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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Chemical Tuned Strategy to Develop Novel Irreversible EGFR-TK Inhibitors with Improved Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent factor underlying acquired resistance. Acrylamide-bearing quinazoline derivatives are powerful irreversible inhibitors for overcoming resistance. Nevertheless, concerns about the risk of non-specific covalent modification have motivated the development of novel cysteine-targeting inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that fluoro-substituted olefins can be tuned to alter Michael addition reactivity. Incorporation of these olefins into the quinazoline templates produced potent EGFR inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic properties. A lead compound 5a was validated against EGFRWT, EGFR T790M as well as A431 and H1975 cancer cell lines. Additionally, compound 5a displayed a weaker inhibition against the EGFR-independent cancer cell line SW620 when compared withafatinib. Oral administration of 5a at a dose of 30mg/kg induced tumor regression in a murine-EGFRL858R/T790M driven H1975 xenograft model. Also, 5a exhibited improved oral bioavailability and safety, as well as favorable tissue distribution properties and enhanced brain uptake. These findings provide the basis of a promising strategy toward the treatment of NSCLC patients with drug resistance.
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[Clinical significance of serum intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in full-term infants with necrotizing enterocolitis.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To evaluate the clinical value of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in full-term newborn infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
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Mechanistic Insight into Size-dependent Activity and Durability in Pt/CNT Catalyzed Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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We report a size-dependent activity in Pt/CNT catalyzed hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. Kinetic study and model calculations revealed that Pt(111) facet is the dominating catalytically active surface. There is an optimized Pt particle size of ca. 1.8 nm. Meanwhile, the catalyst durability was found to be highly sensitive to the Pt particle size. The smaller Pt particles appear lower durability, which could be related to more significant adsorption of B-containing species on Pt surfaces as well as easier changes in Pt particle size and shape. The insights reported here may pave the way for the rational design of highly active and durable Pt catalysts for hydrogen generation.
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High-power dual-wavelength eye-safe ceramic Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser operating at 1501 and 1526??nm.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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By employing SrWO4 as a Raman active medium and a ceramic Nd:YAG laser operating at 1319 and 1338 nm as a pump source, an efficient eye-safe dual-wavelength Raman laser operating at 1501 and 1526 nm has been demonstrated. A maximum total output power as high as 3.36 W is obtained under a pump power of 33.3 W and a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 30 kHz. The highest optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 11.2% is achieved at the pump power of 27.3 W. To our knowledge, 3.36 W is the highest output power of a 1.5 ?m eye-safe Raman laser.
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Comparison of Chemical Profiling and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits, Leaves, Branches, and Flowers of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa'
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' (CGT) is particularly cultivated in China and widely used in health foods. In this study, the chemical profiles of different parts of CGT were comprehensively compared by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. A total of 22 compounds were identified and two C-glucosyl flavones were found for the first time in CGT. Four main constituents (rhiofolin, naringin, meranzin hydrate, and isoimperatorin) in different parts of CGT were simultaneously determined. Overall, the contents of the four main compounds decreased with the ripening process. In parallel, the antioxidant activities of their extracts were also evaluated by three assays (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power), and the results indicated a similar tendency: small fruit > flower ? medium fruit > large fruit > leaf ? branch. The results obtained in the present work may provide useful information for future utilization of CGT.
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Efficacy and Safety of Metformin for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.
Diabetes Technol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Background: Insulin is an essential therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). With the progression of the disease, many patients with T1DM may have an increased prevalence of insulin resistance; thus the common standard insulin therapy requires a high insulin dosage (>1 unit/kg/day) and is usually associated with many side effects. Studies have shown that metformin may benefit those insulin-resistant individuals with T1DM. This meta-analysis was performed to provide the evidence of clinical efficacy and safety of metformin in T1DM. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search on Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published before May 2014 based on "metformin" and "diabetes mellitus, type 1." The following outcomes were evaluated: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid metabolism, weight, insulin dosage, hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager version 5.2 software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Results: In total, eight randomized controlled trials were included. Metformin was associated with a reduction in daily insulin dosage, body weight, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, and high-density lipoprotein level but an increase in risk of gastrointestinal AEs compared with placebo treatment in T1DM patients. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in HbA1c level, FPG level, or triglycerides level. No significant difference was found between the metformin group and the placebo group in the risk of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions: Metformin may decrease the daily insulin dosage, body weight, and lipid levels in T1DM. However, metformin does not increase the incidence of hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. High-quality, large-sample, and long-term follow-up clinical trials are needed to confirm these conclusions.
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Accuracy of real-time tissue elastography for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a prospective multicenter study.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The prognosis and management of hepatic fibrosis are closely related to the stage of the disease. The limitations of liver biopsy, which is the gold standard for treatment, include its invasiveness and sampling error. Ultrasound elasticity might be the most promising imaging technology for the noninvasive and accurate assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measures the relative stiffness of the tissue in the region of interest caused by the heartbeat. Many studies have verified that RTE is useful for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
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[Effect of xy2004, a centchroman derivative, on proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro and the mechanism].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To investigate the effect of xy2004, a centchroman derivative, on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and the mechanisms.
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[Downregulation of 53BP1 by short hairpin RNA enhances radiosensitivity in laryngeal carcinoma cells].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To determine the effect of downregulation of 53BP1 expression on cell growth and radiosensitivity in laryngeal carcinoma Hep-2 cells.
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[Treatment of type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients of qi-yin deficiency complicated phlegm-dampness blocking collaterals syndrome by internal application of qigui mixture and external application of qigui huoxue lotion: a clinical study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of internal application of Qigui Mixture (QM) and external application of Qigui Huoxue Lotion (QHL) in treating type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP) patients of qi-yin deficiency complicated phlegm-dampness blocking collaterals syndrome (QYD-PDBCS), and to primarily discuss its mechanism.
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Rosuvastatin may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes receiving acute coronary syndromes by suppressing miR-155/SHIP-1 signaling pathway.
Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The benefical effect of rosuvastatin against percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) related procedural myocardial injury has been determined mostly in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the detailed therapeutic mechanism has not been well studied.
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Lung squamous carcinoma with two paraneoplastic syndromes -Dermatomyositis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Paraneoplastic syndrome is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of cancer in the body but, unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. An overlap of two paraneoplastic syndromes secondary to lung cancer in a patient is very rare. We reported a case of a 60-year-old male smoker who presented multiple erythematous lesion for six months with progressive proximal muscular weakness, and developed to dysphonia in two months. His chest computed tomography showed a spiculate pulmonary nodule near the hilar in the right upper lobe and mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement. Lung biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma. The patients'blood test revealed elevated creatine kinase levels. Electromyography results was consistent with moderate myopathy accompanied with a pattern suggestive of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. So we made the diagnosis of an overlap of two para-neoplastic syndromes (Dermatomyositis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome) secondary to lung squamous carcinoma. Recognition of paraneoplastic syndrome is crucial for early diagnosis of lung cancer because up to 80% of patients may present paraneoplastic syndromes before any other direct indication of malignancy. Early diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic syndrome is also important because delayed diagnosis may result in rapid disease progression and irreversible neurological damage.
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Assessing the suitability of 8-OHdG and micronuclei as genotoxic biomarkers in chromate-exposed workers: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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We aimed to investigate suitable conditions of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN) as genotoxic biomarkers at different levels of occupational chromate exposure.
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Th2 cytokine-primed airway smooth muscle cells induce mast cell chemotaxis via secretion of ATP.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Abstract Objective: Mast cell infiltration into airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle is an important feature of asthma. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) contributes to the initiation of airway inflammation. eATP induces mast cells migration by acting through purinergic receptors. CD39 is an ectonucleotidase that degrades ATP to ADP and AMP. Whether eATP participates in the migration of mast cell towards ASM cells is still unknown.
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Erythropoietin (EPO) Protects Against High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis in Retinal Ganglional Cells.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of EPO on the apoptosis induced by high levels of glucose in retinal ganglial cells (RGCs). High glucose-induced apoptosis model was established in RGCs isolated from SD rats (1-3 days old) and identified with Thy1.1 mAb and MAP-2 pAb. The apoptosis was determined by Hochest assay. The levels of ROS were quantitated by staining the cells with dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and measure by flow cytometry. The SOD, GSH-Px, CAT activities, and levels of T-AOC and MDA were determined by ELISA. Change in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was also assessed by flow cytometry, and expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome C were assessed by western blotting. The RGCs treated with high glucose levels exhibited significantly increased apoptotic rate and concentrations of ROS and MDA. Pretreatment of the cells with EPO caused a significant blockade of the high glucose-induced increase in ROS and MDA levels and apoptotic rate. EPO also increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT, and recovered the levels of T-AOC levels. As a consequence, the mitochondrial membrane potential was improved and Cyt c release into the cytoplasm was prevented which led to significantly suppressed up-regulation of Bax reducing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The expressions of caspase-3 and caspase-9 induced by high glucose exposure were also ameliorated in the RGCs treated with EPO. The protective effect of EPO against apoptosis was mediated through its antioxidant action. Thus, it blocked the generation of pro-apoptotic proteins and apoptotic degeneration of the RGCs by preventing the mitochondrial damage.
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High-efficiency inverted polymer solar cells controlled by the thickness of polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) interfacial layers.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In this work, we investigate the effect of the thickness of the polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) interface layer on the performance of two types of polymer solar cells based on inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl C61-butryric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). Maximum power conversion efficiencies of 4.18% and 7.40% were achieved at a 5.02 nm thick PEIE interface layer, for the above-mentioned solar cell types, respectively. The optimized PEIE layer provides a strong enough dipole for the best charge collection while maintaining charge tunneling ability. Optical transmittance and atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that all PEIE films have the same high transmittance and smooth surface morphology, ruling out the influence of the PEIE layer on these two parameters. The measured external quantum efficiencies for the devices with thick PEIE layers are quite similar to those of the optimized devices, indicating the poor charge collection ability of thick PEIE layers. The relatively low performance of devices with a PEIE layer of thickness less than 5 nm is the result of a weak dipole and partial coverage of the PEIE layer on ITO.
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[Determination of piperidinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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A method was developed for the determination of piperidinium cations by ion-pair chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection. Chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column using background ultraviolet absorption reagent-ion-pair reagent/organic solvent as mobile phase. The effects of the background ultraviolet absorption reagent, detection wavelength, ion-pair reagent, organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate on the determination of piperidinium cations were investigated and the retention rules were studied. The optimized chromatographic conditions for the determination of piperidinium cations were as follows: mobile phase, 0.5 mmol/L 4-aminophenol hydrochloride-0.1 mmol/L 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium aqueous solution/methanol (80:20, v/v); detection wavelength, 210 nm; column temperature, 30 degrees C; flow rate, 1.0 mL/min. Under these conditions, the three piperidinium cations were baseline separated within 4 min. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of the piperidinium cations were 0.137-0.545 mg/L. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) for peak area and retention time were 0.72% and 0.37% respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of piperidinium cations in ionic liquids synthesized by chemistry laboratory. The recoveries of piperidinium cations after spiking were 97.0%-98.4%. The method is simple, rapid, reproducible, linear, and can meet the quantitative analysis requirement for the determination of piperidinium cations.
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[Emissions of NH3, N2O, and NO from swine manure solid storage in winter].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Swine manure solid storage is a typical management in rural area of China. In order to investigate the characteristics of NH3, N2O and NO emissions during manure storage in winter (Nov., 2012 to Feb., 2013), two treatments were conducted: non-covered (NC) and covered (C) with straws, and each treatment had three times of pile-turning during the 73 days storage. The emission fluxes of three nitrogen gases (NH3, N2O and NO) were measured and the profile-N2O concentrations inside the swine pile profile and in the soil under the pile were also measured. The results indicated that 2.1%-2.6%, 0.02% and -0.000 25% of total nitrogen were lost in the form of NH3, N2O and NO respectively during the whole swine manure solid storage. The nitrogen gases in the two treatments had the same variation characteristics, but all the nitrogen gases were reduced in the covered treatment. In the early storage stage, NH3 emission peak occurred first and then the emissions of N2O and NO started increasing. In the middle storage stage, the emissions of NH3 and NO showed mutual growth and decline trend. In the late storage stage, N2O emission peak was twice higher than that in the early stage, while NH3 and NO emissions showed a slight increase. Before and after pile-turning operation, NH3 emission had little change, but N2O emission was decreasing and NO emission was rising after pile-turning.
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[Determination of six chlorogenic acids in lonicerae flos extract by quantitative analysis multi-components with single marker].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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This study is to determine six chlorogenic acids (chlorogenic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) by quantitative analysis of multi-components with a single marker (QAMS). Chlorogeinc acid was used as internal reference to calculate the relative correction factors (RCF) of five compounds. Then the ruggedness of relative correction factors was tested on different instruments and columns. Meanwhile, a total of 4 batches of Lonicerae Flos and 20 batches of Lonicerae Flos extract with five different processing procedures were analyzed by external standard method (ESM) and QAMS, respectively. The ruggedness of relative correction factors was good. And the analytical results calculated by ESM and QAMS showed no difference. The quantitative method established was suitable for the quality evaluation of Lonicerae Flos extract.
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Epitaxial growth of large-gap quantum spin Hall insulator on semiconductor surface.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Formation of topological quantum phase on a conventional semiconductor surface is of both scientific and technological interest. Here, we demonstrate epitaxial growth of 2D topological insulator, i.e., quantum spin Hall state, on Si(111) surface with a large energy gap, based on first-principles calculations. We show that the Si(111) surface functionalized with one-third monolayer of halogen atoms [Si(111)-[Formula: see text]×[Formula: see text]-X (X = Cl, Br, I)] exhibiting a trigonal superstructure provides an ideal template for epitaxial growth of heavy metals, such as Bi, which self-assemble into a hexagonal lattice with high kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Most remarkably, the Bi overlayer is atomically bonded to but electronically decoupled from the underlying Si substrate, exhibiting isolated quantum spin Hall state with an energy gap as large as ?0.8 eV. This surprising phenomenon originates from an intriguing substrate-orbital-filtering effect, which critically selects the orbital composition around the Fermi level, leading to different topological phases. In particular, the substrate-orbital-filtering effect converts the otherwise topologically trivial freestanding Bi lattice into a nontrivial phase; and the reverse is true for Au lattice. The underlying physical mechanism is generally applicable, opening a new and exciting avenue for exploration of large-gap topological surface/interface states.
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Additivity of Substituent Effects in Aromatic Stacking Interactions.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The goal of this study was to experimentally test the additivity of the electrostatic substituent effects (SEs) for the aromatic stacking interaction. The additivity of the SEs was assessed using a small molecule model system that could adopt an offset face-to-face aromatic stacking geometry. The intramolecular interactions of these molecular torsional balances were quantitatively measured via the changes in a folded/unfolded conformational equilibrium. Five different types of substituents were examined (CH3, OCH3, Cl, CN, and NO2) that ranged from electron-donating to electron-withdrawing. The strength of the intramolecular stacking interactions was measured for 21 substituted aromatic stacking balances and 21 control balances in chloroform solution. The observed stability trends were consistent with additive SEs. Specifically, additive SE models could predict SEs with an accuracy from ±0.01 to ±0.02 kcal/mol. The additive SEs were consistent with Wheeler and Houk's direct SE model. However, the indirect or polarization SE model cannot be ruled out as it shows similar levels of additivity for two to three substituent systems, which were the number of substituents in our model system. SE additivity also has practical utility as the SEs can be accurately predicted. This should aid in the rational design and optimization of systems that utilize aromatic stacking interactions.
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Complete genome sequence of an avian reovirus isolated from wild mallard ducks in china.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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We report here the complete sequence of novel duck reovirus (N-DRV) strain SD12 isolated from diseased wild mallard ducklings in the Shandong Province of China in 2012. The complete genome consists of 23,420 nucleotide base pairs (bp), including 10 segments ranging from 1,191 bp (S4) to 3,959 bp (L1).
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?-Aminobutyric Acid Type A ?4, ?2, and ? Subunits Assemble to Produce More Than One Functionally Distinct Receptor Type.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Native ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors consisting of ?4, ?1-3, and ? subunits mediate responses to the low, tonic concentration of GABA present in the extracellular milieu. Previous studies on heterologously expressed ?4?? receptors have shown a large degree of variability in functional properties, including sensitivity to the transmitter. We studied properties of ?4?2? receptors employing free subunits and concatemeric constructs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, HEK 293 cells, and cultured hippocampal neurons. The expression system had a strong effect on the properties of receptors containing free subunits. The midpoint of GABA activation curve was 10 nM for receptors in oocytes versus 2300 nM in HEK cells. Receptors activated by the steroid alfaxalone had an estimated maximal open probability of 0.6 in oocytes and 0.01 in HEK cells. Irrespective of the expression system, receptors resulting from combining the tandem construct ?2-? and a free ?4 subunit exhibited large steroid responses. We propose that free ?4, ?2, and ? subunits assemble in different configurations with distinct properties in oocytes and HEK cells, and that subunit linkage can overcome the expression system-dependent preferential assembly of free subunits. Hippocampal neurons transfected with ?4 and the picrotoxin-resistant ?(T269Y) subunit showed large responses to alfaxalone in the presence of picrotoxin, suggesting that ?4?? receptors may assemble in a similar configuration in neurons and oocytes.
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The CH-? interactions of methyl ethers as a model for carbohydrate-N-heteroarene interactions.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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CH-? interactions have been cited as an important contributor to carbohydrate recognition. To determine whether N-heterocycles form stronger CH-? interactions, the interactions of methyl ether groups with heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic aromatic surfaces were studied. Both experimental and computational experiments found that N-heterocyclic aromatic surfaces formed stronger interactions. This enhancement was attributed to attractive dipole-dipole interactions between the methyl ether C-O bond and the N-heterocyclic aromatic dipole.
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Hypoglossal-facial nerve 'side'-to-side neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve autograft for facial palsy after removal of acoustic tumours at the cerebellopontine angle.
J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Hypoglossal-facial nerve (HN-FN) neurorrhaphy is a method commonly used to treat facial palsy when the proximal stump of the injured FN is unavailable. Since the classic HN-FN neurorrhaphy method that needs to section the injured FN is not suitable for incomplete facial palsy, we investigated a modified method that consists of HN-FN 'side'-to-side neurorrhaphy, retaining the remaining or spontaneously regenerated FN axons while preserving hemihypoglossal function.
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The Human Ether-A-Go-Go-Related Gene Activator NS1643 Enhances Epilepsy-Associated KCNQ Channels.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) and KCNQ channels are two classes of voltage-gated potassium channels. Specific mutations have been identified that are causal for type II long QT (LQT2) syndrome, neonatal epilepsy, and benign familial neonatal convulsions. Increasing evidence from clinical studies suggests that LQT2 and epilepsy coexist in some patients. Therefore, an integral approach to investigating and treating the two diseases is likely more effective. In the current study, we found that NS1643 [1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea], a previously reported hERG activator, is also an activator of KCNQ channels. It potentiates the neuronal KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ2/Q3 channels, but not the cardiac KCNQ1. The effects of NS1643 on the KCNQ2 channel include left shifting of voltage for reaching 50% of the maximum conductance and slowing of deactivation. Analysis of the dose-response curve of NS1643 revealed an EC50 value of 2.44 ± 0.25 ?M. A hydrophobic phenylalanine (F137) located at the middle region of the voltage-sensing domain was identified as critical for NS1643 activity on KCNQ2. When testing NS1643 effects in rescuing LQT2 hERG mutants and the KCNQ2 BFNC mutants, we found it is particularly efficacious in some cases. Considering the substantial relationship between LQT2 and epilepsy, these findings reveal that NS1643 is a useful compound to elucidate the causal connection of LQT2 and epilepsy. More generally, this may provide a strategy in the development of therapeutics for LQT2 and epilepsy.
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Modified Classification and Repair of Perineal Soft Tissue Injuries Associated with Open Pelvic Fractures.
J Reconstr Microsurg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Background?This study describes a modified classification and management protocol for perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures. Methods?A total of 11 patients with perineal soft tissue injuries associated with open pelvic fractures were studied retrospectively. The patients were classified into three types based on the area of defect: type A (urogenital zone), type B (anal zone), and type C (both urogenital and anal zones). Each type included the following subclasses: A1 (without urethra injuries), A2 (with urethra injuries), B1 (without anorectal injuries), B2 (with anorectal injuries), C1 (with types A1 and B1), C2 (with types A2 and B1), C3 (with types A1 and B2), and C4 (with types A2 and B2). The management protocol was planned according to the individual classifications. Protocol A1 (for type A1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol A2 (for type A2) involved the same protocol combined with urine diversion. Protocol B1 (for type B1) involved skin graft or myocutaneous flap transplantation. Protocol B2 (for type B2) involved the same management combined with fecal diversion. Protocol C involved the correspondent protocol used for each subtype of type C. Results?Out of the 11 patients, there were 5, 3, and 3 cases of types A, B, and C, respectively. One patient died due to sepsis, and the wounds of the remaining patients healed well. No anal incontinence had occurred. Conclusions?Perineal soft tissue injuries associated with pelvic fractures can be classified into three types, and the management protocol can be planned according to the classification.
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[From microdosimetry to nanodosimetry--the link between radiobiology and radiation physics].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The link between micro- and macro-parameters for radiation interactions that take place in living biological systems is described in this paper. Meanwhile recent progress and development in microdosimetry and nanodosimetry are introduced, including the methods to measure and calculate these micro- or nano-parameters. The relationship between radiobiology and physical quantities in microdosimetry and nanodosimetry was presented. Both the current problems on their applications in radiation protection and radiotherapy and the future development direction are proposed.
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[Research on increasing X-ray protection capability based on photonic crystal technology].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Light cannot be propagated within the range of photonic crystal band gaps. Based on this unique property, we proposed a method to improve anti-radiation capability through one-dimensional photonic crystal coating. Using transmission matrix method, we determined the appropriate dielectric materials, thickness and periodic numbers of photonic crystals through Matlab programming simulation. Then, compound one-dimensional photonic crystal coating was designed which was of high anti-radiation rate within the range of X-ray. As is shown through simulation experiments, the reflection rate against X-ray was higher than 90 percent, and the desired anti-radiation effect was achieved. Thus, this method is able to help solve the technical problems facing the inorganic lead glass such as thickness, weightiness, costliness, high lead equivalent, low transparency and high cost. This method has won China's national invention patent approval, and the patent number is 201220228549.2.
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Expression of microRNA-96 and its potential functions by targeting FOXO3 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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MicroRNAs are implicated in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and cell mobility, and can function either as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in tumor progression. The effects of the expression of miR-96 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In our study, qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription PCR) was performed to identify the miR-96 expression level in 68 paired NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissues. Trans-well, cell counting kit-8, and apoptosis assays were used to evaluate the effects of miR-96 expression on cell invasion, proliferation, and apoptosis. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting were used to verify whether FOXO3 was a potential major target gene of miR-96. Finally, the effect of FOXO3 on miR-96-induced cell survival was determined by transfection of the genes expressing FOXO3 lacking 3'UTR and miR-96. The expression level of miR-96 in NSCLC tissues was higher than that in adjacent normal lung tissues, and this increased expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. In contrast to the cells in the blank and negative control groups, the number of cells migrating through the matrigel was significantly lower and the incidence of apoptosis was significantly higher in cells transfected with a miR-96 inhibitor. Western blotting and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-96 can bind to the putative seed region in FOXO3 mRNA 3'UTR, and can significantly lower the expression of FOXO3. The introduction of FOXO3 cDNA without 3'UTR restored miR-96 induced cell apoptosis and invasion. MiR-96 is up-regulated in NSCLC tissues. Downregulation of miR-96 inhibits invasion and promotes apoptosis in NSCLC cells A549 and SPC-A-1 by targeting FOXO3. Therefore, our study improves our understanding of the mechanisms underlying NSCLC pathogenesis and may promote the development of novel targeted therapies.
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Identification of B cell epitopes in the MSG1 protein of Mycoplasma suis.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) is an extracellular bacterial organism that attaches to and causes deformity and damage to porcine red blood cells. M. suis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein 1 (MSG1), a membrane-associated adhesion protein, plays a major role in M. suis attachment and infection of porcine erythrocytes. In order to identify the epitopes in MSG1 protein of M. suis, recombinant MSG1 (rMSG1) expressed in Escherichia coli Top10 was purified with affinity chromatography and used to immunize BALB/c mice to prepare and screen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Western blot results showed that 1C10, 2F10, 4G10, and 10E9 can specifically react with recombinant MSG1 and M. suis. Moreover, 23 truncated fragments of MSG1 were amplified and cloned into pET-32a vector and induced by IPTG. Different recombinant truncated proteins were used to identify B cell epitopes in the rMSG1 protein. Epitope mapping revealed that MAb 1C10 recognizes the linear epitope D(291)THGSVF(297); MAb 2F10 recognizes the linear epitope L(251)CLKI(255); and MAbs 4G10 and 10E9 recognize the linear epitope I(268)KDGENE(274). The alignment of MSG1 epitope sequences with that of different M. suis strains accessed on NCBI showed that one epitope is highly conserved in M. suis strains. This research is the first to examine the epitopes in MSG1 of M. suis and demonstrate the variations of epitopes.
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A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45-65 years, residing in rural Alabama.
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Selenium modulates mercury uptake and distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.), in correlation with mercury species and exposure level.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Rice cultured in Hg- and/or Se-contaminated fields is an important food source of human Hg/Se intake. There are elevated Hg and Se levels in the soil of the Wanshan District, Guizhou Province. Here we attempted to explore how a Hg antagonist, Se, modulates the absorption and accumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in rice. The effects of Se on the content and transportation of Hg in hydroponic and soil cultured rice plants were examined. The results show that IHg mainly accumulated in the rice roots, but some also accumulated in the rice grain. In comparison to IHg, MeHg can be concentrated in the rice grain, and the proportion of MeHg in the rice grain may account for above 40% of the total Hg. Se can protect against Hg phytotoxicity in rice and inhibit IHg accumulation in rice tissues, but was not remarkable for MeHg at a low dosage exposure level in this study. These discrepancies imply mechanistic differences between IHg and MeHg absorption and accumulation in rice. This study illustrates that Se plays an important role in modulating Hg uptake, transportation and accumulation in rice. Therefore, Se is considered to be a naturally existing element that effectively reduces Hg accumulation in rice, which may have significant implications for food safety.
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Novel syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma cell lines from aggressive ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/PTEN-deficient tumors.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Breast cancer cell lines and mouse models are valuable tools for investigating the biology of and developing potential therapeutics for human breast carcinoma. The PTEN-/-/NIC mouse is a genetically engineered mouse model for ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/?PTEN deficient breast carcinoma with histopathological and molecular features relevant to the luminal subtype of primary human breast cancer. However, the PTEN-/-/NIC model develops multifocal and aggressive mammary tumors with a short life-span, which greatly impedes its preclinical usage. To complement the genetic engineering approach and to facilitate the future application of this model, in the present study, two newly established cell lines, NICP20 and NICP21, from PTEN-/-/NIC mammary tumors are described. These NICP20 and NICP21 cells retained the crucial molecular phenotype similar to the origin, as confirmed by genotyping and western blot analysis. These cells induced tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice by mammary fat pad injection and produced lung metastasis when injected intravenously. Tumors induced by these cells displayed luminal?like histologic morphology and hyperactivation of Akt which are similar to PTEN-/-/NIC tumors. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed that tumors induced by the NICP20 and NICP21 cells showed a high proliferative level, comparable angiogenesis and T-cell infiltration properties similar to PTEN-/-/NIC tumors. Therefore, these NICP20 and NICP21 cells represent an alternative and useful model system to enhance our understanding of the nature of ErbB2-positive breast cancers, particularly accompanying PTEN loss and to facilitate further experimental therapeutic studies.
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Proteomic alteration of PK-15 cells after infection by porcine circovirus type 2.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been identified as the essential causal agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which has spread worldwide. To discover cellular protein responses of PK-15 cells to PCV2 infection, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling was employed to quantitatively identify the proteins that were differentially expressed in PK-15 from the PCV2-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. A total of 196 cellular proteins in PK-15 that were significantly altered at different time periods post-infection were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were related to the biological processes of binding, cell structure, signal transduction, cell adhesion, etc. and their interactions. Moreover, some of these proteins were further confirmed by Western blot. The high number of differentially expressed proteins identified should be very useful in elucidating the mechanism of replication and pathogenesis of PCV2 in the future.
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Identification of Mycoplasma suis MSG1 interaction proteins on porcine erythrocytes.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Adhesion protein MSG1 mediating adherence to porcine erythrocytes in Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) invasion has been identified previously. In order to determine the host membrane proteins that interact with MSG1, recombinant His-tagged MSG1 (rMSG1) was used to screen for interacting proteins in the protein extracts of porcine erythrocyte membrane. Potential rMSG1-interacting proteins were initially identified as band 3 and ?-actin with molecular weight of 46 and 45 kDa, respectively. Immune fluorescence results showed that rMSG1 can specifically bind with the ?-actin of HeLa, BHK-21, and HEK-293A cells, respectively. RNA interference assays further demonstrated that the interaction between ?-actin and rMSG1 on HeLa cells was specific and dose dependent. Confocal microscopy showed that both rMSG1 and M. suis can partially co-localize with ?-actin on the surface of porcine erythrocytes. Pull-down assays showed that rMSG1 can directly interact with ?-actin. Our study is the first to report the interaction of MSG1 with ?-actin, which will be of help to understand the pathogenesis of M. suis and develop a cultivation system.
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Relative quantification of multi-components in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using mobile phase compensation.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Relative quantification of multi-components in complex mixture is significantly affected by the ionization variance caused by mobile phase composition in high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. The normalization methods for eliminating the variance are still less investigated. Herein, the mobile-phase compensation (MPC) method was applied to overcome the above problem. The developed method was firstly used for convenient evaluation of the coeluent interference and subsequently applied for relative quantification of the identified multi-components in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) samples. The good linearity, precision and low limit of quantification of targeted analytes confirmed that the MPC-HPLC-ESI-MS method in gradient elution could achieve the isocratic test results compared with classical HPLC-ESI-MS. The established method was used for relative quantification of the minor Sanqi saponins by their detected peak areas divided by that of ginsenoside Rd. The results demonstrated the potential of the newly developed method for obtaining the normalized data shared in different laboratories.
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Down-regulated miR-22 as predictive biomarkers for prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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BackgroundRecent studies have demonstrated that microRNA-22 (miR-22) was deregulated in many types of cancers and was involved in various cellular processes related to carcinogenesis. However, the clinical significance and prognostic value of miR-22 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) haven¿t been investigated.Methods109 pairs of fresh EOC tissue and matched adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected between May 2007 and March 2013. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay was performed to evaluate the expression levels of miR-22. The chi-square test was used to assess miR-22 expression with respect to clinicopathological parameters. The survival curves of the patients were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, and the log-rank test was used for statistical evaluations.ResultsmiR-22 expression in EOC tissues was significantly lower than that in matched normal adjacent tissues (mean¿±¿SD: 1.944¿±¿1.026 vs. 4.981¿±¿1.507, P¿<¿0.0001). Low miR-22 expression level was correlated with FIGO stage (P¿=¿0.006), tumor grade (P¿=¿0.03), and lymph node metastases (P¿=¿0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test indicated that low miR-22 expression had a significant impact on overall survival (44.4% vs. 64.5%; P¿=¿0.005) and progression-free survival (23.5% vs. 52.6%; P¿=¿0.004).ConclusionsOur data demonstrated that the expression of miR-22 was downregulated in EOC, and associated with overall survival as well as progression-free survival, suggesting that miR-22 could serve as an efficient prognostic factor for EOC patients.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_178.
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Simultaneous determination of 16 phenolic constituents in Spatholobi Caulis by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Spatholobi Caulis, the vine stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, has been widely used in traditional Chinese and folk medicines for treatment of irregular menstruation, blood deficiency and rheumatalgia in clinic. In this study, an accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneous determination of 16 phenolic bioactive constituents, including five flavanols, seven isoflavonoids, three flavanones and one chalcone in Spatholobi Caulis. The method validation results exhibited that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The quantitative analysis results showed that flavanols were the abundant constituents in Spatholobi Caulis. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to assess the quality variation of samples collected from different regions in China. The PCA results indicated the quantitative analysis based on HPLC-MS/MS is a feasible method for quality assessment and control of Spatholobi Caulis.
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The role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen in predicting responses to chemotherapy and survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Previous studies indicated that carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) could predict the therapeutic objective response (OR) and overall survival (OS) of patients with cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role it could play in evaluating therapeutic responses and OS in patients with NSCLC requires further elucidation. Herein, we investigated the potential role of CEA in predicting OR and OS in patients with NSCLC.
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Inhibitors of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases: Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Implications.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues-sT-CH2 -CoA (26?a) and sTet-CH2 -CoA (26?b)-as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26?a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26?a and 26?b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase.
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Investigating the role of acute mental stress on endothelial dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Res Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Chronic stress is a known risk factor for both endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known of how acute mental stress affects the vasculature. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the impact of acute mental stress on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an indicator of endothelial function. We searched the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases through May 2014, to identify publications in English-language journals. The primary outcome was the change in FMD from baseline to the time of measurement. We also assessed the risk of bias and the heterogeneity of included studies. Our search identified eight prospective studies, which displayed significant heterogeneity. Four studies measured FMD while the subject was performing the task; six measured FMD after the task had been completed. The total number of participants was 164. The pooled results indicate that FMD did not change significantly while the task was being performed (pooled difference in means: -0.853; 95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.926/2.220; P = 0.586); however, FMD measured after the task was completed was significantly less than baseline (pooled difference in means: -2.450; 95 %CI, -3.925/-0.975; P = 0.001). In conclusions, our findings provide evidence that an acute stressful experience has a delayed, negative impact on the function of the endothelium. Repeated exposure to short-term stress may lead to permanent injury of the vasculature. Therefore, assessment of patients' exposure to both repeated acute mental stress and chronic stress may be useful in determining their risk of developing CVD.
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Intraportal infusion of ghrelin could inhibit glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion by enteric neural net in Wistar rat.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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As a regulator of food intake and energy metabolism, the role of ghrelin in glucose metabolism is still not fully understood. In this study, we determined the in vivo effect of ghrelin on incretin effect. We demonstrated that ghrelin inhibited the glucose-stimulated release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) when infused into the portal vein of Wistar rat. Hepatic vagotomy diminished the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. In addition, phentolamine, a nonselective ? receptor antagonist, could recover the decrease of GLP-1 release induced by ghrelin infusion. Pralmorelin (an artificial growth hormone release peptide) infusion into the portal vein could also inhibit the glucose-stimulated release of GLP-1. And growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonist, [D-lys3]-GHRP-6, infusion showed comparable increases of glucose stimulated GLP-1 release compared to ghrelin infusion into the portal vein. The data showed that intraportal infusion of ghrelin exerted an inhibitory effect on GLP-1 secretion through growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1? (GHS1? receptor), which indicated that the downregulation of ghrelin secretion after food intake was necessary for incretin effect. Furthermore, our results suggested that the enteric neural net involved hepatic vagal nerve and sympathetic nerve mediated inhibition effect of ghrelin on incretin effect.
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Pazopanib combined with radiation: in vivo model of interaction.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Assess interaction of pazopanib, an oral antivascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, with radiation in tumor xenograft models.
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Glucose positions affect the phloem mobility of glucose-fipronil conjugates.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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In our previous work, a glucose-fipronil (GTF) conjugate at the C-1 position was synthesized via click chemistry and a glucose moiety converted a non-phloem-mobile insecticide fipronil into a moderately phloem-mobile insecticide. In the present paper, fipronil was introduced into the C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6 positions of glucose via click chemistry to obtain four new conjugates and to evaluate the effects of the different glucose isomers on phloem mobility. The phloem mobility of the four new synthetic conjugates and GTF was tested using the Ricinus seedling system. The results confirmed that conjugation of glucose at different positions has a significant influence on the phloem mobility of GTF conjugates.
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C60 carboxyfullerene-based functionalised nanohybrids as signal-amplifying tags for the ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of procalcitonin.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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In this work, a novel signal amplification strategy was developed by fabricating an electrochemical immunosensor for the sensitive detection of procalcitonin (PCT). Amino group-functionalised C60 nanoparticles were used as a matrix to immobilise a redox probe, ferrocene carboxylic acid (Fc), and were subsequently coated with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to form PtNP-Fc-C60 nanocomposites. Following the preparation of the nanocomposites, a signal amplification strategy was developed based on the use of enzyme (glucose oxidase)-modified PtNP-Fc-C60 nanocomposites as tracer labels for a secondary antibody (anti-PCT II) in a sandwich assay. Gold nanoparticle-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNP@MWCNTs) were used as the biosensor platform to enhance the electrode surface area to capture a large amount of primary antibody (anti-PCT I), thus amplifying the detection response. The experimental results demonstrated that the multi-labelled PtNP-Fc-C60 nanocomposites displayed satisfactory electrochemical redox activity and high electrocatalytic activity from the PtNPs and glucose oxidase, consequently resulting in high sensitivity for the detection of PCT. The linear range of PCT was 0.01-10ng/mL, with a detection limit of 6pg/mL (S/N=3).
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[Surgical treatment of aortic paravalvular abscess by infective endocarditis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To summarize the clinical features, pathology and surgical treatment experiences in the patients with aortic paravalvular abscess by infective endocarditis.
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Overexpression of miR-200b inhibits the cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in vitro.
J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Hypertrophic scarring leads to a deformed appearance and contracted neogenetic tissue, resulting in physiological and psychological problems for patients. Millions of people suffer these discomforts each year. Emerging evidence has reported that miRNA contributed to hypertrophic scarring or keloid formation. In this study, nine hypertrophic scar samples and the matched normal skin tissues were used to perform a miRNA microarray. The results of miRNA array showed that miR-200b was downregulated by more than 2-fold, validated by qPCR in hypertrophic scar tissues and human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting that there was an important correlation between miR-200b and hypertrophic scarring. We also found that miR-200b affected hypertrophic scarring through regulating the cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by affecting the collagen I and III synthesis, fibronectin expression and TGF-?1/?-SMA signaling. Thus, our study provides evidence to support that miR-200b may be a useful target for hypertrophic scarring management.
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The integrated pharmacokinetics of major rhodojaponins correlates with the cardiotoxicity after oral administration of Rhododendri Mollis Flos extract in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Rhododendri Mollis Flos (RMF), termed as Naoyanghua in Chinese, is a traditional anti-rheumatoid arthritis and bruises herb with associated cardiotoxicity. The predominant rhodojaponins occurring in RMF are responsible for its efficacy and toxicity. The narrow therapeutic window of rhodojaponins necessitates monitoring the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics so as to ensure the safety in practical applications of RMF.
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Effects of American ginseng on pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil in rats.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with or without American ginseng (seven-consecutive days oral dose) in rats were evaluated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a reverse LC column within a total run time of 6.5?min, which allowed for a relatively quick analysis. The limit of quantification for 5-FU was 15?ng/mL and this method was linear over 15-50,000?ng/mL. This method supported stabilizing determination of the plasma concentration of 5-FU over a period of 24?h. Precision both interday and intraday (coefficient of variation) was within 14% and accuracy (relative error) ranged from -5 to 14%. In view of the observed pharmacokinetic parameters, including maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), mean residence time, elimination half-life and clearance, our results showed no significant differences in all of the pharmacokinetic parameters between the ginseng co-treated group and 5-FU alone group. Some increase in AUC was observed in 5-FU plus ginseng group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance compared with 5-FU alone. It appeared that American ginseng administration did not significantly alter the kinetics of 5-FU. More studies are still needed to confirm our results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Development of a multiplex TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR for discrimination of variant and classical porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Since October 2010, porcine diarrhea outbreaks have occurred widely, resulting in major losses in suckling piglets in China. A variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), characterized by base deletion and insertion in the S gene, compared to classical PEDV CV777, was shown to be responsible for this outbreak. In this study, a multiplex TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR was developed for detecting PEDV and differentiating the variant from classical PEDV, by using two sets of primers and probes based on the S gene of PEDV. The limits of detection of both variant and classical PEDV were 5×10(2) DNA copies. Specificity was determined using eight other viral pathogens of swine. Reproducibility was evaluated using standard dilutions, with coefficients of variation <1.4%. Standard dilutions included in each test allowed quantification of the amount of PEDV. Among 42 intestinal samples from pigs with severe watery diarrhea, 36 variant PEDV and three classical PEDV samples were detected, with viral loads of 10(2)-10(8) copies/?l and 10(3)-10(5) copies/?l, respectively, which suggested that the variant PEDV was prevalent in China. The multiplex TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR should be a useful tool for quantifying viral load, detecting PEDV, and differentiating variant from classical PEDV.
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SiLEA14, a novel atypical LEA protein, confers abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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BackgroundLate embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are involved in protecting higher plants from damage caused by environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important cereal crop for food and feed in semi-arid areas. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance to these conditions are not well defined.ResultsHere, we characterized a novel atypical LEA gene named SiLEA14 from foxtail millet. It contains two exons separated by one intron. SiLEA14 was expressed in roots, stems, leaves, inflorescences and seeds at different levels under normal growth conditions. In addition, SiLEA14 was dramatically induced by osmotic stress, NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid. The SiLEA14 protein was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Overexpression of SiLEA14 improved Escherichia coli growth performance compared with the control under salt stress. To further assess the function of SiLEA14 in plants, transgenic Arabidopsis and foxtail millet plants that overexpressed SiLEA14 were obtained. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed higher tolerance to salt and osmotic stress than the wild type (WT). Similarly, the transgenic foxtail millet showed improved growth under salt and drought stresses compared with the WT. Taken together, our results indicated that SiLEA14 is a novel atypical LEA protein and plays important roles in resistance to abiotic stresses in plants.ConclusionWe characterized a novel atypical LEA gene SiLEA14 from foxtail millet, which plays important roles in plant abiotic stress resistance. Modification of SiLEA14 expression may improve abiotic stress resistance in agricultural crops.
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A fluorescence nanosensor for glycoproteins with activity based on the molecularly imprinted spatial structure of the target and boronate affinity.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Glycoproteins are closely associated with the occurrence of diverse diseases, and they have been used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in clinical diagnostics. Currently, mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful tool for glycoprotein analysis, but it is almost impossible to directly identify glycoproteins without the preparation and pretreatment of samples. Furthermore, biological samples, especially proteins, are damaged by this process. Herein, we describe a novel fluorescence nanosensor based on a molecularly imprinted spatial structure and boronate affinity that is well-suited for monitoring glycoproteins selectively. Results showed that the recognition performance of the nanosensor for glycoproteins was regulated by controlling the pH?value and temperature. Moreover, the nanosensor was successfully applied to the detection of HRP in biological fluids. This study provides a facile and efficient fluorescence tool for glycoprotein detection in clinical diagnostics.
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[Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for acute coronary syndrome: mid-term follow-up results].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To summarize the experience with emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (ECABG) for management of acute coronary syndrome and analyze the mid-term follow-up results.
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Assessing environmental support for better health: active living opportunity audits in rural communities in the southern United States.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Leisure-time physical activity in the United States is lower rural areas and the South and has been linked to socioeconomic and environmental aspects of where people live. The purpose of this study is to assess the built environment and policies for physical activity in rural communities.
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A new porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strain with highly conserved molecular characteristics in its parental and attenuated strains.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes substantial economic losses to many swine-producing regions. In this study, PRRSV strain NT0801-F80 was derived from its parental isolate NT0801 by 80 passages in Marc-145 cells. Experimental infection of piglets clearly demonstrated that strain NT0801-F80 is less virulent than NT0801. However, whole genome sequencing showed that the genomes of the parental and attenuated strains are highly conserved compared with those of four other pairs of virulent parental/attenuated vaccine strains (VR2332 and RespPRRS MLV, JA142 and Ingelvac(®) ATP MLV, CH-1a and CH-1R, and JXA1 and JXAR). The attenuated strain NT0801-F80 has only 21 nucleotide changes, producing only 14 amino acid changes in NSP2, GP2, GP3, and GP5, compared with those aa sequences of the virulent parental strain. These mutated aa in the attenuated virus may be involved in virulence. These data provide valuable information on the attenuation mechanism of PRRSV that should be useful in future research.
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Is frozen embryo transfer cycle associated with a significantly lower incidence of ectopic pregnancy? An analysis of more than 30,000 cycles.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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To analyze the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in fresh compared with frozen-thawed cycles.
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A four-long non-coding RNA signature in predicting breast cancer survival.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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BackgroundMany long non-coding RNAs(lncRNAs) have been found to be a good marker for several tumors. Using lncRNA-mining approach, we aimed to identify lncRNA expression signature that can predict breast cancer patient survival.MethodsWe performed LncRNA expression profiling in 887 breast cancer patients from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. The association between lncRNA signature and clinical survival was analyzed using the training set(n = 327,from GSE 20685). The validation for the association was performed in another three independent testing sets(252 from GSE21653, 204 from GSE12276, and 104 from GSE42568).ResultsA set of four lncRNA genes (U79277, AK024118, BC040204, AK000974) have been identified by the random survival forest algorithm. Using a risk score based on the expression signature of these lncRNAs, we separated the patients into low-risk and high-risk groups with significantly different survival times in the training set. This signature was validated in the other three cohorts. Further study revealed that the four-lncRNA expression signature was independent of age and subtype. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) suggested that gene sets were involved in several cancer metastasis related pathways.ConclusionsThese findings indicate that lncRNAs may be implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. The four-lncRNA signature may have clinical implications in the selection of high-risk patients for adjuvant therapy.
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West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease: neurological manifestations and prospective longitudinal outcomes.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused ongoing seasonal epidemics in the United States since 1999. It is estimated that ?1% of WNV-infected patients will develop neuroinvasive disease (West Nile encephalitis and/or myelitis) that can result in debilitating morbidities and long-term sequelae. It is essential to collect longitudinal information about the recovery process and to characterize predicative factors that may assist in therapeutic decision-making in the future.
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A case of heart failure due to alcoholic cardiomyopathy combined with acute pulmonary embolism.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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It has not been reported that cases of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) combined with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We hereby present a case of a 48-year-old male with ACM with significant enlargement of the heart and heart failure is described. Then, the patient was seized with acute PE which was confirmed by specific examination and his symptoms.
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Serum thyrotropin is positively correlated with the metabolic syndrome components of obesity and dyslipidemia in chinese adolescents.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Metabolic syndrome is a medical disorder characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Thyroid hormone has been shown to affect many metabolic processes. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between serum thyrotropin and components of metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents. Waist circumference (76.4 ± 10.7 versus 70.0 ± 10.6?cm, P = 0.006) and body mass index (23.90 ± 4.20 versus 21.51 ± 4.16?kg/m(2), P = 0.011) were significantly greater among adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism compared with euthyroid subjects. The risk of obesity in the subclinical hypothyroid group was 3.444 times that in the euthyroid group (odds ratio = 3.444, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.570-7.553). Serum TSH was significantly positively correlated with waist circumference (? = 1.512, P = 0.019), TC (? = 0.160, P = 0.003), LDL-C (? = 0.032, P = 0.008), and TG (? = 0.095, P = 0.001). The TSH level in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than that in nonmetabolic syndrome group (2.65 [2.28-3.80] versus 2.53 [1.92-3.45] mIU/L, P = 0.032). Serum TSH within the reference range was positively associated with TC (? = 0.173, P = 0.013), LDL-C (? = 0.031, P = 0.043), and TG (? = 0.132, P = 0.021). Increased serum TSH in adolescents may be a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome.
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Long-Term Effect of High-Dose Dexamethasone with or without Low-Dose Dexamethasone Maintenance in Untreated Immune Thrombocytopenia.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Background: To tackle the problems associated with high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Aim: To compare the efficacy of HD-DXM with or without low-dose dexamethasone maintenance in untreated ITP patients. Results: Dexamethasone (40 mg/day) was given in 4-day pulses every 14 days for 3 cycles in 61 patients with ITP. Among them, 30 cases were given dexamethasone (0.035 mg/kg per day) for maintenance between pulsed HD-DXM and after 3 HD-DXM courses (HD-DXM-M group) and another 31 cases did not receive dexamethasone maintenance (HD-DXM-nM group). The control group comprised the patients who received prednisone (prednisone group). The following results were obtained: (1) at the end of the 3rd cycle, the overall response rate (ORR) was higher in the HD-DXM group than in the prednisone group; (2) the ORR of the HD-DXM group peaked after the 3rd cycle; (3) the ORR after each course was higher in the HD-DXM-M group than in the HD-DXM-nM group; (4) in the 12th month after HD-DXM discontinuation, the relapse rate of the HD-DXM-M group was lower than that of the other groups (prednisone and HD-DXM-nM). Conclusion: Treatment with 3 cycles of HD-DXM pulses with low-dose dexamethasone maintenance is an effective method for untreated ITP. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Safety of fast-track rehabilitation after gastrointestinal surgery: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To compare the safety of fast-track rehabilitation protocols (FT) and conventional care strategies (CC), or FT and laparoscopic surgery (LFT) and FT and open surgery (OFT) after gastrointestinal surgery.
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Effects of essential oil supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, intestinal morphology and microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs.
Anim. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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A total of 144 weaned piglets were used to evaluate the effects of essential oil (EO) supplementation of a low-energy diet on performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, small intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, immune properties and antioxidant activities in weaned pigs. Pigs received a low-energy diet (negative control, NC, digestible energy?=?3250?kcal/kg), NC plus 0.025% EO or a positive control diet (PC, digestible energy?=?3400?kcal/kg) for 28 days. Growth performance was similar between the EO group and PC group. However, EO supplementation increased (P?
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Homoharringtonine combined with cytarabine to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia in myeloid blast crisis and its impact on bone marrow CD34+CD7+ cells.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The therapeutic response of chronic myelogenous leukemia in myeloid blast crisis (CML-MBC) is very poor.
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Complete genome assembly and characterization of an outbreak strain of the causative agent of swine erysipelas--Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae SY1027.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is the causative agent of animal erysipelas and, to a fewer occurrences, human erysipeloid. It is ubiquitous in nature and commensal in diverse species of animals, wild or domestic, from mammals and birds to reptiles and fish. Mechanisms of its virulence and pathogenicity are poorly understood.
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Downregulation of osteopontin enhances the sensitivity of glioma U251 cells to temozolomide and cisplatin by targeting the NF-?B/Bcl?2 pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Glioma is resistant to the apoptotic effects of chemotherapy and the mechanism underlying its chemoresistance is not currently understood. In a previous study, we reported that osteopontin (OPN) was overexpressed in glioma tissues and had an important anti?apoptotic effect. Furthermore, overexpression of OPN was observed following chemotherapy. To elucidate whether OPN plays a role in chemotherapy resistance and to investigate its downstream signaling pathway, this study used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the expression of OPN in U251 human neuronal glioma astrocytoma cells. OPN downregulation in U251 cells enhanced the apoptotic effects induced by temozolomide (TMZ) and cisplatin (DDP). Furthermore, OPN siRNA suppressed the nuclear factor ??light?chain?enhancer of activated B cells (NF??B) activation and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2) expression that was induced by chemotherapy. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the expression levels of OPN are involved in glioma chemoresistance. Knockdown of OPN through siRNA enhanced the effects of TMZ and DDP chemotherapy by targeting the NF??B/Bcl?2 pathway.
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Regulation of endometrial receptivity by the highly expressed HOXA9, HOXA11 and HOXD10 HOX-class homeobox genes.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Are other HOX genes, in addition to HOXA10, involved in endometrial receptivity?
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Silent myocardial ischemia detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and risk of cardiac events among asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To assess the value of detecting silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in predicting risk of cardiac events among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who do not have overt cardiac symptoms.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.