWE-induced expression of VEGF-A, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in aortic roots. However, LCWE-induced aortic DDAH-2 expression remained higher, despite Syk inhibition. Conclusions:?Local VEGF-A and its signaling pathway are associated with the development of LCWE-induced CALs. Therefore, the clinical correlation between VEGF and human KD and the role of the VEGF-A regulation and signaling pathway in murine CALs warrant further investigation.
Pseudomonas sp. WYZ-2 was isolated from a biocathode which accelerating azo dye decolorization. When the electrode was polarized at -0.8V (vs. SCE), WYZ-2 could exist on electrode, because the current of working electrode stabilized at -0.35mA from -0.13mA after inoculation. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry scanned an unidentified redox-active molecule which involved in the electron charge transfer potentially. On azo dye decolorization experiments by WYZ-2 modified electrode, electrochemical tests also indicated that the catalytic ability of WYZ-2 modified electrode was improved because charge transfer resistance decreased to 255? from 720?, azo dye reduction potential was shifted to -0.78V from -0.89V, and the maximum decolorization efficiency of azo dye was increased to 93.4% from 53.2%, comparing with unmodified electrode. Although numerous studies on azo dye decolorization employed biological agents, electrochemical activity bacteria accelerate the decolorization process using electrode as sole electron source has seldom been reported.
Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA1 and LPA3 siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.
The red phosphors play a vital role in controlling luminous efficiency, color rendering index and adjustability in color temperature of white light emitting diodes (w-LEDs). Here, we demonstrate a type of red-emitting phosphors Eu(3+)-doped barium molybdate phosphors effectively excited by the blue light (464nm). These phosphors present the strong emission spectra around 613nm and their color coordinate values are close to the NTSC standard values. More importantly, by constructing a complete 3003×3003 energy matrix by an effective operator Hamiltonian including the free ion and crystal field interactions, for the first time, the fluorescent mechanism for Eu(3+) ions at the tetragonal (S4) Ba(2+) site of BaMoO4 crystal were investigated by a complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CMD). The fitting values are close to the experimental results, demonstrating the feasibility of using the complete diagonalization method to study the phosphors for w-LEDs.
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA). This study aimed to determine whether a specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of BA. We determined 40 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms in 15 major mitochondrial haplogroups by the use of 24-plex PCR and fluorescent beads combined with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes in 71 patients with BA and in 200 controls in the Taiwanese population of ethnic Chinese background. The haplogroup B4 and E prevalence were significantly lower and higher respectively, in the patients with BA than in the controls (odds ratios, 0.82 [p = 0.007] and 7.36 [p = 0.032] respectively) in multivariate logistic-regression analysis. The 3-year survival rate with native liver was significantly lower in haplogroup E than the other haplogroups (P = 0.037). A cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) was obtained from human 143B osteosarcoma cells devoid of mtDNA (?(0) cell) and was fused with specific mtDNA bearing E and B4 haplogroups donated by healthy Taiwanese subjects. Chenodeoxycholic acid treatment resulted in significantly lower free radical production, higher mitochondrial membrane potential, more viable cells, and fewer apoptotic cybrid B4 cells than parental 143B and cybrid E cells. Bile acid treatment resulted in a significantly greater protective mitochondrial reaction with significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitofusin 1 and 2 concentrations in cybrid B4 and parental cells than in cybrid E cells. The results of the study suggested that the specific mitochondrial DNA haplogroups B4 and E were not only associated with lower and higher prevalence of BA respectively, in the study population, but also with differential susceptibility to hydrophobic bile acid in the cybrid harboring different haplogroups.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.