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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AN APOLIPOPHORIN-III GENE FROM THE CHINESE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE).
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3'-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi.
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Single-molecule packaging initiation in real time by a viral DNA packaging machine from bacteriophage T4.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Viral DNA packaging motors are among the most powerful molecular motors known. A variety of structural, biochemical, and single-molecule biophysical approaches have been used to understand their mechanochemistry. However, packaging initiation has been difficult to analyze because of its transient and highly dynamic nature. Here, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence assay that allowed visualization of packaging initiation and reinitiation in real time and quantification of motor assembly and initiation kinetics. We observed that a single bacteriophage T4 packaging machine can package multiple DNA molecules in bursts of activity separated by long pauses, suggesting that it switches between active and quiescent states. Multiple initiation pathways were discovered including, unexpectedly, direct DNA binding to the capsid portal followed by recruitment of motor subunits. Rapid succession of ATP hydrolysis was essential for efficient initiation. These observations have implications for the evolution of icosahedral viruses and regulation of virus assembly.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KM023645). The length of this mitogenome is 16,014?bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A?+?T-rich region. It presents the typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A?+?T biased, accounting for 81.48%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.005). All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TA (nad5) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad2 and nad4), while others use TAA as their termination codons. The A?+?T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 888?bp.
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Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.
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Autophagy protects C. elegans against necrosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Autophagy, a conserved pathway that delivers intracellular materials into lysosomes for degradation, is involved in development, aging, and a variety of diseases. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays a protective role against infectious diseases by diminishing intracellular pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates innate immunity remains largely unknown. Here, we show that autophagy is involved in host defense against a pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans. P. aeruginosa infection induces autophagy via a conserved extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Intriguingly, impairment of autophagy does not influence the intestinal accumulation of P. aeruginosa, but instead induces intestinal necrosis. Inhibition of necrosis results in the survival of autophagy-deficient worms after P. aeruginosa infection. These findings reveal a previously unidentified role for autophagy in protection against necrosis triggered by pathogenic bacteria in C. elegans and implicate that such a function of autophagy may be conserved through the inflammatory response in diverse organisms.
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Mapping genetically controlled neural circuits of social behavior and visuo-motor integration by a preliminary examination of atypical deletions with Williams syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain.
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The MBD4 Gene Plays an Important Role in Porcine Adipocyte Differentiation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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MBD4 (methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4) is an important G: T glycosylase that can identify T-G mismatches. It plays a role in active demethylation through base excision repair. Overexpression of MBD4 gene can cause the demethylation of numerous genes, and the remethylation of MBD4-associated genes can occur when the MBD4 gene is knocked out. To date, the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the MBD4 gene in the differentiation of porcine preadipocytes have not been clearly established.
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Bronchopulmonary Infection of Lophomonas blattarum: A Case and Literature Review.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Human infections with Lophomonas blattarum are rare. However, the majority of the infections occurred in China, 94.4% (136 cases) of all cases in the world. This infection is difficult to differentiate from other pulmonary infections with similar symptoms. Here we reported a case of L. blattarum infection confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid smear on the microscopic observations. The patient was a 21-year-old female college student. The previous case which occurred in Chongqing was 20 years ago. We briefly reviewed on this infection reported in the world during the recent 20 years. The epidemiological characteristics, possible diagnostic basis, and treatment of this disease is discussed in order to provide a better understanding of recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of L. blattarum infection.
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Insulin renders diabetic rats resistant to acute ischemic stroke by arresting nitric oxide reaction with superoxide to form peroxynitrite.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The functions of free radicals on the effects of insulin that result in protection against cerebral ischemic insult in diabetes remain undefined. This present study aims to explain the contradiction among nitric oxide (NO)/superoxide/peroxynitrite of insulin in amelioration of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (FC I/R) injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Long-Evans male rats were divided into three groups (age-matched controls, diabetic, and diabetic treated with insulin) with or without being subjected to FC I/R injury.
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Elevation of urinary adipsin in preeclampsia: correlation with urine protein concentration and the potential use for a rapid diagnostic test.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Early diagnosis and treatment of preeclampsia are essential for prevention of seizure development and fetus maturation. Although various methods have been developed for predicting or monitoring the onset of preeclampsia, a simple assay that can be used as a home or point of care test remains unavailable. We attempted to find a urinary protein that could be used as a biomarker for developing such a test. Urinary samples were collected from 124 preeclampsia and 135 healthy pregnant women for screening using a protein array technology and quantification by ELISA. A urinary protein, adipsin, was found significantly increased, and the adipsin creatinine ratio was closely correlated with the urinary 24-hour protein in patients with preeclampsia. When combined with the increased diastolic blood pressure (?90 mm Hg), the sensitivity was 90.3% and the specificity reached 100.0% for preeclampsia diagnosis. We then developed a laminar flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis, and the sensitivity and specificity were 89.04% and 100%, respectively, when combined with increased diastolic blood pressure. Because of the easiness of sample collection, assay conduction, and result interpretation, this urine test can be potentially used as a home test for monitoring preeclampsia onset for high-risk pregnant women and as a rapid test for a preliminary diagnosis for emergency patients at hospitals.
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Perinatal mortality in pregnancies with omphalocele: data from the Chinese national birth defects monitoring network, 1996-2006.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Previous studies on the mortality rate of omphalocele are limited. The risk of death of non-isolated omphalocele and that of cases of omphalocele that are diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound are unclear. This study aimed to estimate the perinatal mortality of pregnancies with omphalocele. This study also examined the potential risk of death of non-isolated omphalocele and that of cases that are prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound.
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Recent trends in the birth prevalence of Down syndrome in China: impact of prenatal diagnosis and subsequent terminations.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To analyze recent trends in Down syndrome (DS) prevalence in China and evaluate the impact of prenatal diagnosis and subsequent terminations.
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Planomicrobium soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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A Gram-staining-positive bacterium, designated strain XN13(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from ALaShan National Geological Park in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain XN13(T) was found to have a range of chemical and morphological properties consistent with its classification in the genus Planomicrobium. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain XN13(T) was related to members of the genus Planomicrobium. The closest phylogenetic relatives were Planomicrobium okeanokoites NBRC 12536(T), Planomicrobium koreense JG07(T), Planomicrobium mcmeekinii S23F2(T) and Planomicrobium flavidum ISL-41(T) with 98.2%, 97.8%, 97.8% and 97.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15?:?0), C(16?:?1)?7c alcohol, iso-C(14?:?0) and C(16?:?1)?11c. The predominant menaquinones were MK-8 and MK-7. The DNA G+C content was 40.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain XN13(T) and Planomicrobium okeanokoites KCTC 3672(T), Planomicrobium koreense KCTC 3684(T), P. mcmeekinii CGMCC 1.2724(T), Planomicrobium flavidum KCTC 13261(T), Planomicrobium chinense CGMCC 1.3454(T) and Planomicrobium glaciei CGMCC 1.6846(T) were 36%, 30%, 34%, 29%, 30% and 31%, respectively. The organism is different from recognized species of the genus Planomicrobium in several phenotypic characteristics. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain XN13(T) represents a novel species of the genus Planomicrobium, for which the name Planomicrobium soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XN13(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12259(T)?=?KCTC 33047(T)).
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[Effect of deep electroacupuncture stimulation of "Huantiao" (GB 30) on changes of function and nerve growth factor expression of the injured sciatic nerve in rats].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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OBJECTIVE; To observe the effect of deep electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Huantiao"(GB 30) on the functional and pathological changes and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression of the damaged sciatic nerve in rats, so as to study its mechanisms underlying reliving sciatica.
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Suppressive effects of simvastatin on the human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cell line through the regulation of the nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The present study examined the effects of simvastatin on the proliferation, apoptosis and gene expression levels involved in the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway in the human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cell line by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, flow cytometry and the Human NF-?B Signaling Pathway RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array profiles. The results showed that simvastatin significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of the NB4 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Changes were noted in the expression levels of 56 genes involved in the NF-?B signaling pathways in the NB4 cells treated with 15 ?m simvastatin at 48 h post-incubation, among which, 47 genes were downregulated and 9 were upregulated. In conclusion, simvastatin potentially inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of NB4 cells through the regulation of the expression levels of genes involved in the NF-?B signaling pathway.
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[Research on optimization of mathematical model of flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry was a widely used method in the industries of health, environmental, geological and metallurgical fields for the merit of high sensitivity, wide measurement range and fast analytical speed. However, optimization of this method was too difficult as there exist so many parameters affecting the sensitivity and broadening. Generally, the optimal conditions were sought through several experiments. The present paper proposed a mathematical model between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients using the law of conservation of mass according to the characteristics of hydride chemical reaction and the composition of the system, which was proved to be accurate as comparing the theoretical simulation and experimental results through the test of arsanilic acid standard solution. Finally, this paper has put a relation map between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients, and summarized that GLS volume, carrier solution flow rate and sample loop volume were the most factors affecting sensitivity and broadening coefficients. Optimizing these three factors with this relation map, the relative sensitivity was advanced by 2.9 times and relative broadening was reduced by 0.76 times. This model can provide a theoretical guidance for the optimization of the experimental conditions.
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Over-expression of P2X7 receptors in spinal glial cells contributes to the development of chronic postsurgical pain induced by skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) in rats.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Many patients suffer from chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) following surgery, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present work, with use of the skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) model, the role of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) in spinal glial cells in the development of CPSP was evaluated. Consistent with previous reports, we found that SMIR decreased the ipsilateral 50% paw withdrawal threshold (PWT), lasting for at least 2weeks. No injury was done to L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and no axonal or Schwann cell damage at the retraction site in the saphenous nerve was observed 7days after SMIR. The results of immunofluorescence showed that both microglia and astrocytes were activated in the spinal dorsal horn following SMIR. In addition, both P2X7Rs and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were up-regulated following SMIR. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that the up-regulated P2X7R immunoreactivity was mainly located in microglia, and to a lesser extent in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Intrathecal delivery of specific P2X7R antagonist BBG (10?M in 10?l volume) or A438079 (10?M in 10?l volume), started 30min before the surgery and once daily thereafter for 7days, prevented the mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal injection of BBG inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and the up-regulation of TNF-? induced by SMIR. These data suggest that P2X7Rs in the spinal dorsal horn might mediate the development of CPSP via activation of glial cells and up-regulation of TNF-?.
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Mini-array of multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in the immunodiagnosis of esophageal cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Sera of cancer patients may contain antibodies that react with a unique group of autologous cellular antigens called tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The present study aimed to determine whether a mini-array of multiple TAAs would enhance antibody detection and be a useful approach in esophageal cancer detection and diagnosis. Our mini-array of multiple TAAs consisted of eleven antigens, p53, pl6, Impl, CyclinB1, C-myc, RalA, p62, Survivin, Koc, CyclinD1 and CyclinE full-length recombinant proteins. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to detect autoantibodies against eleven selected TAAs in 174 sera from patients with esophageal cancer, as well as 242 sera from normal individuals. In addition, positive results of ELISA were confirmed by Western blotting. In a parallel screening trial, with the successive addition of antigen to a final total of eleven TAAs, there was a stepwise increase in positive antibody reactions. The eleven TAAs were the best parallel combination, and the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing esophageal cancer was 75.3% and 81.0%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 74.0% and 82.0%, respectively, indicating that the parallel assay of eleven TAAs raised the diagnostic precision significantly. In addition, the levels of antibodies to seven antigens, comprising p53, Impl, C-myc, RalA, p62, Survivin, and CyclinD1, were significantly different in various stages of esophageal cancer, which showed that autoantibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of esophageal cancer. All in all, this study further supports our previous hypothesis that a combination of antibodies might acquire higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of certain types of cancer. A customized mini-array of multiple carefully-selected TAAs is able to enhance autoantibody detection in the immunodiagnosis of esophageal cancer and autoantibodies to TAAs might be reference indicators of clinical stage.
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[Progress in research on azoospermia factor and male infertility].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Failure of spermatogenesis is the main clinical manifestation of male infertility. Multiple factors including genetic factors may affect spermatogenesis. Azoopermia factor (AZF) is closely involved in spermatogenesis. This paper reviews recent progress made in the study of AZF and its role in spermatogenesis and male infertility.
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Role of osteoprotegerin gene variants in early-onset severe pre-eclampsia.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The aim of this study was to detect the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene variants in early-onset severe pre-eclampsia.
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The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65?Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45?Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.
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Chemistry and pharmacology of Siraitia grosvenorii: a review.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Siraitia grosvenorii is a perennial herb endemic to Guangxi province of China. Its fruit, commonly known as Luo hanguo, and has been used for hundreds of years as a natural sweetener and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of pharyngitis, pharyngeal pain, as well as an anti-tussive remedy in China. Based on ninety-three literary sources, this review summarized the advances in chemistry, biological effects, and toxicity research of S. grosvenorii during the past 30 years. Several different classes of compounds have been isolated or detected from various parts of S. grosvenorii, mainly triterpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, amino acids, and essential oils. Various types of extracts or individual compounds derived from this species exhibited a wide array of biological effects e.g. anti-tussive, phlegm-relieving, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, liver-protecting, glucose-lowering, and anti-microbial. The existing research has shown that extracts and individual compounds from S. grosvenorii are basically non-toxic. Finally, some suggestions for further research on specific chemical and pharmacological properties of S. grosvenorii are proposed in this review.
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CX3CL1-mediated macrophage activation contributed to paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis and painful peripheral neuropathy.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel therapy, which hampers the optimal clinical management of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Currently the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we showed that the clinically relevant dose of paclitaxel (3×8mg/kg, cumulative dose 24mg/kg) induced significant upregulation of the chemokine CX3CL1 in the A-fiber primary sensory neurons in vivo and in vitro and infiltration of macrophages into the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. Paclitaxel treatment also increased cleaved caspase-3 expression, induced the loss of primary afferent terminal fibers and decreased sciatic-evoked A-fiber responses in the spinal dorsal horn, indicating DRG neuronal apoptosis induced by paclitaxel. In addition, the paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis occurred exclusively in the presence of macrophage in vitro study. Intrathecal or systemic injection of CX3CL1 neutralizing antibody blocked paclitaxel-induced macrophage recruitment and neuronal apoptosis in the DRG, and also attenuated paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Furthermore, depletion of macrophage by systemic administration of clodronate inhibited paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Blocking CX3CL1 decreased activation of p38 MAPK in the macrophage, and inhibition of p38 MAPK activity blocked the neuronal apoptosis and development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel. These findings provide novel evidence that CX3CL1-recruited macrophage contributed to paclitaxel-induced DRG neuronal apoptosis and painful peripheral neuropathy.
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Evaluation of blood-brain barrier permeability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2-knockout mice.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to the health of the central nervous system (CNS). The possibility that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) participates in the alteration of the BBB has been previously demonstrated. Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is a unique genetic enzyme isoform that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of 5-HT in the CNS; however, its role in the permeability changes of the BBB remains unclear. In the present study, TPH2-knockout mice were utilized in the assessment of BBB disruption, as measured by the Evans Blue (EB) extravasation or fluorescein isothiocyanate-albumin leakage assay in the brain. EB was not found to be retained in the brain in the TPH2-knockout mice or the wild-type controls. The results of the study demonstrate that TPH2 knockout has no effect on BBB permeability, indicating that TPH2 and the 5-HT system in the CNS are not sufficient to influence the BBB leakage.
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Depletion of canonical Wnt signaling components has a neuroprotective effect on midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is critical for the development of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and recent studies have suggested that disruption of this signaling cascade may underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and ?-catenin components, in a mouse model of PD remains unclear. In the present study, the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mouse line was used to generate mice with the specific knockout of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin in DA neurons. Following inactivation of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin, TH-immunohistochemical staining was performed. The results indicated that ?-catenin is required for the development or maintenance of these neurons; however, LRP5 and LRP6 were found to be dispensable. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, the depletion of LRP5, LRP6 or ?-catenin was found to be protective for the midbrain DA neurons to a certain extent. These in vivo results provide a novel perspective for the function of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in a mouse model of PD.
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Atorvastatin attenuates involvement of RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway and NF-?B activation in hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive rats.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiopulmonary diseases. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Rho A/Rho-kinase pathway play an important role in the progress of pulmonary hypertension. Stains have been shown exert numerous biological effects that are independent of their cholesterol-lowering property. We hypothesized that the Rho A/Rho-kinase pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of HPH, and that atorvastatin would attenuate involvement of the Rho A/Rho-kinase pathway in a HPH rat model.
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Bioinformatic prediction of SNPs within miRNA binding sites of inflammatory genes associated with gastric cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Polymorphisms in miRNA binding sites have been shown to affect miRNA binding to target genes, resulting in differential mRNA and protein expression and susceptibility to common diseases. Our purpose was to predict SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) within miRNA binding sites of inflammatory genes in relation to gastric cancer. A complete list of SNPs in the 3'UTR regions of all inflammatory genes associated with gastric cancer was obtained from Pubmed. miRNA target prediction databases (MirSNP, Targetscan Human 6.2, PolymiRTS 3.0, miRNASNP 2.0, and Patrocles) were used to predict miRNA target sites. There were 99 SNPs with MAF>0.05 within the miRNA binding sites of 41 genes among 72 inflammation-related genes associated with gastric cancer. NF-?B and JAK-STAT are the two most important signaling pathways. 47 SNPs of 25 genes with 95 miRNAs were predicted. CCL2 and IL1F5 were found to be the shared target genes of hsa-miRNA-624-3p. Bioinformatic methods could identify a set of SNPs within miRNA binding sites of inflammatory genes, and provide data and direction for subsequent functional verification research.
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Identification of differentially expressed proteins in the ovaries of menopausal women.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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This study investigated proteins differentially expressed in the ovaries of menopausal women in comparison to childbearing women.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374?bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A?+?T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A?+?T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A?+?T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326?bp in length.
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TNF-?-mediated JNK activation in the dorsal root ganglion neurons contributes to Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Bortezomib (BTZ) is a frequently used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma and hematological neoplasms. The mechanism by which the administration of BTZ leads to painful peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we first determined that the administration of BTZ upregulated the expression of TNF-? and phosphorylated JNK1/2 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rat. Furthermore, the TNF-? synthesis inhibitor thalidomide significantly blocked the activation of both isoforms JNK1 and JNK2 in the DRG and attenuated mechanical allodynia following BTZ treatment. Knockout of the expression of TNF-? receptor TNFR1 (TNFR1 KO mice) or TNFR2 (TNFR2 KO mice) inhibited JNK1 and JNK2 activation and decreased mechanical allodynia induced by BTZ. These results suggest that upregulated TNF-? expression may activate JNK signaling via TNFR1 or TNFR2 to mediate mechanical allodynia following BTZ treatment.
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[Serious systemic adverse events associated with allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with asthma].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To retrospectively assess serious systemic adverse effects of standardized dust-mite vaccine in children with asthma.
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Autoantibody response to murine double minute 2 protein in immunodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. Although new therapeutic strategies have been continuously developed and applied to clinical treatment for HCC, the prognosis is still very poor. Thus, early detection of HCC may enhance effective and curative management. In this study, autoantibody responses to MDM2 protein in HCC patient's serum were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and part sera were evaluated by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) over tissue array slides was also performed to analyze protein expression of MDM2 in HCC and control tissues. The prevalence of autoantibodies against MDM2 was significantly higher than that in liver cirrhosis (LC), chronic hepatitis (CH), and normal human sera (NHS). The average titer of autoantibodies against MDM2 in HCC serum was higher compared to that in LC, CH, and NHS. A high titer of autoantibodies against MDM2 in ELISA could be observed in the serum in 6 to 9 months before the clinical diagnosis of HCC in the serum of several HCC patients with serial bleeding samples. Our preliminary data indicate that MDM2 and anti-MDM2 system may be a potential biomarker for early stage HCC screening and immunodiagnosis.
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The subfornical organ: a novel site of action of cholecystokinin.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The subfornical organ (SFO) is an important sensory circumventricular organ implicated in the regulation of fluid homeostasis and energy balance. We investigated whether the SFO is activated by the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). CCK? and CCK? receptors were identified in the SFO by RT-PCR. Dissociated SFO neurons that responded to CCK (40/77), were mostly depolarized (9.2 ± 0.9 mV, 30/77), but some were hyperpolarized (-7.3 ± 1.1 mV, 10/77). We next examined the responses of SFO neurons in vivo to CCK (16 ?g/kg ip), in the presence and absence of CCK? or CCK? receptor antagonists (devazepide; 600 ?g/kg and L-365,260; 100 ?g/kg, respectively), using the functional activation markers c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK). The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) served as a control for CCK-induced activity. There was a significant increase in c-Fos expression in the NTS (259.2 ± 20.8 neurons) compared with vehicle (47.5 ± 2.5). Similarly, in the SFO, c-Fos was expressed in 40.5 ± 10.6 neurons in CCK-treated compared with 6.6 ± 2.7 in vehicle-treated rats (P < 0.01). Devazepide significantly reduced the effects of CCK in the NTS but not in SFO. L-365,260 blocked the effects of CCK in both brain regions. CCK increased the number of p-ERK neurons in NTS (27.0 ± 4.0) as well as SFO (18.0 ± 4.0), compared with vehicle (8.0 ± 2.6 and 4.3 ± 0.6, respectively; P < 0.05). Both devazepide and L-365,260 reduced CCK-induced p-ERK in NTS, but only L-365,260 reduced it in the SFO. In conclusion, the SFO represents a novel brain region at which circulating CCK may act via CCK? receptors to influence central autonomic control.
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The suppression of epileptiform discharges in cultured hippocampal neurons is regulated via alterations in full-length tropomyosin-related kinase type B receptors signalling activity.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disease. Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis at the cellular and molecular levels may provide novel targets for preventing this disorder. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase type B (TrkB) are believed to be critical for epileptogenesis. Previous studies have revealed possible changes in the expression of full-length TrkB receptors (TrkB.FL) and truncated TrkB receptors (TrkB.T) in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated alterations in TrkB receptor expression and TrkB signalling activity in a rat hippocampal neuronal model of spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SREDs) and the effects on the epileptiform discharges. To induce epileptiform discharges, we established a model with Mg(2+) -free treatment. We found a dramatic upregulation of TrkB.T and a decrease in TrkB.FL in the SREDs model. Calpain contributed to the downregulation of TrkB.FL. The upregulation of TrkB.T required transcription and translation activity. Furthermore, BDNF induced the activation of TrkB.FL signalling. However, TrkB.FL signalling was inhibited in the SREDs model. Although calpain inhibitors prevented a decrease in TrkB.FL, they did not restrain the downregulation of TrkB.FL signalling activity in the model. However, a SREDs model with a translation inhibitor prevented the increase in TrkB.T and re-activated TrkB.FL signalling activity. Finally, we used electrophysiology to observe that a downregulation of TrkB.T could relieve the representative epileptiform discharges in the model. These results, taken together, demonstrate that alterations in TrkB.FL signalling may be regulated via TrkB.T receptors. Upregulation of TrkB.FL signalling suppresses epileptiform discharges in the SREDs model.
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[Ex vivo Inducing Cultured Epstein-Barr Virus Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Evaluation of Their Killing Effect].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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This study was aimed to explore the method for induction and expansion of EB virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (EBV-CTL) in vitro, and to detect their killing effect. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMNC) were collected from 6 EBV seropositive healthy donors, and EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cells (BLCL)were used as the antigen-presenting cells and antigen stimulant which was irradiated by 40 Gy (60)Co irradiator. The autologous PBMNC and irradiated BLCL were cultured to induce and expand the EBV-CTL, and the immunophenotype was identified by the flow cytometry. The killing effect of the EBV-CTL against the autologous BLCL(autoBLCL), the autologous PHA cultured B lymphoblastoid cells(PHA-BLCL), the allogeneic BLCL(alloBLCL) and the K562 cells were measured with LDH release assay under different effector-to-target ratio. The results showed that the 6 cell lines of EBV-CTL were induced and expanded from the EBV seropositive healthy donors, the overall increase in cell numbers varied from 18.6 to 55.0 times. After 10 stimulations, the specific killing efficiency of the EBV-CTL for the autoBLCL were 59.4%, 43.2% and 29.0% under the effector-to-target ratio of 20: 1, 10: 1 and 5: 1. The nonspecific killing efficiency for the PHA-blast, alloBLCL and K562 cells were 7.1%, 9.4% and 10.3% (P < 0.05) under the 20: 1 ratio; 6.6%, 8.3% and 8.1% (P < 0.05) under 10: 1; 5.4%, 7.3% and 6.3% (P < 0.05) under 5: 1, respectively. It is concluded that the EBV-CTL can be successfully induced and expanded ex vivo for specific killing of HLA matched BLCL and may become a potential treatment for EBV related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders.
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[Effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on patients with arrhythmia complicated by sleep apnea syndrome].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To investigate the clinical efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in treatment of patients with arrhythmia complicated by sleep apnea syndrome (SAS).
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Pseudoxanthomonas wuyuanensis sp. nov., isolated from saline-alkali soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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A bacterium, designated XC21-2T, isolated from a saline-alkaline soil sample of China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile and grew optimally at 35-37 °C, pH 6.0-7.0 and in the present of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Growth occurs in the pH range of 5.5-9.0 and in the present of up to 4 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C17:1?9c. The major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) and an amino-group containing polar lipid (AL1). The major quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 66.2 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain XC21-2T formed a tight phylogenetic lineage with Pseudoxanthomonas dokdonensis DS-16T within the genus Pseudoxanthomonas and was most closely related to P. dokdonensis DS-16T and P. mexicana AMX 26BT, with 97.9 % and 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of the unique physiological pro?les of the isolate and its phylogenetic and genetic divergence, strain XC21-2T represents a novel species within the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, for which the name Pseudoxanthomonas wuyuanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XC21-2T (= CGMCC 1.10978T = KCTC 23877T).
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BCCIP Suppresses Tumor Initiation but Is Required for Tumor Progression.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Dysfunctions of genome caretaker genes contribute to genomic instability and tumor initiation. Because many of the caretaker genes are also essential for cell viability, permanent loss of function of these genes would prohibit further tumor progression. How essential caretaker genes contribute to tumorigenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report a "hit-and-run" mode of action for an essential caretaker gene in tumorigenesis. Using a BRCA2-interacting protein BCCIP as the platform, we found that a conditional BCCIP knockdown and concomitant p53 deletion caused rapid development of medulloblastomas, which bear a wide spectrum of alterations involving the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway, consistent with a caretaker responsibility of BCCIP on genomic integrity. Surprisingly, the progressed tumors have spontaneously lost the transgenic BCCIP knockdown cassette and restored BCCIP expression. Thus, a transient downregulation of BCCIP, but not necessarily a permanent mutation, is sufficient to initiate tumorigenesis. After the malignant transformation has been accomplished and autonomous cancer growth has been established, BCCIP reverses its role from a tumor-initiation suppressor to become a requisite for progression. This exemplifies a new type of tumor suppressor, which is distinct from the classical tumor suppressors that are often permanently abrogated during tumorigenesis. It has major implications on how a nonmutagenic or transient regulation of essential caretaker gene contributes to tumorigenesis. We further suggest that BCCIP represents a paradoxical class of modulators for tumorigenesis as a suppressor for initiation but a requisite for progression (SIRP). Cancer Res; 73(23); 7122-33. ©2013 AACR.
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Fluorofenidone attenuates vascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension of rats.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Fluorofenidone (AKF-PD) is a novel pyridone derivate that targets transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) signaling. Previous studies have proven that AKF-PD functions as an antifibrotic agent in pulmonary fibrosis and renal fibrosis models. Activated TGF-?1 signaling is thought to be a major feature of pulmonary hypertension (PH). TGF-?1 exerts powerful pro-proliferation effects on pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and hence, prompts vascular remodeling. This study is designed to investigate the effect of AKF-PD on vascular remodeling in a rat model of hypoxia-induced PH. PH was induced in rats by 4 weeks of hypoxia. The expression of TGF-?1, collagen I, and collagen III was analyzed by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, or Western blot. Proliferation of cultured PASMCs was determined by the BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. The results showed that AKF-PD treatment (0.5 or 1.0 g·(kg body mass)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and improved homodynamic parameters. TGF-?1 level was significantly down-regulated by AKF-PD both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, hypoxia- and TGF-?1-induced PASMC proliferation and collagen expression were both significantly suppressed by AKF-PD. These results suggest that AKF-PD ameliorates the progression of PH induced by hypoxia in rats through its regulation of TGF-?1 expression, PASMC proliferation, and the extracellular matrix.
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Bacteria detected after instrumentation surgery for pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis in a canine model.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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This study was designed to identify the presence, type and origin of bacteria adjacent to the metal implant in the infected region in a canine model of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis treated with single-stage anterior autogenous bone grafting and instrumentation.
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[An descriptive epidemiological study on congenital clubfoot in China during 2001 to 2010].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To understand the trend of prevalence of congenital clubfoot and its epidemiological characterisitics in China during 2001 to 2010.
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[Epidemiological analysis of selected congenital limb malformations in Hengyang].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To describe the epidemiological characteristics of selected congenital limb malformations (CLM) in newborns of Hengyang.
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Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.
Acta. Biol. Hung.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.
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Structural Optimization of Berberine as a Synergist to Restore Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole against Drug-Resistant Candida albicans.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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We have conducted systematic structural modification, deconstruction, and reconstruction of the berberine core with the aim of lowering its cytotoxicity, investigating its pharmacophore, and ultimately, seeking novel synergistic agents to restore the effectiveness of fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. A structure-activity relationship study of 95 analogues led us to identify the novel scaffold of N-(2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)ethyl)-2-(substituted phenyl)acetamides 7?a-l, which exhibited remarkable levels of in vitro synergistic antifungal activity. Compound 7?d (N-(2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)ethyl)-2-(2-fluorophenyl)acetamide) significantly decreased the MIC80 values of fluconazole from 128.0??g?mL(-1) to 0.5??g?mL(-1) against fluconazole-resistant C.?albicans and exhibited much lower levels of cytotoxicity than berberine toward human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
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Enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol by piceid-?-D-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Resveratrol is now gaining much attention because of its pharmacological properties. Polygonum cuspidatum has the highest content of resveratrol in plants and is the best material offering resveratrol. However, the content of resveratrol in P. cuspidatum is much lower compared with its glycoside polydatin. In this study, enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol by piceid-?-D-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae sp. 100 was investigated. The biotransformation conditions were optimized. Under the optimized conditions of 60 °C, pH 5.0, substrate concentration of 40 g/L and piceid-?-D-glucosidase activity of 5 U/mL, enzymatic transformation of polydatin from P. cuspidatum was successfully performed, during which 22.5 g/L of resveratrol was produced after reacting for 4 h, with the substrate conversion rate of 2 g/h/U of piceid-?-D-glucosidase. A feasible and environment friendly process of enzymatic transformation of polydatin to resveratrol was developed, which provides a promising and competitive alternative for the production of resveratrol.
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The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism influences risk of esophageal cancer in Chinese.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism. This study with 381 esophageal cancer patients and 432 healthy controls was conducted to examine the association of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with susceptibility to esophageal cancer (EC) in a Chinese population. Compared with the CC genotype of MTHFR C677T, subjects carrying homozygote TT and variant genotypes (CT+TT) demonstrated reduced risk of EC with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.44 (0.28-0.71) and 0.57 (0.37-0.88), respectively. However, no association was found between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and the risk of EC. Comparing to haplotype CA, haplotypes TA and TC could reduce the susceptibility to EC with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 0.61(0.47-0.79) and 0.06 (0.01-0.43), respectively. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism can markedly influence the risk of EC in Chinese.
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A population-based case-control study on risk factors for gastric cardia cancer in rural areas of Linzhou.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Although certain dietary factors and lifestyles have been suggested to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, there have been few investigations focusing on rural areas. A case-control study was therefore carried out to investigate the risk factors of gastric cardia cancer (GCC) in rural areas of Linzhou. A total of 470 newly diagnosed cases of GCC and 470 healthy controls were included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a uniform questionnaire containing questions on demographics, per capita income, living habits, dietary habits and family history of tumors. The relationship between putative risk factors and GCC was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) derived from conditional logistic regression model by the COXREG command using SPSS 12.00. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the effects of multiple factors and other potential confounding factors. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that smoking (OR=1.939, 95%CI:1.097-3.426), alcohol drinking (OR=2.360, 95%CI: 1.292-4.311), hot food consumption (OR=2.034, 95%CI: 1.507-2.745), fast eating (OR=1.616, 95%CI: 1.171-2.230), mouldy food (OR=4.564, 95%CI: 2.682-7.767), leftover food (OR=1.881. 95%CI: 1.324-2.671), and family history of tumor (OR=2.831, 95%CI: 1.588-5.050) were risk factors for GCC. High per capita income (OR=0.709, 95%CI: 0.533-0.942), high education level (OR=0.354, 95%CI: 0.163-0.765), consumption of fresh fruits (OR=0.186, 95%CI: 0.111-0.311) and vegetables (OR=0.243, 95%CI: 0.142-0.415), and high BMI (OR=0.367, 95%CI: 0.242-0.557) were protective factors for GCC. Our data indicate that unhealthy lifestyle and dietary habits might be important contributors to GCC in this population.
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Association of mir-499 and mir-149 polymorphisms with cancer risk in the Chinese population: evidence from published studies.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Meta-analyses have shown that microRNA polymorphisms have variable effects in different population. Yet, no meta-analysis investigated the association of two common polymorphisms of miRNA, mir-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and mir-149 rs2292832 polymorphism, with cancer risk in the Chinese population. We searched the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, CNKI databases, as well as Cochrane library, updated on December 31, 2012 for assays regarding cancer risk association with these two common polymorphisms in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to explore the strength of associations. The results showed that rs3746444 polymorphism was associated with increased cancer risk (dominant model: GG/AG vs. AA: OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.80; recessive model: GG vs.
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Overexpression of small heat shock protein 21 protects the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi against thermal stress.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) usually act as molecular chaperones to prevent proteins from being denatured in extreme conditions. We first report the sHSP21 gene, named as Ap-sHSP21, in the Chinese oak silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). The full-length cDNA of Ap-sHSP21 is 976 bp, including a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 99 bp, a 3-UTR of 316 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids. The deduced A. pernyi sHSP21 protein sequence reveals the percent identity is 82-93% in comparison to other sHSPs from insects. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis shows that Ap-sHSP21 expression is higher in testis than that in other examined tissues and significantly up-regulated after heat shock. In addition, prokaryotic expression and purification of the Ap-sHSP21 protein were performed. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 25 kDa recombinant protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli cells and the purified recombinant protein was also confirmed to protect restriction enzymes from thermal inactivation. The expression of Ap-sHSP21 was significantly down-regulated after RNA interference, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. All together, these results suggest that Ap-sHSP21 play a key role in thermal tolerance.
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[Soil organic carbon storage in different aged Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing an Mountains of Northeast China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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A sampling plot investigation was conducted to study the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in 0-40 cm layer in 10-, 15-, 26- and 61 years old Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing an Mountains of Northeast China as well as the temporal variation pattern of the SOC source/sink during the plantation management after the clear cutting of primary L. gmelinii forest. With the increasing age of the plantations, the SOC storage increased after an initial decrease, and the inflection point was at a stand age between 15- and 26-years old. Compared with that of primary forest, the SOC storage of the plantations played a role of carbon source at early stage (10-26 years old), but gradually transformed into carbon sink then, with a SOC storage of 158.91 t x hm(-2) in 61-year-old plantation. The SOC storage of the plantations increased with soil depth initially, but was higher in upper soil layer than in deeper soil layer after the stand age being 26, which implied that human disturbance had strong effects on the vertical distribution of SOC. It was considered that the appropriate cutting age for the L. gmelinii plantations in Great Xing an Mountains could be at least 60 years old.
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Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1).
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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With concerns about the disastrous health and economic consequences caused by the influenza pandemic, comprehensively understanding the global host response to influenza virus infection is urgent. The role of microRNA (miRNA) has recently been highlighted in pathogen-host interactions. However, the precise role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in humans, especially in critically ill patients is still unclear.
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[Quantitative monitoring of multi-donor chimerism after multi-donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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This study was aimed to establish a model for detecting the donor chimerism rate following the multi-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, and simplify its calculation method. Patients with hematologic disease receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation including single-donor and multi-donor were selected in this study and the donor cell chimerism rates were detected, using STR-PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis. The results indicated that the peaks of the sister alleles coming from the same individual were confirmed to have the approximate areas and can be replaced each other in the situation of mixed chimerism. In the calculation model, the value between reference chimerism and approximate chimerism have no significant difference using the hypothetical peak areas, and the result was confirmed to be accepted basing on typical measurement error between sister alleles (5% - 20%). It is concluded that the areas of share peaks can be replaced by non-share peaks and this conclusion can be used to calculate the double-donor CHM (DD-CHM)(%). Compared to the D alleles, R alleles show more strategic importance because it can lead to more accurate result and allowed simplifying the arithmetic calculations for DD-CHM(%).
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Apelin acts in the subfornical organ to influence neuronal excitability and cardiovascular function.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in the regulation of water balance, food intake and the cardiovascular system partially through actions in the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular organ with identified roles in body fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular control and energy balance. The SFO lacks a normal blood-brain barrier, and is thus able to detect circulating signalling molecules such as angiotensin II and leptin. In this study, we investigated actions of apelin-13, the predominant apelin isoform in brain and circulatory system, on the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons using electrophysiological approaches, and determined the cardiovascular consequences of direct administration into the SFO of anaesthetized rats. Whole cell current clamp recording revealed that bath-applied 100 nm apelin-13 directly influences the excitability of the majority of SFO neurons by eliciting either depolarizing (31.8%, mean 7.0 ± 0.8 mV) or hyperpolarizing (28.6%, mean -10.4 ± 1.8 mV) responses. Using voltage-clamp techniques, we also identified modulatory actions of apelin-13 on specific ion channels, demonstrating that apelin-13 activates a non-selective cationic conductance to depolarize SFO neurons while activation of the delayed rectifier potassium conductance underlies hyperpolarizing effects. In anaesthetized rats, microinjection of apelin into SFO decreased both blood pressure (BP) (mean area under the curve -1492.3 ± 357.1 mmHg.s, n = 5) and heart rate (HR) (-32.4 ± 10.39 beats, n = 5). Our data suggest that circulating apelin can directly affect BP and HR as a consequence of the ability of this peptide to modulate the excitability of SFO neurons.
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Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) was determined to be 15,298 bp and has the typical gene organization of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The A+T content of this mitogenome is 80.83% and the AT skew is slightly positive. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which is initiated by CGA. Only the cox2 gene has an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. All the tRNA genes display a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region of the mitogenome is 332 bp in length, including several common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the D. pyloalis is close to Pyralididae.
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Identification of immune response-related genes in the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi by suppression subtractive hybridization.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Insects possess an innate immune system that responds to invading microorganisms. In this study, a subtractive cDNA library was constructed to screen for immune response-related genes in the fat bodies of Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) pupa challenged with Escherichia coli. Four hundred putative EST clones were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), including 50 immune response-related genes, three cytoskeleton genes, eight cell cycle and apoptosis genes, five respiration and energy metabolism genes, five transport genes, 40 metabolism genes, ten stress response genes, four transcription and translation regulation genes and 77 unknown genes. To verify the reliability of the SSH data, the transcription of a set of randomly selected immune response-related genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). These identified immune response-related genes provide insight into understanding the innate immunity in A. pernyi.
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[Comparison of the effect between procaine and 5-aza-dc on wnt inhibitory factor 1 promoter methylation of HepG2].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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To observe the CpG island methylation status, mRNA and protein expression of the Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (Wif-1) gene with procaine or 5-Aza-2-deoxycycytidine (5-aza-dc) on HepG2. And to explore the comparison of the demethylation with 5-aza-dc or procaine.
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CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk for Esophageal Cancer: a Case-control Study in Central China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of developing esophageal cancer (EC). A case-control study was carried out in a Chinese population in which 157 hospital based EC cases and 157 population based healthy controls with 1:1 match by age and sex were included. PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) were used to detect genotypes in case and control groups. For the CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphism, comparing with wild genotype Ile/Ile, both the heterozygote genotype Ile/Val and the combined variant genotype Ile/Val+Val/Val increased the risk of esophageal cancer (OR: 2.05, 95%CI: 1.19-3.54, OR: 1.86, 95%CI: 1.11-3.12). No significant association was found between the CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism and EC. According to analysis of combined genotypes, the TC/AG combined genotype which contained both variant alleles of these two polymorphisms increased the risk of developing EC (OR: 2.12, 95%CI: 1.16-3.85). Our results suggested that genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1 may increase the susceptibility to EC.
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Discontinuous microduplications at chromosome 10q24.31 identified in a Chinese family with split hand and foot malformation.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital disorder characterized by a cleft of the hands and/or feet due to dificiency of central rays. Genomic rearrangement at 10q24 has been found to cause nonsyndromic SHFM (SHFM3).
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Therapeutic strategies of iatrogenic portal vein injury after cholecystectomy.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The incidence of vascular injury after a cholecystectomy is often underestimated. Although injuries to the portal vein are rare, they are devastating. The aim of the present study was to analyze suitable therapeutic strategies regarding portal vein injury in the absence of biliary injury.
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Protein profile of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Seeds are the most important plant storage organ and play a central role in the life cycle of plants. Since little is known about the protein composition of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds, in this work we used proteomic methods to obtain a reference map of rice seed proteins and identify important molecules. Overall, 480 reproducible protein spots were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis on pH 4-7 gels and 302 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and database searches. Together, these proteins represented 252 gene products and were classified into 12 functional categories, most of which were involved in metabolic pathways. Database searches combined with hydropathy plots and gene ontology analysis showed that most rice seed proteins were hydrophilic and were related to binding, catalytic, cellular or metabolic processes. These results expand our knowledge of the rice proteome and improve our understanding of the cellular biology of rice seeds.
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AO spine injury classification system: a revision proposal for the thoracic and lumbar spine.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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The AO Spine Classification Group was established to propose a revised AO spine injury classification system. This paper provides details on the rationale, methodology, and results of the initial stage of the revision process for injuries of the thoracic and lumbar (TL) spine.
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Pulmonary antrum radial-linear ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: interim analysis of a multicenter trial.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Substrate abnormality in pulmonary vein (PV) antrum plays a critical role in mechanism of atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study compares the strategy of PV antrum radial-linear (PAR) ablation to encircling PV isolation for paroxysmal AF.
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Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain H9 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bombyx mori strain H9 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is 15,670base pairs (bp) in length, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 81.31%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.059). The arrangement of 13 PCGs is similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans. All the PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is proposed by the TTAG sequence as observed in other lepidopterans. Unlike the other PCGs, the cox1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2) genes have incomplete stop codons consisting of just a T. All tRNAs have typical structures of insect mitochondrial tRNAs, which is different from other sequenced lepidopterans. The structure of A+T-rich region is similar to that of other sequenced lepidopterans, including non-repetitive sequences, the ATAGA binding domain, a 18bp poly-T stretch and a poly-A element upstream of transfer RNA M (trnM) gene. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the domesticated silkmoth B. mori originated from the Chinese Bombyx mandarina.
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Geographic and urban-rural disparities in the total prevalence of neural tube defects and their subtypes during 2006-2008 in China: a study using the hospital-based birth defects surveillance system.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Previous reports on the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in China did not include cases of NTDs that were less than 28 weeks of gestational age (GA) and hence did not accurately reflect the total prevalence of NTDs or the geographic and urban-rural disparities in their prevalence. This article includes cases of NTDs that were less than 28 weeks of GA.
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Abnormal brain synchrony in Down Syndrome.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Down Syndrome is the most common genetic cause for intellectual disability, yet the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in Down Syndrome is unknown. We compared fMRI scans of 15 individuals with Down Syndrome to 14 typically developing control subjects while they viewed 50 min of cartoon video clips. There was widespread increased synchrony between brain regions, with only a small subset of strong, distant connections showing underconnectivity in Down Syndrome. Brain regions showing negative correlations were less anticorrelated and were among the most strongly affected connections in the brain. Increased correlation was observed between all of the distributed brain networks studied, with the strongest internetwork correlation in subjects with the lowest performance IQ. A functional parcellation of the brain showed simplified network structure in Down Syndrome organized by local connectivity. Despite increased interregional synchrony, intersubject correlation to the cartoon stimuli was lower in Down Syndrome, indicating that increased synchrony had a temporal pattern that was not in response to environmental stimuli, but idiosyncratic to each Down Syndrome subject. Short-range, increased synchrony was not observed in a comparison sample of 447 autism vs. 517 control subjects from the Autism Brain Imaging Exchange (ABIDE) collection of resting state fMRI data, and increased internetwork synchrony was only observed between the default mode and attentional networks in autism. These findings suggest immature development of connectivity in Down Syndrome with impaired ability to integrate information from distant brain regions into coherent distributed networks.
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Protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae on retinal neuronal damage in diabetic mice.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate the potential protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae (TFF) on retinal neural cells in diabetic mice.
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Influence of stacking fault energy on defect structures and microhardness of Cu and Cu alloys.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
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Nano-structured Cu, Cu-10 wt%Zn and Cu-2 wt%Al with stacking fault energies (SFE) of 78, 35 and 37 mJ/m2, respectively, were preprared through high energy ball milling. X-ray diffraction and Vickers microharness test were used to investigate the microstructure and microhardness of all the samples after ball milling. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that lower SFEs lead both to decrease in grain size and increase in microstrain, dislocation and twin densities for Cu-10 wt%Zn and Cu-2 wt%Al after 5 h of ball milling. The microhardnesses of Cu-10 wt%Zn and Cu-2 wt%Al reach to nearly the same values of 2.5 GPa after 5 h of ball milling, which is higher than that of Cu of 2.0 GPa. Two factors are considered to contribute to the finer grian size and higher microhardness of Cu-10 wt%Zn and Cu-2 wt%Al: (1) the effect of solid solution strengthening, which result in the interaction of solute atoms with screw dislocations; (2) the introduction of deformation twins during ball milling process by the decreasing of SFE, which results in the grain refinement.
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Three-generation experiment showed female C57BL/6J mice drink drainage canal water containing low level of TCDD-like activity causing high pup mortality.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and similar compounds are toxic to animals and humans. Based on a yeast reporter system, AhR-activating ligands similar in concentration to 2 ng/l of TCDD were detected in two canal waters in Guangzhou, China. In this study, a three-generation experiment was conducted to assess the reproductive and developmental risks associated with these waters in C57BL/6J female mice, including female reproduction, pup indices, reproductive hormone levels, and levels of AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A2 in the uterus. Similar reproductive toxic effects were produced in the offspring of mice that drank the canal water as would occur if they drank 2 ng/l/day TCDD. The major reproductive indices that were affected included mating time and gestation length over all the generations. A striking finding is the TCDD (2 ng/l) and the water samples significantly reduced Day 4 pup survival rates in the F2 and F3. Both TCDD exposure and drinking canal water decreased estradiol-17? (E2) levels in the multiparous females and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and E2 levels in the virgin females. Immunochemical staining revealed that the AhR and CYP1A2 positive signals were enhanced, and the ARNT positive signal was weakened in the uteri of mice drinking water with TCDD (2 ng/l) and the canal water samples. These results imply that the canal water contains AhR ligands that could induce similar toxic effects as do low levels of TCDD. Exposure to these contaminants can significantly impair the reproductive health of female mice. Considering this canals are open directly to Pearl River, whether these effects could be caused in human reproduction and development warrants further study.
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[Effects of altitudinal gradient on water use efficiency of Betula ermanii on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains, northeast China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Taking Betula ermanii forests distributed at the altitudes 1800-2050 m on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains as test objects, and using leaf carbon isotope content (813 C) as an indicator of B. ermanii water use efficiency (WUE), this paper studied the effects of altitudinal gradient on the WUE of B. ermanji forests in the area. With the increase of altitude, the soil volumetric water content (VMC) and the leaf mass per area (LMA) of B. ermanji increased significantly, while the leaf water content (LWC) and soil temperature were in adverse. There was a significant positive correlation between leaf delta13 C and altitude, with the increment of leaf delta13 C being 1.013 % per hundred x (100 m)(-1), and the leaf delta13C was positively correlated with soil VWC and LMA but negatively correlated with soil temperature and LWC. Temperature was not the sole limiting factor for the distribution of treeline in Changbai Mountains, whereas the physiological drought of B. ermanii during its growing season caused by the different water and heat conditions and their interactions along the altitudinal gradient could be the other limiting factors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.