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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Complementation and function of methyl-metabolic pathway in Streptococcus mutans luxS null strain].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To complement the activated methyl cycle (AMC) pathway at an AI-2 defect background in Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) luxS null strain.
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[FLT3 Gene Overexpression and Its Clinical Significance in Acute Myeloid Leukemia with AML1/ETO Fusion Gene Positive].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the expression levels of FLT3 gene in AML-M2 patients carrying AML1/ETO fusion gene, and analyze its relation with clinical and laboratorial features and prognosis. RQ-PCR method was used to detect the expression level of FLT3 in bone marrow of 21 AML-M2 patients with AML1/ETO(+). The correlation of the expression level of FLT3 with clinical features, other laboratorial examinations and disease prognosis were analyzed. The results showed that gene expression level of FLT3 (FLT3 gene/ reference gene) in patients at initial diagnosis were 1.65%-261.5%. The expression level of FLT3 over 35% was defined as high expression group (12 cases) , while the expression level below 35% was defined as low expression group (9 cases) . The proportion of patients with extramedullary infiltration in high expression group was higher than that in low expression group (25% vs 0%, P = 0.2286). The proportion of patients at initial diagnosis with white blood cell count > 10×10(9)/L in high expression group was higher than that in low expression group (66.67% vs 22.22%), but there was no statistical significance (P = 0.0805). No significant difference was observed at the age (P = 0.1369) and the rate of bone marrow blasts (P = 0.6923) between the above mentioned two groups. The differences in complete remission rate (66.67% vs 88.89%, P = 0.3383), the relapse rate (66.67% vs 22.22%,P = 0.0805) and the mortality rate (50% vs 22.22%, P = 0.3666) between the two group were not significant, but there was a clear trend that the low expression group has a higher CR rate and a lower relapse rate and mortality rate. It is concluded that FLT3 gene high expression in AML-M2 patients with AML1/ETO(+) have a higher rate of relapse and hence poor prognosis. Therefore, detection of FLT3 expression level in routine clinical practice is important for patient's risk stratification, prognostic evaluation and effective treatment selection.
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Excessive autophagy induces the failure of trophoblast invasion and vasculature: possible relevance to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Preeclampsia affects 5-7% of all healthy pregnancies and is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Although the pathogenesis of preeclampsia is still not fully understood, a failure of spiral artery transformation and aberrant placental vasculature are considered to be facets of this disease. Studies have also implicated increased autophagic activity. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative stress could increase autophagic activity and consequently affect trophoblast invasion and the placental vasculature.
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[GATA-2 gene overexpression and its clinical significance in acute myeloid leukemia with AML1/ETO fusion gene].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To determine the expression level of GATA-2 gene in acute myeloid leukemia with maturation (AML-M2) patients carrying AML1/ETO fusion gene.
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[Chemical constituents of Illicium burmanicum].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Illicium burmanicum were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods,including Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, C18 reverse-phased silica gel, Preparative TLC and Preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data. Fourteen compounds were separated from I. burmanicum and their structures were identified as 7S,8R-erythro-4,7,9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3'-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (1), 7R,8R-threo-4,7, 9,9'-tetrahydroxy-3,3 '-dimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan(2) ,polystachyol(3), (-) -massoniresinol(4), angustanoic acid F (5), trans-sobrerol(6), (3S,6R) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (7), (3S, 6S) -6,7-dihydroxy-6,7-dihydrolinalool (8), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-allyl-phenol (9), 3,5-dihydroxy4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (10), 3-hydroxy4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), methyl vanillate (12), shikimic acid ethylester (13) and beta-sitosrerol (14). Except compound 14, the rest thirteen compounds were separated from this plant for the first time.
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[Acteoside enhances expression of neurotrophin-3 in brain tissues of subacute aging mice induced by D-galactose combined with aluminum trichloride].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Objective To study the effect of acteoside on the expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in brain tissues of subacute aging mice induced by D-galactose (D-Gal) combined with aluminum trichloride (AlCl3). Methods Female Kunming mice were randomly divided into vehicle control group, D-Gal combined with AlCl3 group , vitamin E group, piracetam group and acteoside groups [30, 60, 120 mg/(kg.d)]. Mice in D-Gal combined with AlCl3, vitamin E, piracetam and acteoside groups were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with D-Gal [60 mg/(kg.d)] and AlCl3 [5 mg/(kg.d)] for 90 days to induce the subacute aging models. The real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were respectively used to detect the expression of NT-3 mRNA and protein in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mouse brain. Results D-Gal and AlCl3 caused a significant reduction of NT-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Acteoside, vitamin E and piracetam increased the decreased expression of NT-3 induced by D-Gal and AlCl3, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Acteoside can up-regulate the expression of brain NT-3 in D-Gal plus AlCl3 treated mice.
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A new charging scheme in an emergency department observation unit under Beijing's basic medical insurance.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The new medical insurance policy (JRSYF(2010) No.255) was released by the Beijing Municipal Government and became effective on January 1, 2011. Medical expenses incurred during a stay in an emergency department (ED) observation unit can be reimbursed as a hospital admission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a new charging scheme during stays in ED observation unit under Beijing's Basic Medical Insurance.
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Neurotrophic Factor Artemin Promotes Invasiveness and Neurotrophic Function of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Vivo and in Vitro.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the neurotrophic factor Artemin on neuroplasticity and perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
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Primary radiotherapy compared with primary surgery in cervical esophageal cancer.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The management of cervical esophageal cancer (CEC) is controversial. The advantages of radiotherapy (RT) for CEC are lower rates of acute morbidity and mortality compared with surgery and potential for larynx preservation. The advantage of surgery is that the transposed stomach may function better over the long term than an irradiated esophagus, which tends to become stenotic over time. Which one is the primary treatment of CEC?
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[Effect and mechanism of total flavonoids of bugloss on rats with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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This study is to investigate the effect of total flavonoids of Uygur medicine bugloss (BTF) on rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, and to explore the mechanisms by which it acts. Left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in rats was occluded for 30 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. Meanwhile, BTF dissolved in saline was administered intraperitoneally at dosage of 10, 30 and 50 mg x kg(-1). Electrocardiograph, infarction index, serum myocardial enzymes and heart function were determined to evaluate the effect of BTF. Some other observations were carried out to explore whether inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis is involved in the mechanisms underlying BTF. Our results showed that in ischemia/reperfusion injured rats BTF could dose-dependently reduce myocardial infarction index and myocardial enzyme leakage, and enhance heart function, indicating that it possesses significant cardio protection. ELISA analysis showed that BTF could decrease the content of myocardial inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Western-blotting confirmed that BTF could increase the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduce the expression of proapoptosis protein Bax. Further more, the phosphorylation level of PI3K and Akt was upregulated by BTF treatment. BTF can protect rat against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Anti-inflammation and inhibition of apoptosis through upregulating PI3K/Akt signal pathway may contribute to the protective effect of BTF.
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[Single nucleotide polymorphisms of B7-H3 gene in blood cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To explore the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of co-stimulatory molecule B7-H3 gene in blood cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through the in vitro sequencing method and analyze the correlation between the SNPs and the susceptibility of RA. Methods We sequenced directly B7-H3 gene in 86 cases of RA patients and 73 cases of health controls, and then sequence specific primer-PCR (SSP-PCR) genotyping method was carried out in 377 cases of RA patients and 321 health controls for 6 sites of SNPs. Results Six sites of SNPs 19 589[chr.73 992 036, 19 630(chr.73 992 077), 19 948(chr. 73 992 394), 19 956(chr. 73 992 602), 20 214(chr. 73 992 660), 28 969(chr. 73 993 889)] were found in the CDS region and some introns of B7-H3 gene. Apart from 28 969 site (chr. 73 993 889), the others had significant differences in the genotypic frequency and allelic frequency between RA patients and health controls (P<0.05). Conclusion Six sites of B7-H3 gene have SNP variations and five sites are related to the pathogenesis of RA in Han populations.
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Crybb2 deficiency impairs fertility in female mice.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Beta-B2-crystallin (CRYBB2), encoded by Crybb2 gene, is a major protein in the mammalian eye lens that plays an important role in maintaining the transparency of the ocular lens. However, CRYBB2 also plays important roles in many extra-lenticular tissues and organs such as the retina, brain and testis. Our previous studies demonstrated that male Crybb2 deficient (Crybb2(-/-)) mice have reduced fertility compared with wild-type (WT) mice, while female Crybb2(-/-) mice exhibited reduced ovary weights and shorter estrous cycle percentages. Here we specifically investigated the role of CRYBB2 in the female reproductive system. Our studies revealed that ovaries from female Crybb2(-/-) mice exhibited significantly reduced numbers of primordial, secondary and pre-ovulatory follicles when compared with WT mice, while the rate of atretic follicles was also increased. Additionally, fewer eggs were collected from the oviduct of Crybb2(-/-) female mice after superovulation. Estrogen levels were higher in the metestrus and diestrus cycles of female Crybb2(-/-) mice, while progesterone levels were lower in diestrus cycles. Furthermore, the expression of survival and cell cycle genes, Bcl-2, Cdk4 and Ccnd2, were significantly decreased in granulosa cells isolated from female Crybb2(-/-) mice, consistent with the predominant expression of CRYBB2 in ovarian granulosa cells. Our results reveal a critical role for CRYBB2 in female fertility and specific effects on the proliferation and survival status of ovarian granulosa cells.
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Attenuation of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by inserting an additional transcription unit.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Transcription regulatory sequences (TRSs) play a key role in the synthesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) subgenomic mRNAs, which resembles similarity-assisted RNA recombination. In this study, genome instability was found when a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain was inserted by an additional transcription unit in which a foreign gene GFP was expressed from TRS2 while a copy of TRS6 drove ORF2a/b transcription. Structural protein gene-deleted genomes resulted from enhanced RNA recombinations were identified in the recombinant virus rHV-GFP. Moreover, rHV-GFP replicated slower than parental viruses, and caused less cell death in porcine alveolar macrophages. Pigs infected with rHV-GFP survived with no or mild syndromes, whereas all pigs infected with parental viruses died within 12 days. Our data showed that additional transcription unit insertion could confer genome instability and attenuation of HP-PRRSV.
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Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Copper Nanoparticle@Carbon Nanocomposites as Peroxidase Mimics for Colorimetric Sensing of Ascorbic Acid.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as very fascinating functional materials due to their diversity nature. A nanocomposite consisting of copper nanoparticles dispersed within a carbon matrix (Cu?NPs@C) is prepared through a one-pot thermolysis of copper-based metal-organic framework precursors. Cu?NPs@C can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to form a colored product in the presence of H2 O2 . As a peroxidase mimic, Cu?NPs@C not only has the advantages of low cost, high stability, and easy preparation, but also follows Michaelis-Menten behaviors and shows strong affinity to H2 O2 . As the Cu?NPs' surfaces are free from stabilizing agent, Cu?NPs@C exhibited a higher affinity to H2 O2 than horseradish peroxidase. On the basis of the inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on oxidation of TMB, this system serves as a colorimetric method for the detection of AA, suggesting that the present work would expand the potential applications of MOF-derived nanocomposites in biomedical fields.
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Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications.
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Risk factors for posterior to right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To identify the risk factors for posterior right recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node metastasis (PRRLN-LNM) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-?B activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection.
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Interaction mechanisms between organic UV filters and bovine serum albumin as determined by comprehensive spectroscopy exploration and molecular docking.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Organic UV filters are a group of emerging PPCP (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) contaminants. Current information is insufficient to understand the in vivo processes and health risks of organic UV filters in humans. The interaction mechanism of UV filters with serum albumin provides critical information for the health risk assessment of these active ingredients in sunscreen products. This study investigates the interaction mechanisms of five commonly used UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM; homosalate, HMS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), competitive binding experiments and molecular docking. Our results indicated that the fluorescence of BSA was quenched by these UV filters through a static quenching mechanism. The values of the binding constant (Ka) ranged from (0.78±0.02)×10(3) to (1.29±0.01)×10(5)Lmol(-1). Further exploration by synchronous fluorescence and CD showed that the conformation of BSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of these organic UV filters. It was confirmed that the UV filters can disrupt the ?-helical stability of BSA. Moreover, the results of molecular docking revealed that the UV filter molecule is located in site II (sub-domain IIIA) of BSA, which was further confirmed by the results of competitive binding experiments. In addition, binding occurred mainly through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. This study raises critical concerns regarding the transportation, distribution and toxicity effects of organic UV filters in human body.
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Effects of Priming with Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on Conditioning Regimen for High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Undergoing Human Leukocyte Antigen-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Randomized Cont
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is an effective and immediate treatment for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR-AML) patients lacking matched donors. Relapse remains the leading cause of death for HR-AML patients after haplo-HSCT. Accordingly, the prevention of relapse remains a challenge in the treatment of HR-AML. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial in southwestern China, 178 HR-AML patients received haplo-HSCT with conditioning regimens involving recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) or non-rhG-CSF. The cumulative incidences of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. HR-AML patients who underwent the priming conditioning regimen with rhG-CSF had a lower relapse rate than those who were treated with non-rhG-CSF (38.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.1% to 48.3% versus 60.7%, 95% CI, 50.5% to 70.8%; P < .01). The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, transplantation-related toxicity, and infectious complications appeared to be equivalent. In total, 53 patients in the rhG-CSF-priming group and 31 patients in the non-rhG-CSF-priming group were still alive at the median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 24 to 80 months). The 2-year probabilities of LFS and OS in the rhG-CSF-priming and non-rhG-CSF-priming groups were 55.1% (95% CI, 44.7% to 65.4%) versus 32.6% (95% CI, 22.8% to 42.3%) (P < .01) and 59.6% (95% CI, 49.4% to 69.7%) versus 34.8% (95% CI, 24.9% to 44.7%) (P < .01), respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that the 2-year probability of LFS of patients who achieved complete remission (CR) before transplantation was better than that of patients who did not achieve CR. The 2-year probability of LFS of patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype was better than that of patients with the M4/M5/M6 subtype in the G-CSF-priming group (67.4%; 95% CI, 53.8% to 80.9% versus 41.9%; 95% CI, 27.1% to 56.6%; P < .05). This study suggests that the rhG-CSF-priming conditioning regimen is an acceptable choice for HR-AML patients, especially for the patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype who achieved CR before transplantation.
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Suppressed Krüppel?like factor 17 expression induces tumor proliferation, metastasis and a poor prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Although the role of krüppel?like factor 17 (KLF17) in the regulation of proliferation and epithelial?mesenchymal transition has been examined in breast and liver cancer, their effect on papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of KLF17 in PTC and the correlation between KLF17 expression and the malignant potential of PTC. KLF17 expression in PTC and adjacent liver tissues was studied by polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, and the association between KLF17 expression and the clinicopathological features of PTC was studied in 50 patients. By using RNA interference against KLF17, the correlation between KLF17 expression and malignant potential was examined by downregulating KLF17 expression in TPC?1 cells, and the effects of KLF17 downregulation on cell proliferation and motility were analyzed. Furthermore, the association between KLF17 expression and the surgical outcomes of PTC patients were analyzed. Downregulated expression of KLF17 was associated with a shorter overall survival time in clinical patients (P<0.05). Low KLF17 expression was significantly associated with tumor stage, tumor size, nodal stage and metastasis stage in PTC (P<0.05). The reduced expression of KLF17 promoted the motility and proliferation ability of TPC?1 cells by altering the expression of tight junction protein 1 and Snai1, and activating the AKT pathway by upregulating inhibitor of DNA binding 1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that KLF17 is important in tumor proliferation and may be a useful prognostic indicator in directing therapy. Therefore, further investigation regarding the role of KLF17 in PTC is required.
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Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, has a protective effect on liver injury induced by inorganic arsenic exposure.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Resveratrol (Rev) can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity.
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Association of cardiac development with assisted reproductive technology in childhood: a prospective single-blind pilot study.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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To examine the pattern and extent of cardiovascular developmental alterations among children conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) and its association with potential confounders.
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Ischemic postconditioning relieves cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury through activating T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase/protein kinase B pathway in rats.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) protects against ischemic brain injury. To date, no study has examined the role of T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) in IPostC-afforded neuroprotection. We explored the molecular mechanism related with TOPK in antioxidant effect of IPostC against ischemia/reperfusion.
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[Mechanism of antitumor effect of usolic acid on T (8;21) leukemia cell kasumi-1].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was purposed to investigate the anti-tumor effect of ursolic acid (UA) on t(8;21) leukemia cell line kasumi-1 and its possible mechanisms. The kasumi-1 cells were treated with UA at different concentration for different duration of time. The growth inhibition of kasumi-1 treated with UA was detected by using CCK-8 test, and the morphological changes of kasumi-1 cells were observed by Wright's staining. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate of kasumi-1 was examined by flow cytometry. Lastly, the expression of AML1-ETO, KIT, MYC, CCND1, BCL-2, P53, BAX, MDM2 and protein were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot respectively. The results showed that the UA obviously inhibited the growth of kasumi-1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The apototic morphological changes of cells were presented when kasumi-1 cells were treated with UA for 48 hours. The apoptotic rate of kasumi-1 cells increased in a dose- and time-dependent ways, and the mRNA levels of AML1-ETO, KIT, MYC, CCND1, BCL2, MDM2 decreased in kasumi-1 cells treated with UA, as well as the protein levels. Meanwhile, UA up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of P53 in the same manner. It is concluded that UA can exert its anti-tumor effect by inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of kasumi-1 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manners, that may provide the clues for a new targeting therapy to t(8;21) leukemia.
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[Significance of CD37 expression in malignant B cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of CD37 expression in B cells from B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). The expression level of CD37 on B cells from bone marrow samples of normal controls (n = 19), B-ALL patients [including untreated cases (n = 5) and cases with minimal residual disease (MRD, n = 15)] and B-NHL patients (n = 25) whose bone marrow was involved by lymphoma cells, was detected by multiple parameter flow cytometry. The results indicated that the B cells from both untreated cases and cases with MRD lowly expressed CD37 (1.04 ± 0.24 and 1.50 ± 0.89), the normal precursor B cells (control cases) also lowly expressed CD37 (1.64 ± 0.52). There was no difference of CD37 expression level between 3 groups of cases(P > 0.05). Meanwhile the normal mature B cells and B-NHL cells highly expressed CD37 (14.23 ± 7.84 and 14.53 ± 10.93), but there was no difference of CD37 expression between them (P > 0.05). The comparison of CD37 expression level in normal B cells of development stages showed that the progenitor B cells lowly expressed CD37 (0.88 ± 0.17), the CD37 expression of precursor B cells was enhanced (2.44 ± 0.69), while the CD37 expression level of mature B cells was highest. It is concluded that the low expression of CD37 is not the characteristic of B- ALL cells. The expression level of CD37 increases gradually during the mature process of B cells, i.e, the expression level of CD37 does not associate with benignity or malignance of B cells.
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Improved stereotactic procedure enhances the accuracy of deep brain stimulation electrode implantation in non-human primates.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Purpose: Non-human primate models of deep brain stimulation (DBS) play an increasingly important role in the exploration of DBS mechanisms. The establishment and recognized usefulness of such models depend on the precise positioning of the stimulating targets and electrode implants. The optimal method of targeting remains controversial. Materials and methods: This paper described an improved stereotactic procedure that uses a self-developed adaptor to improve accuracy. This involved: (1) connecting clinical stereotactic devices with the skull of primates using a self-developed adaptor; (2) pre-operation targeting via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (3) target re-checking by microelectrode recording (MER); (4) DBS electrode implantation; (5) post-operative MRI verification of electrode placement and (6) positioning confirmation by DBS programming. Results: Use of the adaptor enabled clinical stereotactic surgery, pre-operative MRI targeting, microelectrode mapping and post-operative verification in primate DBS operations. Discrepancies between achieved and predetermined electrode position were around 0.6 mm. DBS programming improved the motor function of the hemiparkinsonism animals and decreased the numbers of rotation induced by apomorphine, indicating the precise positioning of the stimulating target and successful implanting of electrode using this method. Conclusions: An improved stereotactic procedure was performed during a non-human primate DBS operation using a self-developed adaptor. The accuracy of DBS electrode implantation in non-human primates was improved with this method.
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miR-142-3p acts as an essential modulator of neutrophil development in zebrafish.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Neutrophils play critical roles in vertebrate innate immune responses. As an emerging regulator in normal myelopoiesis, the precise roles of microRNA in the development of neutrophils have yet to be clarified. Using zinc-finger nucleases, we have successfully generated heritable mutations in miR-142a and miR-142b and showed that hematopoietic-specific miR-142-3p is completely deleted in miR-142 double mutant zebrafish. The lack of miR-142-3p resulted in aberrant reduction and hypermaturation of neutrophils in definitive myelopoiesis, as well as impaired inflammatory migration of neutrophils in the fetal stage. Furthermore, the adult myelopoiesis in the miR-142-3p-deficient zebrafish was also affected, producing irregular hypermature neutrophils with increased cell size and a decreased nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Additionally, miR-142-3p-deficient zebrafish are expected to develop a chronic failure of myelopoiesis with age. Transcriptome analysis showed an aberrant activation of the interferon ? (IFN-?) signaling pathway in myelomonocytes after miR-142-3p deletion. We found that the reduced number and hypermaturation of neutrophils caused by loss of miR-142-3p was mainly mediated by the abnormally activated IFN-? signaling, especially the upregulation of stat1a and irf1b. Taken together, we uncovered a novel role of miR-142-3p in maintaining normal neutrophil development and maturation.
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Quercetin reversed lipopolysaccharide-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation through the mitogen?activated protein kinase pathway in MC3T3-E1 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Quercetin, a flavonoid found in onions and other vegetables, has potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption in vivo and in vitro. In our previous study it was identified that quercetin triggered the apoptosis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced osteoclasts and inhibited bone resorption. Currently, little information is available detailing the effect of quercetin on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in bacteria?induced inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3?E1 osteoblasts stimulated with LPS. LPS significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of osteoblast?related genes in the MC3T3?E1 cells. By contrast, quercetin significantly restored the LPS?suppressed mRNA expression of osteoblast?related genes in a dose?dependent manner. Quercetin also restored the protein expression of Osterix in MC3T3?E1 cells suppressed by LPS. Furthermore, quercetin selectively triggered the activation of the mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by enhancing the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and reducing the expression of c?Jun N?terminal kinase. These data suggest that quercetin reversed the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation induced by LPS through MAPK signaling. These findings suggest that quercetin may be of potential use as a therapeutic agent to restore osteoblast function in bacteria?induced bone diseases.
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Expression of the SET protein in testes of mice at different developmental stages.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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SET is a multifunctional protein involved in regulating many biological processes of the cell cycle. It is also a regulator of steroidogenesis in the ovary. However, the expression of SET protein in testis, and its function, still remains ambiguous. In this study, we observed the expression of SET in the testes of mice at different developmental stages, and have discussed its potential function in regulating spermatogenesis and androgen production. Forty-eight male mice at different developmental stages (1 week old as the infancy group; 4 weeks old as the prepubertal group; 12 weeks old as the adult group; over 12 months old as the ageing group) were used. Cellular location of SET protein in the testes was observed by immuno-histochemistry. Expression levels of Set mRNA and SET protein were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SET protein was expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes; the highest level was mainly in haploid and tetraploid cells of the prepubertal and adult groups, and Leydig cells of the adult and ageing groups. There was a low expression in Sertoli cells. Expression of Set mRNA in the prepubertal group was significantly higher than that in the adult group (P < 0.05), while expression of SET protein was at the highest level in the adult group (P < 0.05). SET protein is mainly expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes, and poorly expressed in Sertoli cells, suggesting that it is involved in spermatogenesis. Expression of SET protein in Leydig cells suggests a possible role in steroidogenesis.
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Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in basal-like carcinomas of the breast.
Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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To compare basal-like breast carcinoma (BLBC) gene expression profiles to normal mammary epithelium in order to determine the characteristic gene expression patterns associated with the tumor.
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Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Henan Province, China.
Aust J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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The present article aimed to explore and evaluate the epidemiology and determine the status of hypertension awareness, treatment and control in Henan province, China.
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Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50?mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.
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Effects of GnRH antagonist on endometrial protein profiles in the window of implantation.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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GnRH antagonists can suppress luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), with less initial stimulatory effect and lower risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The effects of GnRH antagonists on embryonic implantation remain controversial. To evaluate the effects of GnRH antagonists, endometrial tissues were biopsied from 12 women with intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, in which four subjects undergoing controlled ovulation stimulation with rFSH and GnRH antagonist, four subjects with a GnRH agonist long protocol, and four natural cycle controls. After iTRAQ quantification analysis, 24 proteins showed differential expression between natural cycle and agonist treatment group and 39 proteins between natural cycle and antagonist treatment group. A total of seven proteins demonstrated differential expression only in antagonist treatment group. Bioinformatic analysis implied these proteins can function in cell processes including angiogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, and immune response. Furthermore, GnRH antagonist suppressed the function of GNAS and ANPEP, which were important for endometrial functions. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ANPEP was mainly localized in the human endometrial stroma, while ACO2, CDC5L, and GNAS were mainly localized in the glands. This study could provide insights into the effect of GnRH antagonists on the endometrium, and help optimize the embryo implantation and improve the success rate for GnRH antagonist protocol.
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The effects of galangin on a mouse model of vitiligo induced by hydroquinone.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Galangin, the main active component of Alpinia officinarum Hance, was tested in a mouse model of vitiligo induced in C57BL/6 mice by the topical application of 2?mL of 2.5% hydroquinone daily to shaved areas (2?×?2?cm) of dorsal skin for 60?days. Thirty days after the final application of hydroquinone, galangin (0.425, and 4.25?mg/kg) was administered orally for 30?days. The hair colour darkened when it grew back after treatment, and histological analysis showed that the number of melanin-containing hair follicles had increased after treatment with all doses of galangin groups and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, the positive control) compared with the untreated vitiligo group (p?
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Development of a SCAR marker for molecular detection and diagnosis of Tilletia controversa Kühn, the causal fungus of wheat dwarf bunt.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Tilletia controversa Kühn (TCK) is an important quarantine pathogen that causes wheat dwarf bunt and results in devastating damage to wheat production. The fungus is difficult to be distinguished from T. caries and T. laevis, which cause wheat common bunt, based on morphological, physiological and symptomatological characteristics of the pathogens. The traditional detection of the fungus can be a long and tedious process with poor accuracy. The inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique has been used for identifying molecular markers for detection of TCK. Of 28 ISSR primers screened, ISSR-859 amplified a specific 678 bp DNA fragment from all TCK isolates but not from any isolates of the common bunt fungi or other pathogenic fungi tested. Based on the fragment sequence, a pair of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers was designed, which amplified a 372 bp DNA fragment specifically in TCK. The SCAR marker was detected using as low as 1 ng template DNA of TCK, and was also detected using broken teliospores and DNA from asymptomatic wheat samples. We developed the SYBR Green I and TaqMan Green I and TaqMan real-time polymorphism chain reaction methods to detect TCK with the detection limit of 0.1 fg with asymptomatic wheat samples. Further work is needed to develop a rapid test kit for this pathogenic fungus using the designed specific primers.
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Effect of Toona microcarpa Harms leaf extract on the coagulation system.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Toona microcarpa Harms is a tonic, antiperiodic, antirheumatic, and antithrombotic agent in China and India and an astringent and tonic for treating diarrhea, dysentery, and other intestinal infections in Indonesia. In this study, we prepared ethyl-acetate extract from the air-dried leaves of Toona microcarpa Harms and investigated the anticoagulant activities in vitro by performing activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) assays. Antiplatelet aggregation activity of the extract was examined using adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and thrombin as agonists, and the inhibitions of factor Xa and thrombin were also investigated. Bleeding and clotting times in mice were used to determine its anticoagulant activities in vivo. It is found that Toona microcarpa Harms leaf extract (TMHE) prolonged APTT, PT, and TT clotting times in a dose-dependent manner and significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, but not ADP or collagen. Clotting time and bleeding time assays showed that TMHE significantly prolonged clotting and bleeding times in vivo. In addition, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, TMHE inhibited human thrombin activity by 73.98 ± 2.78%. This is the first report to demonstrate that THME exhibits potent anticoagulant effects, possibly via inhibition of thrombin activity.
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Activation of T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase-mediated antioxidation protects against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), a MAPKK-like kinase, is crucial for neural progenitor cell proliferation; however, the function of TOPK and the molecular mechanism underlying cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of TOPK in experimental stroke. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and reperfusion, and TOPK small interfering RNA (siRNA) was delivered by intracerebroventricular injection at the beginning of MCAO. After TOPK overexpression and H2O2 stimulation in PC12 neuronal cells, antioxidative proteins, apoptosis-related proteins and signal pathways were detected by western blot analysis, the levels of the peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine) were measured with ELISA. Phosphorylation of TOPK was increased in rat cortical neurons following tMCAO. TOPK overexpression in PC12 cells augmented levels of antioxidative proteins (peroxiredoxin 1 and 2, heme oxygenase 1 and manganese superoxide dismutase), as well as total superoxide dismutase activity, along with inhibition of malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine upon H2O2 stimulation. TOPK overexpression increased cell viability and reduced expression of caspase 3 and caspase 12 in PC12 cells in response to H2O2 . The p-ERK level was increased by TOPK overexpression, and antioxidative protection afforded by TOPK was abolished by blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in PC12 cells. TOPK siRNA increased the infarct volume and reduced total superoxide dismutase activity in the cortex in vivo after MCAO. These data reveal that activating TOPK confers neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by antioxidative function, in part through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway.
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Glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) release, an early indicator of acute hepatic injury in mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Three acute hepatic injury models (a CCl4-induced model, APAP-induced model and ethanol-induced model) in mice were used to study the importance of GSTA1 in acute hepatic injury by comparison with a standard enzyme marker, alanine aminotransferase (ALT). GSTA1 release was demonstrated to be an earlier and more sensitive indicator of hepatotoxicity than was ALT. Significant increases in GSTA1 were detected at 2 h after CCl4 exposure, while ALT was undetected at this time. GSTA1 was also a more sensitive indicator of hepatotoxicity than ALT after 6 h. In the APAP and ethanol models, GSTA1 was markedly increased earlier than ALT, at 2 h post exposure. The release of GSTA1 was significantly increased at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg (CCl4 model), 100 mg/kg (APAP model) and 10 ml/kg (ethanol model), the lowest exposure concentration for each model. In contrast, AST release was not statistically significant. These results suggest that GSTA1 can be detected at low concentrations during the early stages of acute hepatic injury and that GSTA1 is a more sensitive and more accurate indicator than ALT.
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Firing Pattern Modulation Through SK Channel Current Increase Underlies Neuronal Survival in an Organotypic Slice Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are vulnerable to excitotoxicity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotoxic stimuli may alter the firing patterns of DA neurons. However, whether firing pattern change underlies neurotoxic stress-induced death of DA neurons remains unknown. In this study, we established long-term cultures of SNc organotypic slices and used this model to evaluate the neurotoxic effects on firing mode and DA neuronal viability following chronic treatment with neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Using whole-cell patch clamp to explore the intrinsic membrane properties and firing mode, we showed that chronic exposure to 6-OHDA raised the resting membrane potential of SNc DA neurons and altered their firing pattern, causing it to switch from a regular rhythmic pacemaking firing to an irregular bursting. This firing pattern change correlated with increased death of SNc DA neurons. The 6-OHDA-induced firing pattern change correlated with an increase in the activity of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK channel) and with an increase in both the level and activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Activation of the SK channel by its agonist 1-EBIO attenuated 6-OHDA-induced firing irregularity and death, while the SK channel antagonist apamin exacerbated the toxic effects of 6-OHDA. Thus, SK channel current is a substantial element in sustaining the SNc DA neuronal rhythmic pacemaking and homeostasis and perturbing SK channel activity underlies 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity.
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces IL-1? production depending on TLR4/MyD88 pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome in primary porcine alveolar macrophages.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide since the late 1980s. Previous studies have reported that PRRSV infection induced the production of IL-1 ? . However, the cellular sensors and signaling pathways involved in this process have not been elucidated yet. Here, we studied the mechanisms responsible for the production of IL-1 ? in response to highly pathogenic PRRSV. Upon PRRSV infection of primary porcine alveolar macrophages, both mRNA expression and secretion of IL-1 ? were significantly increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also investigated the role of several pattern-recognition receptors and adaptor molecules in this response and showed that the TLR4/MyD88 pathway and its downstream signaling molecules, NF- ? B, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPKs, were involved in IL-1 ? production during PRRSV infection. Treatment with specific inhibitors or siRNA knockdown assays demonstrated that components of the NLRP3 inflammasome were crucial for IL-1 ? secretion but not for IL-1 ? mRNA expression. Furthermore, TLR4/MyD88/NF- ? B signaling pathway was involved in PRRSV-induced expression of NLRP3 inflammasome components. Together, our results deciphered the pathways leading from recognition of PRRSV to the production and release of IL-1 ? , providing a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of PRRSV-induced inflammation responses.
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The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): toward the optimal paradigm.
Int J Psychophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In the present article, we tested an optimal vMMN paradigm allowing one to obtain vMMNs for several visual attributes in a short time. vMMN responses to changes in color, duration, orientation, shape, and size were compared between the traditional 'oddball' paradigm (a single type of visual change in each sequence) and the optimal paradigm in which all the 5 types of changes appeared within the same sequence. The vMMNs obtained in the optimal paradigm were equal or larger in amplitude to those in the traditional vMMN paradigm. The optimal paradigm can provide 5 different vMMNs in the same time in which usually only one MMN is obtained. This short objective measure could putatively be used as an index for visual cognition function especially in clinical research.
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Ischemic Preconditioning Provides Neuroprotection by Induction of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Autophagy in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) increases cerebral tolerance to the subsequent ischemic exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent autophagy contributed to the neuroprotection of IPC in rats with permanent cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with vehicle, compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) and then were subjected to IPC induced by a 10-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Afterward, the brain AMPK activity and autophagy biomarkers were measured. At 24 h after IPC, permanent cerebral ischemia was induced in these rats, and infarct volume, neurological deficits as well as cell apoptosis were evaluated 24 h later. We demonstrated that IPC activated AMPK and induced autophagy in the brain, which was accompanied by a reduction of infract volume, neurological deficits, and cell apoptosis after cerebral ischemia. Meanwhile, the IPC-induced autophagy was inhibited by compound C while the neuroprotection of IPC was abolished by compound C or 3-MA. These findings suggest that AMPK-mediated autophagy contributes to the neuroprotection of IPC, highlighting AMPK as a therapeutic target for stroke prevention and treatment.
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A Promoter Region Polymorphism in PDCD-1 Gene Is Associated with Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Han Chinese Population of Southeastern China.
Int J Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Objective. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) induces negative signals to T cells during interaction with its ligands and is therefore a candidate gene in the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we investigate the association of PDCD-1 polymorphisms with the risk of RA among Chinese patients and healthy controls. Methods. Using the PCR-direct sequencing analysis, 4 PDCD-1 SNPs (rs36084323, rs11568821, rs2227982, and rs2227981) were genotyped in 320?RA patients and 309 matched healthy controls. Expression of PD-1 was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results. We observed that the GG genotype of rs36084323 was associated with a increased risk for developing RA (OR 1.70, 95% 1.11-2.61, P = 0.049). Patients carrying G/G genotype displayed an increased mRNA level of PD-1 (P = 0.04) compared with A/A genotype and healthy controls. Meanwhile, patients homozygous for rs36084323 had induced basal PD-1 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Conclusion. The PDCD-1 polymorphism rs36084323 was significantly associated with RA risk in Han Chinese population. This SNP, which effectively influenced the expression of PD-1, may be a biomarker of early diagnosis of RA and a suitable indicator of utilizing PD-1 inhibitor for treatment of RA.
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Lipopolysaccharide differentially affects the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through Toll-like receptor 4 mediated nuclear factor ?B pathway.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Periodontitis is initiated and sustained by bacteria. However, the mechanism of bacteria induced periodontitis is still unknown. We hypothesized that bacterial components can affect the functions of stem cells in the periodontium. In this study, we comparatively investigated the influence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the osteogenesis potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs).
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Major evolutionary trends in hydrogen isotope fractionation of vascular plant leaf waxes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (?D) have been widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, underlying controls for the observed large variations in leaf wax ?D values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering quantitative paleoclimate interpretation. Here we report plant leaf wax and source water ?D values from 102 plant species grown in a common environment (New York Botanic Garden), chosen to represent all the major lineages of terrestrial vascular plants and multiple origins of common plant growth forms. We found that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership in particular lineages, rather than by growth forms as previously suggested. Monocots, and in particular one clade of grasses, display consistently greater hydrogen isotopic fractionation than all other vascular plants, whereas lycopods, representing the earlier-diverging vascular plant lineage, display the smallest fractionation. Data from greenhouse experiments and field samples suggest that the changing leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation in different terrestrial vascular plants may be related to different strategies in allocating photosynthetic substrates for metabolic and biosynthetic functions, and potential leaf water isotopic differences.
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GSTP1 arrests bladder cancer T24 cells in G0/G1 phase and up-regulates p21 expression.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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GSTP1 over-expression was introduced into human bladder cancer T24 cells via the lentivirus system. The influence of GSTP1 on the proliferation and cell cycle of T24 cells as well as the potential mechanisms was investigated.
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Effect of Furin inhibitor on lung adenocarcinoma cell growth and metastasis.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the mechanisms of lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis and provide a theoretical basis for the in-depth study of lung adenocarcinoma.
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[Prognostic Significance of Detecting MLL-AF9 Fusion Gene Expression in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Real-time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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This study was aimed to explore the value of detecting the expression levels of MLL-AF9 (mixed lineage leukemia, MLL) fusion gene during the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR), and to evaluate its prognostic significance in monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). The expression levels of 11 patients with MLL-AF9 fusion gene positive were detected precisely by RQ-PCR during the treatment in order to analyze the correlation of detection results with clinical manifestations. The results showed that the expression levels of MLL-AF9 fusion gene in patients at initial diagnosis were 1.3%-55.28%.
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Highly Pathogenic PRRSV Induces Prostaglandin E2 Production through Cyclooxygenase-1 Dependent on ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-? Pathway.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever and high mortality. However, the mechanism underlying the fever induction is still unknown. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesized by cyclooxygenase type 1/2 (COX-1/2) enzymes is essential for inducing fever. In this study, we found that PGE2, together with COX-1 was significantly elevated by HP-PRRSV. We subsequently demonstrated that ERK1/2 and p-ERK were the key nodes to trigger COX-1 expression after HP-PRRSV infection. Furthermore, we proved the direct binding of p-C/EBP-? to the COX-1 promoter by luciferase reporter and ChIP assays. In addition, silencing C/EBP-? remarkably impaired the enhancement of COX-1 production induced by HP-PRRSV infection. Taken together, our results indicate that HP-PPRSV elicits the expression of COX-1 through ERK1/2-p-C/EBP-? signaling pathway, resulting in the increase of PGE2, which might be the cause of high fever in infected pigs. Our findings might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV infection.
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[The pulmonary function and respiratory muscle power in multiple systemic atrophy and Parkinsons disease].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To investigate the characteristics of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle performance in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinsons disease (PD).
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Predictions of BuChE Inhibitors Using Support Vector Machine and Naive Bayesian Classification Techniques in Drug Discovery.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, EC 3.1.1.8) is an important pharmacological target for Alzheimers disease (AD) treatment. However, the currently available BuChE inhibitor screening assays are expensive, labor-intensive, and compound-dependent. It is necessary to develop robust in silico methods to predict the activities of BuChE inhibitors for the lead identification. In this investigation, support vector machine (SVM) models and naive Bayesian models were built to discriminate BuChE inhibitors (BuChEIs) from the noninhibitors. Each molecule was initially represented in 1870 structural descriptors (1235 from ADRIANA.Code, 334 from MOE, and 301 from Discovery studio). Correlation analysis and stepwise variable selection method were applied to figure out activity-related descriptors for prediction models. Additionally, structural fingerprint descriptors were added to improve the predictive ability of models, which were measured by cross-validation, a test set validation with 1001 compounds and an external test set validation with 317 diverse chemicals. The best two models gave Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.9551 and 0.9550 for the test set and 0.9132 and 0.9221 for the external test set. To demonstrate the practical applicability of the models in virtual screening, we screened an in-house data set with 3601 compounds, and 30 compounds were selected for further bioactivity assay. The assay results showed that 10 out of 30 compounds exerted significant BuChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.32 to 22.22 ?M, at which three new scaffolds as BuChE inhibitors were identified for the first time. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on BuChE inhibitors using machine learning approaches. The models generated from SVM and naive Bayesian approaches successfully predicted BuChE inhibitors. The study proved the feasibility of a new method for predicting bioactivities of ligands and discovering novel lead compounds.
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Stromal-epithelial crosstalk provides a suitable microenvironment for the progression of ovarian cancer cells in vitro.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of cancer. This study focused on carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and stromal-epithelial interaction between CAFs and epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) cells. We isolated and established primary cultures of CAFs and co-cultured CAFs and EOC cells in vitro. The co-culture conditioned medium (CC-CM) was harvested and its influence on EOC cells was examined. Cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor levels were screened using a biotin label-based human antibody array system. We found that the stromal-epithelial crosstalk provided a suitable microenvironment for the progression of ovarian cancer cells in vitro.
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Discovery of the neuroprotective effects of alvespimycin by computational prioritisation of potential anti-parkinson agents.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Based on public gene expression data, we propose a computational approach to optimise gene expression signatures for the use with Connectivity Map (CMap) to reposition drugs or discover lead compounds for Parkinsons disease (PD). This approach integrates genetic information from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, the Parkinsons disease gene expression database (ParkDB), the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database and the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) with the goal of identifying a set of interesting genes for use in computational drug screening via CMap. The results showed that CMap, using the top 20 differentially expressed (DE) genes identified by our approach as a gene expression signature, outperformed the same method using all DE genes (535) as a signature. Utilising this approach, the candidate compound, alvespimycin (17-DMAG), was selected for experimental evaluation in a model of rotenone-induced toxicity in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and isolated rat brain mitochondria. The results showed that 17-DMAG significantly attenuated rotenone-induced toxicity as reflected by the increase of cell viability, the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a reduction in mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction. In conclusion, this computational method provides an effective systematic approach for drug repositioning or lead compound discovery for PD, and the discovery of the neuroprotective effects of 17-DMAG suggests the practicability of this method. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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[Clinical analysis of 318 cases of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment outcomes and prognosis of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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Rapid detection of AML1 associated fusion genes in patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This study was aimed to detect the expression of AML1 fusion genes in the patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and further to investigate their association with the progression and prognosis of AML. Bone marrow samples were collected from 168 patients with de novo adult AML, and the expression of AML1 ETO, AML1-EVI1, AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, AML1-LRP16, AML1-CLCA2 and AML1-PRDX4 was analyzed by a novel multiplex nested RT-PCR. Positive samples and minimal residual disease were further examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that the AML1 fusion genes were found in 10.7% (18/168) patients. Among them, AML1-ETO in 12 (7.1%) cases were detected, AML1-EVI1 in 2 cases (1.2%), and AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, and AML1-CLCA2 in 1 case (0.6%) each were detected. Among the patients with AML1-ETO, 10 patients (10/12, 83.33%) achieved complete remission (CR) after one cycle of chemotherapy, while 2 patients achieved CR after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. The 2 patients with AML1-EVI1 failed to achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. Patients with AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, or AML1-CACL2 did not achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. It is concluded that AML1 fusion genes are more frequent and can provide the molecular markers for diagnostics and prognosis evaluation of AML and for monitoring MRD.
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ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Brain: A Potential Target for Prevention and Treatment of Ischemic Stroke.
Curr Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in brain is a crucial regulator for physiological homeostasis and diseases of cerebrovascular system, such as ischemic stroke. Overactivation of brain Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) - Angiotensin II (Ang II) - Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis was found to be involved in the progress of hypertension, atherosclerosis and thrombogenesis, which increased the susceptibility to ischemic stroke. Besides, brain Ang II levels have been revealed to be increased in ischemic tissues after stroke, and contribute to neural damage through elevating oxidative stress levels and inducing inflammatory response in the ischemic hemisphere via AT1R. In recent years, new components of RAS have been discovered, including ACE2, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and Mas, which constitute ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis. ACE2 converts Ang II to Ang-(1-7), and Ang-(1-7) binds with its receptor Mas, exerting benefical effects in cerebrovascular disease. Through interacting with nitric oxide and bradykinin, Ang-(1-7) could attenuate the development of hypertension and the pathologic progress of atherosclerosis. Besides, its antithrombotic activity also prevents thrombogenic events, which may contribute to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. In addition, after ischemia insult, ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas has been shown to reduce the cerebral infarct size and improve neurological deficits through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, activation of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis may become a novel therapeutic target in prevention and treatment of ischemia stroke, which deserves further investigations.
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[Influence of decomposition of Cladophora sp. on phosphorus concentrations and forms in the overlying water].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Sediments were sampled in the dominated zone of Cladophora sp. in Rongcheng Swan Lake, and cultivated with algae in the laboratory to reveal the influence of Cladophora decomposition on concentrations and forms of phosphorus in the overlying water. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), particulate phosphorus (PP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in overlying water were investigated, and some physicochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and conductivity were monitored during the experiment. In addition, the influence of algae decomposition on P release from sediments was analyzed. Due to the decomposition of Cladophora, DO concentration in the overlying water declined remarkably and reached the anoxic condition (0-0.17 mg x L(-1)). The pH value of different treatments also decreased, and treatments with algae reduced by about 1 unit. Concentrations of TP and different P forms all increased obviously, and the increasing extent was larger with the adding algae amount. TP concentrations of different treatments varied from 0.04 mg x L(-1) to 1.34 mg x L(-1). DOP and PP were the main P forms in the overlying water in algae without sediments treatments, but SRP concentrations became much higher in algae with sediments treatments. The result showed that P forms released from decomposing Cladophora were mainly DOP and PP, and the Cladophora decomposition could also promote the sediments to release P into the overlying water.
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[Study on protective effect of acteoside on cellular model of Alzheimers disease induced by okadaic acid].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To investigate the effect of acteoside on SK-N-SH nerve cell injury induced by okadaic acid (OA).
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One-step instant synthesis of protein-conjugated quantum dots at room temperature.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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We present a new general facile strategy for the preparation of protein-functionalized QDs in a single step at ambient conditions. We demonstrated that highly luminescent red to near-infrared (NIR) protein-functionalized QDs could be synthesized at room temperature in one second through a one-pot reaction that proceeds in aqueous solution. Herein protein-functionalized QDs were successfully constructed for a variety of proteins with a wide range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. The as-prepared protein-conjugated QDs exhibited high quantum yield, high photostabiliy and colloidal stability, and high functionalization efficiency. Importantly, the proteins attached to the QDs maintain their biological activities and are capable of catalyzing reactions and biotargeting. In particular, the as-prepared transferrin-QDs could be used to label cancer cells with high specificity. Moreover, we demonstrated that this synthetic strategy could be extended to prepare QDs functionalized with folic acids and peptides, which were also successfully applied to cancer cell imaging.
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Efficacy of Levetiracetam in Electrical Status Epilepticus During Sleep of Children: A Multicenter Experience.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Electrical status epilepticus during sleep is characterized by epilepsy, a specific electroencephalographic pattern, and neuropsychological impairment. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in treating children with electrical status epilepticus during sleep.
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Recombinant infectious bursal disease virus expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) neutralizing epitope confers partial protection against virulent NDV challenge in chickens.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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In this study, the regions in the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a virus-neutralizing epitope of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein were identified. By using the reverse genetics approach, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding the NDV epitope were engineered in the exposed loops (PBC, PHI and [Formula: see text] ) of the VP2 capsid protein and the N terminus of the nonstructural VP5 protein as well as the pep7a and pep7b regions of the pVP2 precursor of a commonly used IBDV vaccine strain, Gt. Three recombinant IBDVs expressing the NDV epitopes were successfully rescued in the PBC, pep7b and VP5 regions and the expressed epitope was recognized by anti-HN antibodies. Genetic analysis showed that the IBDV recombinants carrying the NDV epitopes were stable in cell cultures and in chickens. Animal studies demonstrated that the IBDV recombinants were innocuous in chickens. Vaccination with the recombinant viruses generated antibody responses against both IBDV and NDV, and provided 70-80% protection against IBDV and 50-60% protection against NDV. These results indicate that the recombinant IBDV has the potential to serve as a novel vaccine vector for other pathogens. In future studies, it is worth considering research to improve IBDV vector vaccine to get complete protection and safety of animals and humans.
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High-dose methotrexate in the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma: a twelve-year study in a single center.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) is a promising approach for non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). Higher cell doses have been associated with a faster blood count recovery and a reduction in transfusion requirements, infection rates, and hospitalization times. Mobilization failure constitutes one of the main reasons for avoiding auto-HSCT. The role of high-dose methotrexate (MTX) as mobilization regimen is still unclear.
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Early activation of nSMase2/ceramide pathway in astrocytes is involved in ischemia-associated neuronal damage via inflammation in rat hippocampi.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Ceramide accumulation is considered a contributing factor to neuronal dysfunction and damage. However, the underlying mechanisms that occur following ischemic insult are still unclear.
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Prognostic significance of miR-34a and its target proteins of FOXP1, p53, and BCL2 in gastric MALT lymphoma and DLBCL.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which are the two most common types of gastric lymphomas, have different clinicopathological features and molecular characteristics with distinct clinical outcomes. Tumor suppressor miR-34a connects the p53 network with forkhead box protein 1 (FOXP1) and BCL2. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of these molecules in gastric MALT lymphoma and DLBCL for use in routine clinical practice.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning therapy with fludarabine, idarubicin, busulfan and cytarabine for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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We retrospectively analyzed allogenic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) outcomes in 82 patients with AML or MDS were conditioned with fludarabine, idarubicin, intravenous-busulfan and cytarabine (FIBA) or busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BuCy). Compared to BuCy regimen, reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) with FIBA was associated with a lower incidence of severe acute GVHD, lower NRM and a similar relapse rate. There was no significant difference in the 3 year overall survival (OS), but this is possibly due to the limited number of patients. The FIBA regimen is promising to replace BuCy regimen because of better security and similar relapse rate.
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Exploring novel targets of basal-like breast carcinoma by comparative gene profiling and mechanism analysis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The heterogeneity of breast cancer makes its diagnosis and treatment far from being optimal. Analysis of traditional pathological and prognostic markers based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) is inadequate in elucidating the inherent heterogeneity of breast cancer, especially basal-like breast carcinoma (BLBC) which displays complex and unique epidemiological, phenotypic, and molecular features with distinctive relapse patterns and poor clinical outcomes. Gene expression profiling opened an avenue in research as independent predictors by classifying breast cancers into discrete groups with prognostic references, but it is not cost-effective in clinical application. It is necessary to develop an effective predictive gene list from gene profiling to optimize the treatment with traditional markers. In this report, we analyzed the correlation between IHC and gene profiling of breast cancer with an emphasis on the BLBC, highlighting the potential discovery of diagnostic markers and cellular mechanisms that may guide the development of BLBC-targeted therapy. Random forest-based classification and PAM50 gene-sets were used in the comparison analysis of traditional prognostic markers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and microarray profiles. An intrinsic 40-gene set was developed to classify breast cancer subtypes, and genes expression differentiations were used to explore the different mechanisms between the BLBC and non-BLBC subtypes based on the comparison of clinicopathological markers and microarray profiling. Pathways and DNA repairs were analyzed to evaluate the biological mechanisms in BLBC and other breast cancer subtypes. It is reasonable to define BLBC as those tumors that are negative for ER, PR, and HER2 by IHC for their accordance with gene expression profiles. Focal adhesion kinase, ERBB, and their signaling pathways may play crucial role in BLBC. The intrinsic 40-gene set can be used to classify breast cancer and help to optimize therapeutic management of BLBC.
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Bisoprolol reversed small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK) remodeling in a volume-overload rat model.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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A recent study indicated that apamin-sensitive current (I KAS, mediated by apamin-sensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels subunits) density significantly increased in heart failure and led to recurrent spontaneous ventricular fibrillation. While the underlying molecular correlation with SK channels is still undetermined, we hypothesized that they are remodeled in HF and that bisoprolol could reverse the remodeling. Volume-overload models were created on male Sprague-Dawley rats by producing an abdominal arteriovenous fistula. Confocal microscopy, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot were performed to investigate the expression of SK channels and observe the influence of ?-blocker bisoprolol on the expression of SK channels I KAS, and the effect of bisoprolol on I KAS and the sensitivity of I KAS to [Ca(2+)]i at single isolated cells were also explored using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. SK channels were remodeled in HF rats, displaying the significant increase of SK1 and SK3 channel expression. After the treatment of HF rats with bisoprolol, the expression of SK1 and SK3 channels was significantly downregulated, and bisoprolol effectively downregulated I KAS density as well as the sensitivity of I KAS to [Ca(2+)]i. Our data indicated that the expression of SK1 and SK3 increased in HF. Bisoprolol effectively attenuated the change and downregulated I KAS density as well as the sensitivity of I KAS to [Ca(2+)]i.
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The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis are upregulated after acute cerebral ischemic stroke in rats.
Neuropeptides
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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There is now unequivocal evidence that the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2)-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis is a key component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade, which is closely correlated with ischemic insult occurrence. Our previous studies demonstrated that the Ang-(1-7), was an active member of the brain RAS. However, the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis expression after cerebral ischemic injury are currently unclear. In the present study, we investigated the time course of ACE2-Ang-(1-7) and Mas receptor expression in the acute stage of cerebral ischemic stroke. The content of Ang-(1-7) in ischemic tissues and blood serum was measured by specific EIA kits. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of the ACE2 and Mas. The cerebral ischemic lesion resulted in a significant increase of regional cerebral and circulating Ang-(1-7) at 6-48 h compared with sham operation group following focal ischemic stroke (12h: 7.276±0.320 ng/ml vs. 2.466±0.410 ng/ml, serum; 1.024±0.056 ng/mg vs. 0.499±0.032, brain) (P<0.05). Both ACE2 and Mas expression were markedly enhanced compared to the control in the ischemic tissues (P<0.05). Mas immunopositive neurons were also seen stronger expression in the ischemic cortex (19.167±2.858 vs. 7.833±2.483) (P<0.05). The evidence collected in our present study will indicate that, ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis are upregulated after acute ischemic stroke and would play a pivotal role in the regulation of acute neuron injury in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.
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Demethylation of Cancer/Testis Antigens and CpG ODN Stimulation Enhance Dendritic Cell and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Function in a Mouse Mammary Model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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Background. Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy in virtue of their restricted expression profile in normal tissues. However, CTA-targeted immunotherapy has been rather disappointing clinical setting for CTAs are downregulated by cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) methylation in their promoter regions, so that tumor cells have low immunogenicity. Methods. We reinduced mouse CTA P1A through demethylation process and generated P1A-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) by immunizing BALB/c (H-2(d)) mice with dendritic cells pulsed with a P1A-specific peptide and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) immune adjuvant. Results. We found that demethylation and CpG ODN immune adjuvant stimulation facilitated DC maturation and enhanced the allogenic capacity of P1A-specific CTLs against target cells both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions. Our results suggested that CTA induction and immune adjuvant stimulation is a feasible strategy in cancer immunotherapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.