JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Trade-offs of the opto-electrical properties of a-Si:H solar cells based on MOCVD BZO films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) films, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been widely used as front electrodes in thin-film solar cells due to their native pyramidal surface structure, which results in efficient light trapping. This light trapping effect can enhance the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of solar cells. However, nanocracks or voids in the silicon active layer may form when the surface morphology of the BZO is too sharp; this usually leads to degraded electrical properties of the cells, such as open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the fill factor (FF), which in turn decreases efficiency (Eff) [Bailat et al., Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on. IEEE, 2006, vol. 2, pp. 1533-1536]. In this paper, an etching and coating method was proposed to modify the sharp "pyramids" on the surface of the BZO films. As a result, an evident enhancement was achieved for these modified, BZO-based cells' Voc, FF, and Eff, although the Jsc exhibited a small decrease. In order to increase the Jsc and maintain the improved electrical properties (Voc, FF) of the cell, a thin BZO coating, deposited by MOCVD, was introduced to coat the sputtering-treated BZO film. Finally, we optimized the trade-off among the Voc, FF, and Jsc, that is, we identified a regime with an increase of the Jsc as well as a further improvement of the other electrical properties.
Related JoVE Video
WemIQ: An accurate and robust isoform quantification method for RNA-seq data.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The deconvolution of isoform expression from RNA-seq remains challenging because of non-uniform read sampling and subtle differences among isoforms.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of evolution of mode coupling in a graded-index polymer optical fiber by using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A narrow bandwidth (2GHz) ?-phase-shift flattop fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed to achieve Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) for perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers (GI-POFs) for the first time to best of our knowledge. Using the technique of BOTDA, we explore the evolution of mode coupling in perfluorinated GI-POFs by analyzing the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) variation along the whole fiber, and compare them with that of silica graded index multimode fibers (GI-MMFs). The characteristics of mode coupling of GI-POFs and GI-MMFs were also investigated in terms of the speckle patterns at the output face of the two fibers. The results show that compared with silica GI-MMFs, GI-POFs exhibit more efficient mode coupling and the excellent ablility of mode scrambling regardless of alignment conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular pathology analyses of two fatal human infections of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the histopathological manifestations of two fatal cases of H7N9 influenza A virus infection.
Related JoVE Video
The stabilities and electronic structures of single-layer bismuth oxyhalides for photocatalytic water splitting.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The stabilities and electronic/band structures of single-layer bismuth oxyhalides have been investigated by employing first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the single-layer bismuth oxyhalide materials, except for BiOF, have robust energetic and dynamical stabilities because of their low formation energies and the absence of imaginary frequencies within the entire Brillouin zone. Furthermore, calculations of the electronic structures and optical absorptions indicate that single-layer BiOI possesses a favorable band gap, suitable band edge positions, different orbital characteristics and different effective masses at the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM), thus presenting excellent photocatalytic activity for water splitting. Moreover, the resulting compressive strains can shift the band edge positions of the single-layer materials to more suitable places to enhance their photocatalytic activities.
Related JoVE Video
Screw-Dislocation-Driven Growth of Two-Dimensional Few-Layer and Pyramid-like WSe2 by Sulfur-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) layered tungsten diselenides (WSe2) material has recently drawn a lot of attention due to its unique optoelectronic properties and ambipolar transport behavior. However, direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of 2D WSe2 is not as straightforward as other 2D materials due to the low reactivity between reactants in WSe2 synthesis. In addition, the growth mechanism of WSe2 in such CVD process remains unclear. Here we report the observation of a screw-dislocation-driven (SDD) spiral growth of 2D WSe2 flakes and pyramid-like structures using a sulfur-assisted CVD method. Few-layer and pyramid-like WSe2 flakes instead of monolayer were synthesized by introducing a small amount of sulfur as a reducer to help the selenization of WO3, which is the precursor of tungsten. Clear observations of steps, helical fringes, and herringbone contours under atomic force microscope characterization reveal the existence of screw dislocations in the as-grown WSe2. The generation and propagation mechanisms of screw dislocations during the growth of WSe2 were discussed. Back-gated field-effect transistors were made on these 2D WSe2 materials, which show on/off current ratios of 10(6) and mobility up to 44 cm(2)/(V·s).
Related JoVE Video
[Molecular characters of Schisandra chinensis with white fruit by RAPD and ISSR makers].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The characters of Schisandra chinensis with white fruit were represented at molecular levels and the genetic diversity were investigated using RAPD and ISSR.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis and surgical treatment of cavernous sinus angioleiomyoma: a report of four cases.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aims of the study were to retrospectively evaluate the imaging characteristics of cavernous sinus angioleiomyoma and explore appropriate surgical approaches.
Related JoVE Video
[Problems and solutions on transformation of scientific research achievements of acupuncture].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With more and more attention and investment on acupuncture scientific researches, considerable outcomes and achievements has been acquired, but the shortcoming of low transformation rate of acupuncture research achievements is gradually exposed. Nowadays there is no related report on this problem, so based on achievement translational research in other areas and practical situation of acupuncture, the existing problems and solutions are analyzed. As a result, the existing problems include (1) the research content is mainly basic research and clinical research but less acupuncture device research, leading to limited transformation efficiency; (2) the evaluation system and transformation pattern are still needed to be perfect. The solutions are (1) to properly evaluate the research achievements of acupuncture, (2) to advocate the concept and method of translational medicine, (3) to reform the policy and system, and (4) to establish valid platforms covering research, outcomes and transformation.
Related JoVE Video
[Causes and remediations of retrograde intrarenal surgery failure in renal calculi treatment].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To find the causes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) failure in renal calculi treatment and evaluate the efficacy and morbidity of remedial measures.
Related JoVE Video
KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains That Harbor AAC(6')-Ib Exhibit Intermediate Resistance to Amikacin.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6')-Ib is common among carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) strains. We investigated amikacin (AMK) activity against 20 AAC(6')-Ib-producing CR-Kp strains. MICs clustered at 16 to 32 ?g/ml. By the time-kill study, AMK (1× and 4× the MIC) was bactericidal against 30% and 85% of the strains, respectively. At achievable human serum concentrations, however, the majority of strains showed regrowth, suggesting that AAC(6')-Ib confers intermediate AMK resistance. AMK and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were synergistic against 90% of the strains, indicating that the combination may overcome resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder characterised by repetitive upper-airway obstruction during sleep, and it is associated with type 2 diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment for OSA. Prior studies investigating whether CPAP can improve insulin resistance or glucose control in OSA patients have resulted in conflicting findings. This meta-analysis investigated whether CPAP treatment could improve glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in patients with OSA and type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Spatiotemporal expression profile of the Pumilio gene in the embryonic development of silkworm.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously identified a pumilio gene in silkworm (Bombyx mori L.), designated BmPUM, which was specifically expressed in the ovary and testis. To further characterize this gene's involvement in silkworm development, we have determined the spatiotemporal expression pattern of BmPUM during all embryonic stages. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that BmPUM was expressed in all stages of silkworm embryos and that its transcript levels displayed two distinct peaks. The first was observed at the germ-band formation stage (1 d after oviposition) and dropped to a low level at the gonad formation stage (5 d after oviposition). The second was detected at the stage of bristle follicle occurrence (6 d after oviposition), which was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Nanos (Nos), functioning together with Pum in abdomen formation of Drosophila embryos, was also highly expressed at the beginning (0 h to 1 d after oviposition) of embryogenesis, but its transcript levels were very low after the stage of germ-band formation. These results suggest that BmPUM functions with Bombyx mori nanos (Bm-nanos) at the early stages of silkworm embryonic development, and may then play a role in gonad formation and the occurrence of bristle follicles. Our data thus provide a foundation to uncover the role of BmPUM during silkworm development.
Related JoVE Video
Determination of catechin content in representative Chinese tea germplasms.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand tea germplasms better and to use them effectively for production and breeding, the catechin content of 403 accessions of representative tea germplasms collected from various locations in China were studied using HPLC. The catechin content of these tea germplasms varied from 56.6 to 231.9 mg/g and averaged 154.5 ± 18.1 mg/g. One germplasm with low total catechin (TC) content (<60 mg/g) and three with high TC (>200 mg/g) contents were found. Averages of the TC content of the three varieties of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, namely, sinensis, assamica, and pubilimba, were 152.9 ± 16.2 mg/g, 162.8 ± 22.3 mg/g, and 165.1 ± 21.3 mg/g, respectively. The TC content of the sinensis variety was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the other two varieties. The assamica variety had the highest levels of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC), whereas the pubilimba variety had the highest levels of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (+)-catechin (C), and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). Factor analysis indicated that GC, C, GCG, catechin index, and ECG greatly influenced the classification. The TC content of germplasms collected from the various provinces showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Tea germplasms of the southern provinces had higher degrees of variation in TC.
Related JoVE Video
Crystal structure of (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-{[(6,6'-dimethyl-2'-oxido-1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)imino]methyl}phenolato-?(3) O,N,O')bis(propan-2-olato-?O)titanium(IV).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the mononuclear Ti(IV) title complex, [Ti(C29H33NO2)(C3H6O)2], the TiNO4 coordination polyhedron comprises an N-atom and two O-atom donors from the dianionic Schiff base ligand and two O-atom donors from monodentate isopropoxide anions. The stereochemistry is distorted trigonal-bipyramidal with the N-donor in an elongated axial site [Ti-N = 2.2540?(17)?Å], the O-donors having normal Ti-O bond lengths [1.7937?(14)?Å (axial)-1.8690?(14)?Å]. In the crystal, C-H?? inter-actions link mol-ecules into centrosymmetric dimers.
Related JoVE Video
Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from the gut of the rhinoceros beetle Allomyrina dichotoma.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two strains representing Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov. were isolated from the gut of Allomyrina dichotoma (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) collected from the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Nanyan, Henan Province, China. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene revealed that this novel species was located in the Wickerhamiella clade (Saccharomycetes, Saccharomycetales), with three described species of the genus Candida, namely Candida musiphila, Candida spandovensis and Candida sergipensis, as the most closely related species. The novel species differed from these three species by 9.3-9.8?% sequence divergence (35-45 nt substitutions) in the D1/D2 sequences. The species could also be distinguished from the closely related species, C. musiphila, C. spandovensis and C. sergipensis, by growth on vitamin-free medium and at 37 °C. The type strain is Wickerhamiella allomyrinae sp. nov. NYNU 13920(T) (?=?CICC 33031(T)?=?CBS 13167(T)).
Related JoVE Video
The role of COX-2 in mediating the effect of PTEN on BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are multi-potent progenitor cells (MPCs), can differentiate into different lineages, such as osteogenic, and adipogenic. PTEN, a tumor suppressor, may be involved in regulating bone development through interacting with COX-2. BMP9, the most potent osteogenic BMPs, can up-regulate COX-2 in MPCs. Whether PTEN is involved in BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs remains unknown. The goal of this investigation is to identify the effect of PTEN on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs and dissect the possible mechanism underlay this. We found that BMP9 down-regulates PTEN, and PTEN inhibitor (VO) effectively increases different osteogenic markers induced by BMP9 in MEFs. Exogenous expression of PTEN inhibits BMP9 induced ectopic bone formation apparently. Mechanistically, we found that VO can enhance BMP9 induced BMPs/Smads signaling prominently without no substantial effects on cell cycle. Further analysis indicates that VO can promote BMP9-induced expression of COX-2 in MEFs, which can be eliminated by PI3K inhibitor. Additionally, COX-2 knockdown abolishes the effect of VO on BMP9-induced ALP activities in MEFs. Our findings suggest that PTEN plays an important role in regulating BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in MPCs, which may be mediated by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to modulate the expression of COX-2.
Related JoVE Video
High correlation between thermotolerance and photosystem II activity in tall fescue.
Photosyn. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heat stress affects a broad spectrum of cellular components and metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the behavior of Photosystem II (PSII) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) with various thermotolerance capacities and to broaden our comprehension about the relationship between thermotolerance and PSII function. Heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive accessions were incubated at 24 °C (control) and 46 °C (heat stress) for 5 h. The fluorescence transient curves (OJIP curves), slow Chl fluorescence kinetic, and light response curve were employed to study the behavior of PSII subjected to heat stress. After heat stress, performance index for energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII antenna until the reduction of PSI acceptors (PITotal), the value of electrons produced per photon (a), and the maximal rate of electron transport (ETRmax) of heat-tolerant accessions were lower than those of heat-sensitive accessions. Relatively lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were detected in heat-tolerant accessions. Simultaneously, there was a significant decline in the quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PS II (Y(II)), probability that a PSII Chl molecule functions as reaction center (?RC), and the increase of quantum yield for non-regulated non-photochemical energy loss (Y(NO)) in heat-tolerant accessions. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation between heat tolerance indexes (HTI) and Y(II) was observed. Therefore, maintaining a lower photochemical activity in heat-tolerant accessions could be a crucial strategy to improve their thermotolerance. This finding could be attributed to the structural difference in the reaction center, and for heat-tolerant accessions, it could simultaneously limit energy input into linear electron transport, and dissipate more energy through non-regulated non-photochemical energy loss processes.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid spectrophotometric method for determining surface free energy of microalgal cells.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microalgae are one of the most promising renewable energy sources with environmental sustainability. The surface free energy of microalgal cells determines their biofouling and bioflocculation behavior and hence plays an important role in microalgae cultivation and harvesting. To date, the surface energetic properties of microalgal cells are still rarely studied. We developed a novel spectrophotometric method for directly determining the surface free energy of microalgal cells. The principles of this method are based on analyzing colloidal stability of microalgae suspensions. We have shown that this method can effectively differentiate the surface free energy of four microalgal strains, i.e., marine Chlorella sp., marine Nannochloris oculata, freshwater autotrophic Chlorella sp., and freshwater heterotrophic Chlorella sp. With advantages of high-throughput and simplicity, this new spectrophotometric method has the potential to evolve into a standard method for measuring the surface free energy of cells and abiotic particles.
Related JoVE Video
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: molecular and genetic decoding.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were first identified in 1996 in the USA. Since then, regional outbreaks of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) have occurred in the USA, and have spread internationally. Dissemination of blaKPC involves both horizontal transfer of blaKPC genes and plasmids, and clonal spread. Of epidemiological significance, the international spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is primarily associated with a single multilocus sequence type (ST), ST258, and its related variants. However, the molecular factors contributing to the success of ST258 largely remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent progresses in understanding KPC-producing K. pneumoniae that are contributing to our knowledge of plasmid and genome composition and structure among the KPC epidemic clone, and we identify possible factors that influence its epidemiological success.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis for risk factors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after one-phase treatment for apyrexic calculous pyonephrosis by percutaneous nephrolithotomy].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the risk factors of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after one-phase treatment for apyrexic calculous pyonephrosis by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).
Related JoVE Video
[Quantitative analysis of the built-up area expansion in Su-Xi-Chang region, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Based on RS-derived maps and socio-economic statistics, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamic pattern and driving mechanism of built-up area expansion in Su-Xi-Chang region from 1990 to 2010. 3S-based spatial analysis techniques were used, landscape expansion indices were calculated, and multiple stepwise regression models were also used. In the past 20 years, the built-up area had experienced rapid-moderate-accelerating expansion stages, which was strongly affected by the national development strategies and policies regarding land use. During the study period, the built-up area had increased by 2218.9 km2 mainly due to the encroaching from paddy field, dryland and artificial ponds. From 1990-1995, the pattern of built-up area expansion was dominated by the infilling and edge-expansion type; from 1995-2000, the outlying-type had overplayed infilling and edge-expansion types due to policy restrictions on the latter; after 2000, the outlying-type growth had decreased by a large extent, whereas the infilling mode had increased dramatically, which resulted in the spatially compact pattern of the newly built-up area. The increase of urban population and the boom of regional economy were the major driving forces of built-up area expansion. The study implied that improvements were urgently needed in land management system and high-efficiency use of cropland. Promoting the compact development of built-up area was also crucial for striving toward regional sustainability.
Related JoVE Video
Three-Dimensional Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbons Aerogel as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly conductive, ultralight, neat and versatile nitrogen-doped GNRs aerogel has been fabricated by a new hydrothermal method for the first time. The newly developed aerogel shows a very promising performance when used as a novel ORR catalyst in both alkaline and acidic solutions.
Related JoVE Video
Solvent induced helical aggregation in the self-assembly of cholesterol tailed platinum complexes.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Three alkynylplatinum(ii) bipyridyl complexes in which two cholesterol groups are combined with a bipyridyl group via alkyl chains and amido bonds were designed and synthesized. The complexes have different lengths of ethylene glycol chains at the para-position of 1-phenylethyne. All three complexes can self-assemble to gel networks in DMSO, while only the morphology of 1a without an ether chain shows a well-defined right-handed helical structure in layer packing mode. However, 1c with long ethylene glycol chains forms perfect regular left-handed helical structures in aqueous ethanol solution while the volume percentage of water is less than 5% (v/v). As the ratio of water increases, the chirality changes from a left-handed helix to a right-handed helix and the packing mode alters from a monolayer structure to a hexagonal structure. As the ratio of water further increases to greater than 50% (v/v), the structure of the assembly finally transforms into bilayer vesicles. The process of the morphology transition is traced by circular dichroism spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM images. The result indicates that a polar solvent (water) acts as a trigger to change the self-assembly of the chiral structures of the complex due to the strong hydrophobic interaction between cholesterol groups and the balance of the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the solvent environment.
Related JoVE Video
The role of low levels of fullerene C60 nanocrystals on enhanced learning and memory of rats through persistent CaMKII activation.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Engineered nanomaterials are known to exhibit diverse and sometimes unexpected biological effects. Fullerene nanoparticles have been reported to specifically bind to and elicit persistent activation of hippocampal Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a multimeric intracellular serine/threonine kinase central to Ca(2+) signal transduction and critical for synaptic plasticity, but the functional consequence of that modulation is unknown. Here we show that low doses of fullerene C60 nanocrystals (Nano C60), delivered through intrahippocampal infusion and without any obvious cytotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells, enhance the long-term potentiation (LTP) of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 320 ?g/kg of Nano C60, once daily for 10 days, also enhanced spatial memory of rats in addition to an increase of LTP. In parallel, both the IH and IP administration of Nano C60 increased the autonomous activity and the level of threonine 286 (T286) autophosphorylation of CaMKII, enhanced post-synaptic AMPA/NMDA ratio, and triggered time-dependent activation of ERK and CREB. Our results reveal a striking and highly unexpected ability of Nano C60 in positively modulating learning and memory, an effect that is most likely manifested through locking CaMKII in an active conformation, and may have significant implications for the potential therapeutic applications of fullerene C60, a classic engineered nanomaterial.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial genome sequence and mutations of the cardiac hypertrophy model inbred rat strain (Muridae; Rattus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a important cardiac hypertrophy model inbred rat strain for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,308?bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The mutation events were also reported.
Related JoVE Video
Motor evoked potential monitoring during surgery of middle cerebral artery aneurysms: a cohort study.
World Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring has been widely used in brain or spine surgery to recognize potential damages of the pyramidal motor system. But its ability to detect ischemic injury during middle cerebral artery aneurysm (MCA-AN) surgery remains unclear. Thus, a prospective cohort study was designed to evaluate MEP changes during MCA-AN surgery. No similar study has been reported yet.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of forchlorfenuron on fruit morphology and lignans content of Schisandra chinensis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of plant growth regulator forchlorfenuron (CPPU) 1 x 10(-6), 0.67 x 10(-6), 0.5 x 10(-6) on fruit morphology and effective components lignans was studied. Those morphologies were the combination of four basic morphological changes. The result showed, diametre were increased and longitudinal diametre of fruits were inhibited by foliage fertilizers including CPPU. At the same time, 1 000-grain weight and yield showed the varying degrees increase under CPPU. The order of the degree was 0.5 x 10(-6) > 1 x 10(-6) > 0.67 x 10(-6). Six lignans content of Schisandra chinensis of different harvest time and different CPPU processing groups were determined, the results showed that lignans accumulation occurred mainly in periods of premature the half mature fruiting stages. Under the 0.67 x 10(-6) CPPU treatment, schisandrol B, schisandrin B, schisandrin C content of S. chinensis showed different increase.
Related JoVE Video
Early detection of atrophy of foot muscles in Chinese patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus by high-frequency ultrasonography.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasonography in detecting atrophy of foot muscles in Chinese patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Chinese patients of T2DM with (n = 56) or without (n = 50) diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and the control subjects (n = 50) were enrolled. The nondominant foot of all subjects was examined with high-frequency ultrasonography. The transverse diameter, thickness, and cross-sectional area of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) and the thickness of the muscles of the first interstitium (MILs) were measured. The results showed that the ultrasonographic transverse diameter, thickness, and cross-sectional area of EDB and the thickness of MILs in patients of T2DM with DPN were significantly smaller than those in patients of T2DM without DPN (all P < 0.01) and those in the control subjects (all P < 0.01). The transverse diameter and cross-sectional area of the EDB and thickness of MILs in patients of T2DM without DPN were significantly smaller than those of the control subjects (all P < 0.01). In conclusion, the atrophy of foot muscle in Chinese T2DM patients can be detected by high-frequency ultrasonography. Notably, ultrasonography may detect early atrophy of foot muscles in patients without DPN.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of Artecoll, Restylane and silicone for augmentation rhinoplasty in 378 Chinese patients.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dermal fillers have been proven to be safe in soft tissue augmentation; however, their efficacy in modeling the noses of Asian patients has not been demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
Blocking and reversing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated by traditional Chinese medicine (tablets of biejia ruangan or RGT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can progress to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and ultimately liver-related death. Although oral antiviral therapy for patients with CHB reduces the risk of such complications, once cirrhosis is established, the benefits of antiviral therapy are not robustly demonstrated. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), some Chinese herbal medicines promote blood circulation and soften hard masses, and therefore they may block and reverse hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of TCM tablets of the compound biejia ruangan (RGT) administered for fibrosis, and entecavir (ETV), on the development of HCC in patients with CHB or hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related compensated cirrhosis.
Related JoVE Video
Porous, single crystalline titanium nitride nanoplates grown on carbon fibers: excellent counter electrodes for low-cost, high performance, fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An excellent, platinum free fiber counter electrode (CE) was successfully fabricated, consisting of porous, single crystalline titanium nitride (TiN) nanoplates grown on carbon fibers (CF). The fiber-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells (FDSSCs) based on the TiN-CF CE show a high conversion efficiency of 7.20%, comparable or even superior to that of the Pt wire (6.23%).
Related JoVE Video
Extensively drug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates containing blaVIM-2 and elements of Salmonella genomic island 2: a new genetic resistance determinant in Northeast Ohio.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carbapenems are a mainstay of treatment for infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Carbapenem resistance mediated by metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) remains uncommon in the United States, despite the worldwide emergence of this group of enzymes. Between March 2012 and May 2013, we detected MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in a university-affiliated health care system in northeast Ohio. We examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients, defined the resistance determinants and structure of the genetic element harboring the blaMBL gene through genome sequencing, and typed MBL-producing P. aeruginosa isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Seven patients were affected that were hospitalized at three community hospitals, a long-term-care facility, and a tertiary care center; one of the patients died as a result of infection. Isolates belonged to sequence type 233 (ST233) and were extensively drug resistant (XDR), including resistance to all fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and ?-lactams; two isolates were nonsusceptible to colistin. The blaMBL gene was identified as blaVIM-2 contained within a class 1 integron (In559), similar to the cassette array previously detected in isolates from Norway, Russia, Taiwan, and Chicago, IL. Genomic sequencing and assembly revealed that In559 was part of a novel 35-kb region that also included a Tn501-like transposon and Salmonella genomic island 2 (SGI2)-homologous sequences. This analysis of XDR strains producing VIM-2 from northeast Ohio revealed a novel recombination event between Salmonella and P. aeruginosa, heralding a new antibiotic resistance threat in this region's health care system.
Related JoVE Video
Arabidopsis membrane-associated acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP1 is involved in stem cuticle formation.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The membrane-anchored Arabidopsis thaliana ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN1 (AtACBP1) plays important roles in embryogenesis and abiotic stress responses, and interacts with long-chain (LC) acyl-CoA esters. Here, AtACBP1 function in stem cuticle formation was investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis transformed with an AtACBP1pro::GUS construct revealed ?-glucuronidase (GUS) expression on the stem (but not leaf) surface, suggesting a specific role in stem cuticle formation. Isothermal titration calorimetry results revealed that (His)6-tagged recombinant AtACBP1 interacts with LC acyl-CoA esters (18:1-, 18:2-, and 18:3-CoAs) and very-long-chain (VLC) acyl-CoA esters (24:0-, 25:0-, and 26:0-CoAs). VLC fatty acids have been previously demonstrated to act as precursors in wax biosynthesis. Gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed that an acbp1 mutant showed a reduction in stem and leaf cuticular wax and stem cutin monomer composition in comparison with the wild type (Col-0). Consequently, the acbp1 mutant showed fewer wax crystals on the stem surface in scanning electron microscopy and an irregular stem cuticle layer in transmission electron microscopy in comparison with the wild type. Also, the mutant stems consistently showed a decline in expression of cuticular wax and cutin biosynthetic genes in comparison with the wild type, and the mutant leaves were more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these findings suggest that AtACBP1 participates in Arabidopsis stem cuticle formation by trafficking VLC acyl-CoAs.
Related JoVE Video
Acid-induced release of curcumin from calcium containing nanotheranostic excipient.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poor water solubility is believed one of the most critical problems of numerous promising pharmaceutical ingredients in their successful clinical utilization. Nanomedicine holds considerable promise to address this challenge, because it extends the therapeutic window of hydrophobic drugs through nanonization approach. Recently, the integration of diagnostic agents with smart therapeutic nanocarriers is also an emerging research arena to simultaneously visualize diseased tissues, achieve site specific drug release and track the impact of therapy. In this study, we have developed a biocompatible smart theranostic nanosystem which transports a highly promising hydrophobic drug (curcumin) in response to mildly acidic environment. As calcium is a main constituent of human body, hence we exploited the reversible calcium chelate formation tendency of divalent calcium to load and unload curcumin molecules. Moreover, an emerging T1 contrast agent is also tethered onto the surface of nanocarrier to realize MRI diagnosis application. In-vitro cell experiments revealed a significantly high chemotherapeutic efficiency of curcumin nanoformulation (IC50; 1.67 ?g/mL), whereas free curcumin was found ineffective at the corresponding concentration (IC50; 29.72 ?g/mL). MR imaging test also validated the performance of resulting system. Our strategy can be extended for the targeted delivery of other hydrophobic pharmaceutical ingredients.
Related JoVE Video
Selection of reference genes for normalization of quantitative polymerase chain reaction data in mouse models of heart failure.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The accurate measurement of mRNA expression levels is crucially dependent on the use of relevant reference genes for the normalization of data. Currently, heart failure is a serious and widespread disease, and multiple mouse models are utilized for the study of this complex disease. Although mouse models are commonly used to study cardiovascular disease, various studies have not employed the appropriate selection strategies. The present study investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, CycA, TBP, PBGD, HTRP 1 and 18S) in two mouse models of heart failure, including the transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC) model and the myocardial infarction (MI) model, using GeNorm software. The expression of BNP was normalized using different reference gene strategies, and it was demonstrated that its induction following heart failure was most profound with the optimal reference gene combination. The most stable genes were identified as follows: TBP and CycA in the MI model, and PBGD and GAPDH in the TAC model. The present study provides important information for reference gene selection in mouse models of heart failure, and will aid further investigations of the transcriptome in cardiovascular research.
Related JoVE Video
[Theory study on glycine linear oligopeptide vibrational spectrum frequency shift].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By using the density functional theory, glycine linear oligopeptide of different lengths was geometrically optimized on the 6-31G (d) basis set level, their growth processes were simulated, and the average binding energy and vibration frequency were calculated with geometry. The results showed that the average binding energies tend to change in a regular pattern and stabilize with the number of residues increasing; With the oligopeptide chain bond length analysis it was found that the chain to the radial direction there is a opposite trend for chain and radial direction, which is anisotropic. It was found by the IR spectrum analysis that red shifts and blue shifts occur respectively when the same group of peptide bond vibrate, which is anisotropic; These phenomena originate from that quasi one-dimensional nanostructures lead to the anisotropy of the bond length; the induced effects, coupling effects and hydrogen bonding etc. between the same groups lead to the vibration frequency red shifts and blue shifts. The authors conclude that the growth of glycine linear oligopeptide is conducive to stability of the structure, and the authors infer that the oligopeptide has the tendency of self-assembled growth; Through the conformation and spectrum, the authors infer that there is a size effect in physical and chemical properties. The physical and chemical properties of peptide chain end group are extremely stable and unaffected by the impact of the oligopeptide chain length The results are significant to measuring the length and the number of residue of peptide, and to manufacturing the special features oligopeptide chain.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanical performance and parameter sensitivity analysis of 3D braided composites joints.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
3D braided composite joints are the important components in CFRP truss, which have significant influence on the reliability and lightweight of structures. To investigate the mechanical performance of 3D braided composite joints, a numerical method based on the microscopic mechanics is put forward, the modeling technologies, including the material constants selection, element type, grid size, and the boundary conditions, are discussed in detail. Secondly, a method for determination of ultimate bearing capacity is established, which can consider the strength failure. Finally, the effect of load parameters, geometric parameters, and process parameters on the ultimate bearing capacity of joints is analyzed by the global sensitivity analysis method. The results show that the main pipe diameter thickness ratio ?, the main pipe diameter D, and the braided angle ? are sensitive to the ultimate bearing capacity N.
Related JoVE Video
The wheat E subunit of V-type H+-ATPase is involved in the plant response to osmotic stress.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-type H+-ATPase) plays important roles in establishing an electrochemical H+-gradient across tonoplast, energizing Na+ sequestration into the central vacuole, and enhancing salt stress tolerance in plants. In this paper, a putative E subunit of the V-type H+-ATPase gene, W36 was isolated from stress-induced wheat de novo transcriptome sequencing combining with 5'-RACE and RT-PCR methods. The full-length of W36 gene was 1097 bp, which contained a 681 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encoded 227 amino acids. Southern blot analysis indicated that W36 was a single-copy gene. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that the expression level of W36 could be upregulated by drought, cold, salt, and exogenous ABA treatment. A subcellular localization assay showed that the W36 protein accumulated in the cytoplasm. Isolation of the W36 promoter revealed some cis-acting elements responding to abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing W36 were enhanced salt and mannitol tolerance. These results indicate that W36 is involved in the plant response to osmotic stress.
Related JoVE Video
Adiponectin reduces carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-/- mice: Roles of oxidative and nitrosative stress and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adiponectin (APN) is an important anti?atherogenic adipocytokine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of adiponectin in atherosclerotic plaque formation and clarify its mechanisms. An atherosclerosis model was induced by in vivo perivascular constrictive silica collar placement on the left common carotid arteries in male apolipoprotein E?deficient (ApoE?/?) mice. All of the mice were fed a high?fat diet, and divided into phosphate?buffered saline, adenovirus (Ad)???galactosidase and Ad?APN treatment groups. Compared with treatment of Ad???gal or PBS, Ad?APN treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, decreased in nitric oxide/superoxide production, blocked peroxynitrite formation and reversed the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Adiponectin may be a natural molecule that reduces atherosclerosis by inhibiting iNOS and consequently diminishing oxidative/nitrative stress.
Related JoVE Video
P-Akt/miR?200 signaling regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration and invasion in circulating gastric tumor cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) play an important role in invasion, migration and chemoresistant in tumor development. This study aimed to detect whether EMT occurred in human gastric CTCs and to explore the mechanism of EMT in human gastric CTCs. We analysed epithelial markers (pan-CK, E-cadherin), mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin) EMT related miR?200s, and Akt in gastric CTCs. The impact of miR?200s on EMT, migration and invasion in CTCs was tested. We found that epithelial markers pan-CK, E-cadherin were decreased, and mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, vimentin were overexpressed in gastric CTCs. Expression of EMT related transcriptors, snail1, zeb1, twist1, were reversely correlated with miR?200s, and were positively correlated with phospho-Akt. Upregulated of miR?200s downregulated twist1 and zeb1 mRNA expression, and resulted in the supression of EMT, and impaired migration and invasion in gastric CTCs. Inhibition of p-Akt led to upregulation of miR?200s. In conclusion, gastric CTCs exhibited remarkable EMT process, and p-Akt/miR?200s signaling regulates EMT, migration and invasion in gastric CTCs.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of Cold-Responsive miRNAs and Their Target Genes in Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules of Soybean.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As a warm climate species, soybean is highly sensitive to chilling temperatures. Exposure to chilling temperatures causes a significant reduction in the nitrogen fixation rate in soybean plants and subsequent yield loss. However, the molecular basis for the sensitivity of soybean to chilling is poorly understood. In this study, we identified cold-responsive miRNAs in nitrogen-fixing nodules of soybean. Upon chilling, the expression of gma-miR397a, gma-miR166u and gma-miR171p was greatly upregulated, whereas the expression of gma-miR169c, gma-miR159b, gma-miR319a/b and gma-miR5559 was significantly decreased. The target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and validated using 5' complementary DNA ends (5'-RACE) experiments, and qPCR analysis identified putative genes targeted by the cold-responsive miRNAs in response to chilling temperatures. Taken together, our results reveal that miRNAs may be involved in the protective mechanism against chilling injury in mature nodules of soybean.
Related JoVE Video
Dual characterization of biological cells by optofluidic microscope and resistive pulse sensor.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Label-free detection technique has emerged as a powerful platform for biomedical applications since it can avoid laborious multi-step sample preparation. In this paper, we demonstrate a dual analysis of biological cells using a single microfluidic system combining optofluidic microscopy and resistive pulse sensing. Both red blood cells (RBCs) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been used to validate the concept of dual analysis and also to test the performance of the microfluidic device. The cell characterization by resistive pulse sensing is in good agreement with the analysis by optofluidic microscopy, further verified by the commercial Beckman-Coulter® FC500 flow cytometry. The present system has attractive merits such as simple fabrication, easy integration, high portability, and low cost. This study has great potentials for the development of innovative on-chip flow cytometry with concurrent imaging sensing and resistive sensing.
Related JoVE Video
Direct common gram-negative bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles by SELDI-TOF MS.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A protein database was constructed and validated with identification rate over 90% for the 4 most common Gram-negative bacteria on agar plates. By protein masses comparison, 120 bacteria of the 4 species from blood culture bottles were identified. The concordance was high (Kappa=0.906) between our method and conventional approach.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical application of the paraspinal erector approach for spinal canal decompression in upper lumber burst fractures.
J Orthop Surg Res
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ObjectivePercutaneous pedicle screw fixation is commonly used for upper lumber burst fractures. The direct decompression remains challenging with this minimally invasive surgery. The objective was to evaluate a novel paraspinal erector approach for effective and direct decompression in patients with canal compromise and neurologic deficit.MethodPatients (n =21) with neurological deficiency and Denis B type upper lumbar burst fracture were enrolled in the study, including 14 cases in the L1 and 7 cases in the L2. The patients underwent removal of bone fragments from the spinal canal through intervertebral foramen followed by short-segment fixation. Evaluations included surgery-related, such as duration of surgery and blood loss, and 12-month follow-up, such as the kyphotic angle, the height ratio of the anterior edge of the vertebra, the ratio of sagittal canal compromise, visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Frankel scores.ResultsAll patients achieved direct spinal canal decompression using the paraspinal erector approach followed by percutaneous pedicle screw fixation. The mean operation time (SD) was 173 (23) min, and the mean (SD) blood loss was 301 (104) ml. Significant improvement was noted in the kyphotic angle, 26.2¿±¿8.7 prior to operation versus 9.1¿±¿4.7 at 12 months after operation (p <0.05); the height ratio of the anterior edge of the injured vertebra, 60¿±¿16% versus 84¿±¿9% (p <0.05); and the ratio of sagittal canal compromise, 46.5¿±¿11.4% versus 4.3¿±¿3.6% (p <0.05). Significant improvements in VAS (7.3¿±¿1.2 vs. 1.9¿±¿0.7, p <0.05), ODI (86.7¿±¿5.8 vs. 16.7¿±¿5.1, p <0.05), and Frankel scores were also noted.ConclusionsThe paraspinal erector approach was effective for direct spinal canal decompression with minimal injury in the paraspinal muscles or spine. Significant improvements in spinal function and prognostics were achieved after the percutaneous pedicle screw fixation.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation and characterization of circulating tumor cells from human gastric cancer patients.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been proved to be responsible for tumor metastasis and resistant to anticancer therapies. This study aims to isolate and characterize circulating tumor cells from human gastric cancer patients, and investigate characteristic differences between gastric CTCs and gastric cancer cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
CD44 acts through RhoA to regulate YAP signaling.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Hippo pathway plays an important role in both physical and pathogenesis processes. As crucial downstream effectors of Hippo pathway, YAP is inhibited by Lats1/2 through phosphorylation. However, upstream signals that regulate the Hippo pathway have been still poorly understood. Here, we found that knockdown of CD44 reduced YAP expression and nuclear localization, but nearly had no effect on its upstream effectors, Mst1 and Lats1. Downregulated CD44 expression also significantly decreased the expression of YAP downstream effectors CTGF, Cyr61 and EDN1 at mRNA level. Our next study showed that knockdown of CD44 inhibited RhoA expression, which was consistent with RhoA knockdown mediated YAP downregulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that over expression of the constitutively active RhoA (RhoA-V14) could block the YAP expression decrease mediated by CD44 knockdown. Moreover, downregulation of CD44 significantly promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and migration, which were consistent with the effects of RNAi-mediated YAP knockdown in both A549 and HepG2 cells. Overall, data are presented showing that CD44 could act through RhoA signaling to regulate YAP expression and this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo-YAP pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Community assembly of ectomycorrhizal fungi along a subtropical secondary forest succession.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Environmental selection and dispersal limitation are two of the primary processes structuring biotic communities in ecosystems, but little is known about these processes in shaping soil microbial communities during secondary forest succession. We examined the communities of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in young, intermediate and old forests in a Chinese subtropical ecosystem, using 454 pyrosequencing. The EM fungal community consisted of 393 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to 21 EM fungal lineages, in which three EM fungal lineages and 11 EM fungal OTUs showed significantly biased occurrence among the young, intermediate and old forests. The EM fungal community was structured by environmental selection and dispersal limitation in old forest, but only by environmental selection in young, intermediate, and whole forests. Furthermore, the EM fungal community was affected by different factors in the different forest successional stages, and the importance of these factors in structuring EM fungal community dramatically decreased along the secondary forest succession series. This study suggests that different assembly mechanisms operate on the EM fungal community at different stages in secondary subtropical forest succession.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of primary thyroid lymphoma with medical imaging: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare thyroid malignancy. Clinical diagnosis of PTL may not be easily established based on imaging studies, as the imaging features of PTL are similar to those of lymphocytic thyroiditis and primary thyroid cancer. The present study describes the case of a patient who was confirmed to have PTL by intra-operative pathological diagnosis. On color Doppler ultrasound, the PTL was shown as a significantly enlarged thyroid with reduced gland echoes. Color Doppler flow imaging showed increased blood flow. By computed tomography, the thyroid was revealed to be enlarged with reduced tissue density, particularly in the left lobe and the isthmus. In addition, calcified spots and swollen lymph nodes were evident. The clinical history of the patient was obtained and the imaging results were retrospectively analyzed. The imaging features of PTL were investigated through reviewing the literature. PTL exhibits specific features on medical imaging that aid in distinguishing it from other thyroid diseases. PTL exhibits specific features on medical imaging that aid in distinguishing PTL from other thyroid diseases, which may aid the support for clinical diagnosis and improve the clinical accuracy.
Related JoVE Video
Induced IGF-1R activation contributes to gefitinib resistance following combined treatment with paclitaxel, cisplatin and gefitinib in A549 lung cancer cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gefitinib demonstrates excellent performance in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma patients; yet, there was no added benefit in combination with chemotherapy as reported in a phase III clinical trial. For exploring the mechanism of the failed combination therapy in lung cancer, in the present study, four therapy assessment groups, including a control group, a chemotherapy group [paclitaxel+cisplatin (TP)], a gefitinib monotherapy group (G) and a combination group[paclitaxel+cisplatin+gefitinib (TP+G)], were established in an A549 cell line and mouse xenotransplanted tumor models.By HPLC, we found that the gefitinib concentration was significantly higher in the combination group when compared to that in the G group in the non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549 (p<0.05). Following the treatment time extension,an increased cell growth rate was observed in the combination group, while the cellular concentration of gefitinib was not decreased. The expression levels of P-IGF-1R, P-SRC and P-ERK in the fourth combination treatment group were significantly higher than levels in the fourth G treatment and control groups (p<0.05). Following downregulating of IGF-1R in the fourth combination treatment group, drug sensitivity was recovered in vitro. In the mouse model, compared with the gefitinib monotherapy group, the combination group exhibited a smaller tumor volume, lower body weight and reduced survival rate (p<0.05). Gefitinib concentrations in the serum and tumor tissues in the combination therapy group were also decreased when compared with these concentrations in the gefitinib alone group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the decreased gefitinib concentration in serum and tumor tissues is one of the reasons resulting in the failed combination treatment (chemotherapy+gefitinib) in vivo study. Frequent use of the combination treatment in A549 lung cancer cells induced IGF-1R activation which contributed to gefitinib resistance and gave rise to the failure of the combination therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Resveratrol ameliorates motor neuron degeneration and improves survival in SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resveratrol has recently been used as a supplemental treatment for several neurological and nonneurological diseases. It is not known whether resveratrol has neuroprotective effect on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To assess the effect of resveratrol on the disease, we tested this agent on an ALS model of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse. Rotarod measurement was performed to measure the motor function of the ALS mice. Nissl staining and SMI-32 immunofluorescent staining were used to determine motor neurons survival in the spinal cord of the ALS mice. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome oxidase (COX) staining were applied to pathologically analyze the skeletal muscles of the ALS mice. We found that resveratrol treatment significantly delayed the disease onset and prolonged the lifespan of the ALS mice. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment attenuated motor neuron loss, relieved muscle atrophy, and improved mitochondrial function of muscle fibers in the ALS mice. In addition, we demonstrated that resveratrol exerted these neuroprotective effects mainly through increasing the expression of Sirt1, consequently suppressing oxidative stress and downregulating p53 and its related apoptotic pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol might provide a promising therapeutic intervention for ALS.
Related JoVE Video
Dissection of additive, epistatic effect and QTL × environment interaction of quantitative trait loci for sheath blight resistance in rice.
Hereditas
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between 'HH1B' and 'RSB02' (a deep-water rice variety with resistance to sheath blight) was planted in two locations for four different growing seasons. Seven traits were used to evaluate the disease severity, namely disease rating (DR), lesion length (LL), lesion height (LH), relative lesion length (RLL), relative lesion height (RLH), plant height (PH) and heading date (HD). Based on a linkage map of 163 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, a total of 37 QTLs were mapped on nine chromosomes. Additionally, 32 epistatic QTLs were identified, distributed on all the 12 chromosomes. The contribution of a single QTL's additive and epistatic effect was of low magnitude for most cases (from 0.39% to 24.62%). Among QTL × environment interaction test, 28 additive QTLs and six pairs of epistatic interactions were involved. Correlation analysis showed that DR had significant positive correlations with LL, RLL and RLH, but had a negative correlation with PH, two of six QTLs controlling DR were mapped in the same chromosome regions as the QTLs controlling PH. The alleles which can enhance disease resistance and increase PH are from the resistant parent 'RSB02', indicating that PH has certain effect on sheath blight resistance in the present study.
Related JoVE Video
Microbiological and Genetic Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated From Pediatric Patients.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This manuscript reports the clinical, microbiological, and genetic characteristics of carbapenem-resistant K. pnuemoniae isolates from pediatric patients at a tertiary-care children's hospital. Although there is an extensive body of literature describing carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella infections in adults, pediatric data are comparatively limited.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical outcomes of hepatitis B virus coinfection in a United States cohort of hepatitis C virus-infected patients.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains unclear. We used the National Veterans Affairs HCV Clinical Case Registry to identify patients with confirmed HCV viremia during 1997-2005. We defined HBV coinfection as a positive test for hepatitis B surface antigen, HBV DNA, or hepatitis B e antigen. We defined cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the validated ICD-9 codes and determined mortality through the end of 2009. We performed Cox proportional hazard regression analyses to examine the effect of HBV coinfection stratified by HBV DNA status (positive or negative) on the risk of cirrhosis, HCC, and death adjusting for patients' age, gender, race, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, alcohol or drug use, Deyo Score, and antiviral treatment. Among 99,548 patients with HCV infection, 1,370 patients (1.4%) had HBV coinfection. Of the coinfected patients, 677 (49.4%) patients had at least one HBV DNA test done and 303 patients (44.7%) tested positive for HBV DNA. The incidence rates of cirrhosis, HCC, and death were significantly higher in patients with HBV coinfection and detectable HBV DNA compared to HCV monoinfection (36.8, 6.9, and 41.7 versus 17.4, 3.6, and 31.4 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; P?
Related JoVE Video
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community response to warming and nitrogen addition in a semiarid steppe ecosystem.
Mycorrhiza
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the response of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to warming and nitrogen (N) fertilization is critical to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystem functioning under global climate change scenarios. In this study, AM fungal communities were examined in a full factorial design with warming and N addition in a semiarid steppe in northern China. Warming significantly increased AM fungal spore density, regardless of N addition, whilst N addition significantly decreased AM fungal extraradical hyphal density, regardless of warming. A total of 79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered by 454 pyrosequencing of SSU rDNA. Warming, but not N addition, had a significant positive effect on AM fungal OTU richness, while warming and N addition significantly increased AM fungal Shannon diversity index. N addition, but not warming, significantly altered the AM fungal community composition. Furthermore, the changes in AM fungal community composition were associated with shifts in plant community composition indirectly caused by N addition. These findings highlight the different effects of warming and N addition on AM fungal communities and contribute to understanding AM fungal community responses to global environmental change scenarios in semiarid steppe ecosystems.
Related JoVE Video
Role of aldolase A in osteosarcoma progression and metastasis: In vitro and in vivo evidence.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aldolase A (ALDOA) has been reported to be negative survival marker of osteosarcoma (OS) and may be implicated in OS development and progression. In the present study, we assessed for the first time the functional role of ALDOA in OS cell invasion and survival in vitro and in vivo, using human OS cell lines and an orthotopic xenograft nude mouse model. Overexpression and knockdown of ALDOA were respectively performed in MG-63 and U-2 OS cells, which showed relatively low and high constitutive ALDOA expression levels, respectively. Overexpression of ALDOA in MG-63 cells significantly increased in vitro cell invasion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression, and cell survival against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, knockdown of ALDOA in U-2 cells markedly decreased in vitro cell invasion, MMP-2 expression, and cell survival against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In an orthotopic xenograft nude mouse model, intra-tibial injection of MG-63 cells overexpressing ALDOA led to significantly increased primary tumor volume and pulmonary metastasis as well as decreased cell apoptosis in the primary tumors, compared with the controls. In contrast, intra-tibial injection of U-2 cells with knockdown of ALDOA led to markedly decreased primary tumor volume and pulmonary metastasis as well as increased cell apoptosis in the primary tumors, compared with the controls. In conclusion, our in vitro data indicate that ALDOA promotes OS cell invasion and survival, and our in vivo data demonstrate an important role of ALDOA in promoting OS tumor growth and metastasis. The present study provides the first in vitro and in vivo evidence supporting a critical functional role of ALDOA in OS progression and metastasis, suggesting that ALDOA could serve as a novel therapeutic target in OS. Additionally, our results suggest that ALDOA is involved in the development of OS chemoresistance.
Related JoVE Video
Isolation of cyanidin 3-glucoside from blue honeysuckle fruits by high-speed counter-current chromatography.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blue honeysuckle fruits are rich in anthocyanins with many beneficial effects such as reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers. High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for the separation of anthocyanin on a preparative scale from blue honeysuckle fruit crude extract with a biphasic solvent system composed of tert-butyl methyl ether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water/trifluoroacetic acid (2:2:1:5:0.01, v/v) for the first time in this paper. Each injection of 100 mg crude extract yielded 22.8 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) at 98.1% purity. The compound was identified by means of electro-spray ionisation mass (ESI/MS) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance standard for cavernous sinus hemangiomas: proposal for a diagnostic test.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By definition, a cavernous sinus is a vascular plexus. A hemangioma is a vascular tumor which is rich in vascular plexus and caused by vascular deformity or tumor-like proliferation. Radiosurgery can effectively control the growth of smaller cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs). This paper aimed to quantify the MRI characteristics of CSHs which provided a basis for further treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of concentrations of N(?)-carboxymethyl-lysine and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and their associations with risk of pancreatic cancer.
Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is shown to mitigate pro-inflammatory effects triggered by ligation of RAGE with N(?)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-AGE or other ligands. We examined the associations among host, lifestyle, and genetic determinants of CML-AGE or sRAGE and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prospective ATBC Study. We obtained baseline exposure information, data on serological and genetic biomarkers from 141 patients with pancreatic cancer and 141 subcohort controls. Stepwise linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that CML-AGE concentrations were independently inversely correlated with the minor allele of rs640742 of DDOST, physical activity, alcohol consumption, diastolic blood pressure (BP), and positively correlated with heart rate, serum sRAGE and HDL concentrations (P < 0.05). sRAGE concentrations were independently inversely correlated with the 82Ser allele of rs2070600 of RAGE, age, body mass index, heart rate, and serum HDL; and positively correlated with serum CML-AGE, sucrose consumption, and diastolic BP (P < 0.05). The minor allele of rs1035786 of RAGE was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer (any T compared with CC: multivariate OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). We identified host metabolic profile, lifestyle and genetic factors that explained approximately 50% of variability of CML-AGE or sRAGE in Finnish men smokers. The association between RAGE SNPs and pancreatic cancer risk warrants further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic Differentiation Revealed by Selective Loci of Drought-Responding EST-SSRs between Upland and Lowland Rice in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Upland and lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) represent two of the most important rice ecotypes adapted to ago-ecosystems with contrasting soil-water conditions. Upland rice, domesticated in the water-limited environment, contains valuable drought-resistant characters that can be used in water-saving breeding. Knowledge about the divergence between upland and lowland rice will provide valuable cues for the evolution of drought-resistance in rice. Genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice was explored by 47 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) located in drought responding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) among 377 rice landraces. The morphological traits of drought-resistance were evaluated in the field experiments. Different outlier loci were detected in the japonica and indica subspecies, respectively. Considerable genetic differentiation between upland and lowland rice on these outlier loci was estimated in japonica (Fst?=?0.258) and indica (Fst?=?0.127). Furthermore, populations of the upland and lowland ecotypes were clustered separately on these outlier loci. A significant correlation between genetic distance matrices and the dissimilarity matrices of drought-resistant traits was determined, indicating a certain relationship between the upland-lowland rice differentiation and the drought-resistance. Divergent selections occur between upland and lowland rice on the drought-resistance as the Qsts of some drought-resistant traits are significantly higher than the neutral Fst. In addition, the upland- and lowland-preferable alleles responded differently among ecotypes or allelic types under osmotic stress. This shows the evolutionary signature of drought resistance at the gene expression level. The findings of this study can strengthen our understanding of the evolution of drought-resistance in rice with significant implications in the improvement of rice drought-resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular phylogenetic analysis reveals the new genus Hemisphaericaspora of the family Debaryomycetaceae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T (?=?CICC 33021?=?NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants.
Related JoVE Video
Early hypercytokinemia is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 dysfunction and predictive of fatal H7N9 infection.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A unique avian-origin A/H7N9 influenza virus has so far caused 134 cases with 44 deaths. Probing the host factors contributing to disease severity, we found that lower levels of plasma inflammatory cytokines on hospital admission correlated with faster recovery in 18 patients with A/H7N9 influenza virus, whereas high concentrations of (in particular) IL-6, IL-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? were predictive of a less favorable or fatal outcome. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage samples showed up to 1,000-fold greater cytokine/chemokine levels relative to plasma. Furthermore, patients with the rs12252-C/C IFN-induced transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) genotype had more rapid disease progression and were less likely to survive. Compared with patients with the rs12252-T/T or rs12252-T/C genotype of IFITM3, patients with the C/C genotype had a shorter time from disease onset to the time point when they sought medical aid (hospital admission or antiviral therapy) and a shorter interval to development of the acute respiratory distress syndrome stage (reflected by shorter intervals between clinical onset and methylprednisolone treatments and higher rates of mechanical ventilator use), as well as experiencing elevated/prolonged lung virus titers and cytokine production and higher mortality. The present analysis provides reported data on the H7N9 influenza-induced "cytokine storm" at the site of infection in humans and identifies the rs12252-C genotype that compromises IFITM3 function as a primary genetic correlate of severe H7N9 pneumonia. Together with rs12252 sequencing, early monitoring of plasma cytokines is thus of prognostic value for the treatment and management of severe influenza pneumonia.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative complications after closed calcaneus fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation: A review.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review postoperative complications reported after closed calcaneus fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF).
Related JoVE Video
Frequency stabilized coherent Brillouin random fiber laser: theory and experiments.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A coherent random fiber laser based on stimulated Brillouin scattering as gain and Rayleigh scattering as distributed feedback mirror was constructed. Its frequency is stabilized by a high finesse narrow-band Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to select lasing frequency within the gain bandwidth. The light confinement within single-mode fiber enhances largely the random lasing directionality, which enables a high-quality coherent random lasing in the weak scattering region by using a milliwatt continuous-wave pump source. The FPI in the laser configuration acts as a frequency selection on the Rayleigh feedback light, and thus the random lasing frequency was locked at one of its transmission peaks giving a relative frequency fluctuation of ~2.5 × 10(-11) at 100 s. The measured frequency jitter is within ~~ ± 20 kHz over 3 hours, 3 dB linewidth is ~50 Hz and frequency noise is ~20 mHz/Hz(1/2) at 10 kHz.
Related JoVE Video
MACC1 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its association with pathological characteristics and prognosis for NSCLC patients were investigated retrospectively. The expression of MACC1 was evaluated through immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays from 180 samples of resected lung cancer tissues and adjacent normal lung tissues. MACC1 protein and mRNA expression were also examined from lung cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials, 28 pairs of samples of resected fresh non-small cell lung cancer tissues, and adjacent normal lung tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays showed that MACC1 was located in the cytoplasm. In addition, the expression of MACC1 protein in NSCLC was significantly higher compared to adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001). The expression of MACC1 was positively associated with differentiation grade (P = 0.020), postoperative pathological TNM stage (P = 0.033), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.028). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for the high MACC1 expression group were lower than the low expression group; univariate and multivariate regression analyses showed that MACC1 was an independent prognostic indicator for DFS (HR 3.124, P = 0.01) and OS (HR 2.905, P = 0.01) in NSCLC patients. The expression of MACC1 protein and mRNA was also upregulated in highly metastatic human lung cancer. In conclusion, the overexpression of MACC1 protein and mRNA may represent a potentially useful biomarker for the prognosis of NSCLC patients and might be involved in progression of NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
[Safety analysis of application of medical anti-adhesion modified chitosan in cardiac surgery].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To verify the application safety of medical anti-adhesion modified chitosan (Baifeimi) in cardiac surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial transformation of acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid by Cunninghamella elegans.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial biotransformation of acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid by Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.1207 was carried out, and totally four transformed products were isolated. On the basis of the extensive spectral data, their structures were characterized as 7?-hydroxy-11-keto-boswellic acid (1), 7?,30-dihydroxy-11-keto-boswellic acid (2), 7?,16?-dihydroxy-3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (3), and 7?,15?,21?-trihydroxy-3-acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid (4), respectively. Among them, products 1 and 2 are the new compounds.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.