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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A new feature in the internal heavy isotope distribution in ozone.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Ozone produced by discharge or photolysis of oxygen has unusually heavy isotopic composition ((18)O/(16)O and (17)O/(16)O ratio) which does not follow normal mass fractionation rule: ?(17)O ? 0.52(*)?(18)O, expressed as an anomaly ?(17)O = ?(17)O - 0.52(*)?(18)O. Ozone molecule being an open isosceles triangle can have the heavy isotope located either in its apex or symmetric (s) position or the base or asymmetric (as) position. Correspondingly, one can define positional isotopic enrichment, written as ?(18)O (s) or ?(18)O (as) (and similarly for ?(17)O) as well as position dependent isotope anomaly ?(17)O (s) and ?(17)O (as). Marcus and co-workers have proposed a semi-empirical model based in principle on the RRKM model of uni-molecular dissociation but with slight modification (departure from statistical randomness assumption for symmetrical molecules) which explains many features of ozone isotopic enrichment. This model predicts that the bulk isotope anomaly is contained wholly in the asymmetric position and the ?(17)O (s) is zero. Consequently, ?(17)O (as) = 1.5 (*) ?(17)O (bulk) (named here simply as the "1.5 rule") which has been experimentally confirmed over a range of isotopic enrichment. We now show that a critical re-analysis of the earlier experimental data demonstrates a small but significant departure from this 1.5 rule at the highest and lowest levels of enrichments. This departure provides the first experimental proof that the dynamics of ozone formation differs from a statistical model constrained only by restriction of symmetry. We speculate over some possible causes for the departure.
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Effects of medium components and culture conditions on mycelial biomass and the production of bioactive ingredients in submerged culture of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese medicinal fungus.
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The optimal culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of mycelial biomass and bioactive ingredients in submerged cultivation of Xylaria nigripes, a Chinese medicinal fungus. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to explore the effects of medium components, including carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and initial pH of the medium and environmental factors, such as culture temperature and rotation speed, on mycelial growth and production of bioactive ingredients. The results indicated that the optimal culture temperature and rotation speed were 25°C and 100 rpm in a medium with 20 g fructose, 6 g yeast extract, and 2 g magnesiun sulfate heptahydrate as carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively, in 1 L distilled water with an initial medium pH of 5.5. With optimal medium components and conditions of cultivation, the maximal production of mycelial biomass was 6.64 ± 0.88 g/L, with maximal production of bioactive ingredients such as extracellular polysaccharides (2.36 ± 0.18 mg/mL), intracellular polysaccharides (2.38 ± 0.07 mg/g), adenosine (43.27 ± 2.37 mg/g), total polyphenols (36.57 ± 1.36 mg/g), and triterpenoids (31.29 ± 1.17 mg/g) in a shake flask culture. These results suggest that different bioactive ingredients including intracellular polysaccharides, adenosine, total polyphenols and triterpenoids in mycelia and extracellular polysaccharides in broth can be obtained from one simple medium for submerged cultivation of X. nigripes.
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Potentially optimal body size to adjust tube current for individualized radiation dose control in retrospective ECG-triggered 256-slice CT coronary angiography.
Hellenic J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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We aimed to determine a potentially optimal body size index for adjusting the tube current in retrospective ECG-triggered helical 256-slice CT coronary angiography (CTCA) for individualized radiation dose control.
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Targeting the SMO oncogene by miR-326 inhibits glioma biological behaviors and stemness.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Few studies have associated microRNAs (miRNAs) with the hedgehog (Hh) pathway. Here, we investigated whether targeting smoothened (SMO) with miR-326 would affect glioma biological behavior and stemness.
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Nobiletin suppresses the proliferation and induces apoptosis involving MAPKs and caspase-8/-9/-3 signals in human acute myeloid leukemia cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Nobiletin, a compound isolated from citrus fruits, is a polymethoxylated flavone derivative that was shown to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in various solid tumors. The anticancer effect of nobiletin on nonsolid tumor remains unclear. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which nobiletin exerts its anticancer effects on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. The results showed that nobiletin suppressed cell proliferation in various types of AML cell lines. Moreover, nobiletin induced cell-cycle arrest of HL-60 AML cells at the G0/G1 phase by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Furthermore, nobiletin effectively induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells through caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspases-3 activation concomitantly with a marked induction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, but without affecting expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, or Bid. Taken together, our results suggest that nobiletin inhibited HL-60 cell proliferation through inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and could serve as a potential additional chemotherapeutic agent for treating AML.
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[Effects of walking exercise during late trimester on pregnancy outcome of low-risk primipara].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the effects of walking exercise during late trimester on pregnancy outcome of low-risk primipara.
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Quercetin induces mitochondrial-derived apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-mediated ERK activation in HL-60 leukemia cells and xenograft.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid that was recently shown to have multiple anticancer activities in various solid tumors. Here, novel molecular mechanisms through which quercetin exerts its anticancer effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. Results from Western blot and flow cytometric assays revealed that quercetin significantly induced caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation, poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in HL-60 AML cells. The induction of PARP cleavage by quercetin was also observed in other AML cell lines: THP-1, MV4-11, and U937. Moreover, treatment of HL-60 cells with quercetin induced sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inhibition of ERK by an ERK inhibitor significantly abolished quercetin-induced cell apoptosis. MitoSOX red and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin fluorescence, respectively, showed that mitochondrial superoxide and intracellular peroxide levels were higher in quercetin-treated HL-60 cells compared with the control group. Moreover, both N-acetylcysteine and the superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP, reversed quercetin-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production, ERK activation, and subsequent cell death. The in vivo xenograft mice experiments revealed that quercetin significantly reduced tumor growth through inducing intratumoral oxidative stress while activating the ERK pathway and subsequent cell apoptosis in mice with HL-60 tumor xenografts. In conclusions, our results indicated that quercetin induced cell death of HL-60 cells in vitro and in vivo through induction of intracellular oxidative stress following activation of an ERK-mediated apoptosis pathway.
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Synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation of alkoxylated chalcones.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A series of chalcones a1-20 bearing a 4-OMe groups on the A-ring were initially synthesized and their anticancer activities towards HepG2 cells evaluated. Subsequently, a series of chalcones b1-42 bearing methoxy groups at the 2' and 6'-positions of the B-ring were synthesized and their anticancer activities towards five human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and SW1990) and two non-tumoral human cell lines evaluated. The results showed that six compounds (b6, b8, b11, b16, b18, b22, b23 and b29) displayed promising activities, with compounds b22 and b29 in particular showing higher levels of activity than etoposide against all five cancer cell lines. Compound b29 showed a promising SI value compared with both HMLE and L02 (2.1-6.5 fold in HMLE and > 33 > 103.1 fold in L02, respectively).
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Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma prevents the melanogenesis in murine B16/F10 melanoma cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate if PPAR? plays a role in the melanogenesis. B16/F10 cells were divided into five groups: control, melanin stimulating hormone (?-MSH), ?-MSH+retinol, ?-MSH+GW9662 (PPAR? antagonist), and GW9662. Cells in the control group were cultured in the Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for 48 hrs. To initiate the melanogenesis, cells in all ?-MSH groups were cultured in medium containing ?-MSH (10 nM) for 48 hrs. Cells were treated simultaneously with retinol (5 ?M) in the ?-MSH+retinol group. Instead of retinol, GW9662 (10 ?M) was cocultured in the ?-MSH+GW9662 group. Cells in the final group were cultured in the DMEM with GW9662. All the analyses were carried out 48 hours after treatments. The ?-MSH was able to increase cell number, melanin production, and the activity of tyrosinase, the limiting enzyme in melanogenesis. These ?-MSH-induced changes were prevented either by retinol or by GW9662. Further analyses of the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione, catalase, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed that ?-MSH treatment raised the activity of SOD which was dependent on PPAR? level. According to our results, the ?-MSH-induced melanogenesis was PPAR? dependent, which also modulated the expression of SOD.
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Compound danshen dripping pill pretreatment to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Background. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) limits the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective. To investigate whether pretreatment with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP) will decrease the incidence of CIN after PCI. Methods. A total of 229 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing PCI were divided into the control group (n = 114) and the CDDP (containing salvia miltiorrhiza and sanqi) group (n = 115; given 20 CDDP pills, three times daily before PCI). Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), P-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured at admission and 24 and 48?h after PCI. Results. CrCl decreased after PCI but recovered after 48 h. In the CDDP group, CrCl recovered more rapidly (P < 0.05). The procedure increased the hsCRP, P-selectin, and ICAM-1 levels, but these levels were less in the CDDP group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Pretreatment with CDDP can decrease the occurrence of CIN in patients undergoing PCI, suggesting that the early use of CDDP is an appropriate adjuvant pharmacological therapy before PCI.
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Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances the inhibitory effects of chemotherapy on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in mice.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The present study was conducted in order to investigate the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rg3 combined with chemotherapy on Eca-109 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in mice. Tumor xenograft models were established in the right forelimb of 20 BALB/c nude mice by subcutaneous injection. The tumor-bearing mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n=5 per group) as follows: the control group (saline), the ginsenoside Rg3 alone group (6 mg/kg/day, once a day for 3 weeks), the chemotherapy alone group (paclitaxel 10 mg/kg/day + cisplatin 5 mg/kg/day on days 1, 7, 14 and 21) and the chemotherapy + Rg3 group (combined treatment). The length and width of the tumor were directly measured with calipers at different time points and the tumor volume (cm(3)) was calculated using the formula 0.52 × length × width(2) every other day. The mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation following completion of therapy, the tumors were removed and weighed and the expression levels of Ki-67 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the coadministration of ginsenoside Rg3 significantly enhanced the inhibitory effects of chemotherapy on tumor growth. In addition, the expression levels of Ki-67 in the chemotherapy + Rg3 group were significantly lower compared to those in the other 3 groups. The chemotherapy + Rg3 group also exhibited the lowest microvascular density among all four groups. These findings suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 may improve the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapy in Eca-109 ESCC in mice.
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Effect of prolonging interval time between coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention on X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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It is desirable to minimize the risk of adverse radiation effects associated with percutaneous coronary intervention. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prolonging the interval between coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention on X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks in blood lymphocytes using ?-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy.
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High glucose induces Rho/ROCK-dependent visfatin and type I procollagen expression in rat primary cardiac fibroblasts.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Myocardial fibrosis and excessive proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the underlying mechanism is still not completely clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between high-glucose treatment and the expression of visfatin and type I procollagen in rat CFs, and examine the regulatory effects of high?glucose treatment on the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. CFs from newborn Sprague Dawley rats were treated with high concentrations of glucose (10, 30 and 50 mmol/l D-glucose), a baseline concentration of glucose (5.5 mmol/l) as a control, and mannitol (5.5 mmol/l D-glucose + 44.5 mmol/l mannitol) as an osmotic control. CFs were also treated with 30 mmol/l D-glucose for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The proliferation of CFs was determined by the MTT assay. The mRNA and protein expression of visfatin and type I procollagen were quantified by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Cardiac fibroblast proliferation reached a peak at 30 mmol/l D-glucose, and visfatin and type I procollagen expression were significantly increased upon treatment with high concentrations of glucose (10 and 30 mmol/l) compared to baseline glucose treatment. Treatment with 30 mmol/l D-glucose time-dependently promoted cardiac fibroblast proliferation. The mRNA and protein expression of visfatin and type I procollagen were significantly increased compared to the control at 24 h after 30 mmol/l D-glucose treatment. Y27632, a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of visfatin and type I procollagen, induced by 30 mmol/l D-glucose (all P<0.05). In conclusion, a high level of glucose promotes cardiac fibroblast proliferation, and induces visfatin and type I procollagen expression in CFs, at least partially via the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. These results may be helpful in developing an appropriate therapeutic strategy for DCM.
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Phosphate-Modified Carbon Nanotubes in the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Isopentanes.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Ketonic/quinonic C?O groups on the surface of a carbon matrix are capable of abstracting hydrogen in C?H bonds from hydrocarbons and enable them to selectively convert into corresponding unsaturated hydrocarbons; this process is the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction. However, a variety of inevitable defects or graphene edges and other oxygen-containing groups on the carbon matrix are detrimental to the selective production of alkenes due to their high activity towards overoxidation. Herein, we show that phosphate can not only impede the total oxidation but also cover the selective C?O groups, hence allowing its use as a modulator to defects and oxygen-containing functional groups on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes, regulating the distribution of active sites and related catalytic targets.
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Evaluation of the applicability of Resovist in DSC-MR perfusion-weighted imaging of rat hyperacute cerebral infarction.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Resovist in perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) of rat hyperacute cerebral infarction.
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Interlaboratory assessment of nitrous oxide isotopomer analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy: current status and perspectives.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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In recent years, research and applications of the N2O site-specific nitrogen isotope composition have advanced, reflecting awareness of the contribution of N2O to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, and leading to significant progress in instrument development. Further dissemination of N2O isotopomer analysis, however, is hampered by a lack of internationally agreed gaseous N2O reference materials and an uncertain compatibility of different laboratories and analytical techniques.
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Studies on the acaricidal mechanism of the active components from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester, isolated from neem (Azadirachta indica) oil, exhibited potent acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. In this paper, the acaricidal mechanism of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated based on pathologic histology and enzyme activities. The results showed that after compound treatment for 24h at a concentration of 20mg/mL, the lesions of mites were prominent under transmission electron microscopy. The lesions consisted of the lysis of dermis cell membranes and cell nuclear membranes, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities, the drop of spinal disorders, and mitochondrial vacuolization. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione-s-transferases (GSTs), and Ca(2+)-ATPase of mites significantly changed after treatment with octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester compared with the control group. The activities of SOD, POD, and Ca(2+)-ATPase were significantly suppressed, whereas that of GSTs was activated. These results indicated that the mechanism of the acaricidal activity of octadecanoic acid-3,4-tetrahydrofuran diester was mainly achieved through interference with the energy metabolism of mites, thus resulting in insect death.
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Application of TaqMan qPCR for the detection and monitoring of Naegleria species in reservoirs used as a source for drinking water.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Naegleria spp. can be found in the natural aquatic environments. Naegleria fowleri can cause fatal infections in the central nervous system in humans and animals, and the most important source of infection is through direct water contact. In this study, PCR of 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was performed in order to identify Naegleria isolates and quantify the Naegleria spp. by TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR in reservoir water samples. The occurrence of Naegleria spp. was investigated in 57 water samples from reservoirs with culture and PCR positive in 2 of them (3.5%), respectively. The total detection rate was 7.0% (4/ 57) for Naegleria spp. The identified species included Naegleria spp., Naegleria canariensis, and Naegleria clarki. N. fowleri was not found in Taiwan's reservoirs used for drinking purposes. The concentrations of Naegleria spp. in detected positive reservoir water samples were in the range of 599 and 3.1?×?10(3) cells/L. The presence or absence of Naegleria spp. within the reservoir water samples showed significant difference with the levels of water temperature. The presence of Naegleria spp. in reservoirs considered a potential public health threat if pathogenic species exist in reservoirs.
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A C-terminal truncated mutation of licC attenuates the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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LicC has been identified as a virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, its role in virulence is still not fully understood because deletion of licC is lethal for the bacterium. In this study, a mutant with 78-bp truncation at the C-terminus of licC was obtained from a signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) library. The mutant was viable with a large reduction in enzymatic activity as CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase detected in vitro using a firefly luciferase assay. The mutation attenuated the adhesion and invasion of S. pneumoniae ST556 (serotype 19F) to epithelial cells by 72% and 80%, respectively, and increased the phagocytosis by macrophages for 16.5%, compared to the parental strain. When the mutation was introduced into the encapsulated D39 strain (serotype 2), it led to attenuated virulence in mouse models either by intranasal colonization or by intraperitoneal infection. In addition, the phosphocholine (PCho) on cell surface was decreased, and the choline binding proteins (CBPs) were impaired, which may explain the attenuated virulence of the mutant. These observations indicate that C-terminus of licC is accounted for the main activity of LicC in PCho metabolism and is essential for the virulence of S. pneumoniae, which provides a novel target for drug design against pneumococcal infection.
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Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256?kg CO2 eq?ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377?kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.
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Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a chinese population: a meta-analysis.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Although many epidemiologic studies have investigated the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and their association with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. To clarify the effects of MTHFR polymorphisms on the risk of ALL, a meta-analysis was performed in a Chinese population.
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Suppressor of fused (Sufu) represses Gli1 transcription and nuclear accumulation, inhibits glioma cell proliferation, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry, improving glioma chemo-sensitivity and prognosis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Glioblastoma are highly aggressive brain tumors with poor prognosis. While various dysregulation of signaling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and therapy targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here we described that the Suppressor of fused (also known as Sufu) is significantly down-regulated in high-grade gliomas, correlating with a poor prognosis. We demonstrated that ectopic expression of Sufu inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and vasculogenic mimicry. In addition, overexpression of Sufu reduced Gli reporter gene transcription activity and prevented Gli1 nuclear accumulation, whereas knockdown of Sufu reversed these effects. Furthermore, overexpressed Sufu sensitized glioblastoma to Temozolomide and Cyclopamine. Thus, Sufu is potential tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
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Improve efficacy of topical ALA-PDT by calcipotriol through up-regulation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (topical ALA-PDT) is effective for treating oral precancerous lesions. The aim of this in vivo and in vitro study was to examine whether the efficacy of topical ALA-PDT could be further improved by calcipotriol (CAL).
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Intravoxel incoherent motion MRI: emerging applications for nasopharyngeal carcinoma at the primary site.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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We compared pure molecular diffusion (D), perfusion-related diffusion (D*), perfusion fraction (f) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) based on intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) theory in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Preclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in metabolic syndrome.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is commonly associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and LV hypertrophy. We sought to examine whether preclinical LV diastolic dysfunction can occur independent of LV hypertrophy in MS. We recruited 90 consecutive participants with MS and without cardiovascular disease (mean age 46 years, 78% women) and 26 controls (no risk factors for MS; mean age 43 years, 65% women). Participants underwent echocardiography with tissue Doppler imaging. In age- and gender-adjusted analyses, MS was associated with higher left atrial (LA) diameter, higher LV mass, lower E/A ratio, and lower mean e' (p <0.001 for all). These associations remained significant after further adjusting for blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, and body mass index. After adjusting for LV mass, MS remained independently associated with higher LA diameter, lower E/A ratio, and lower mean e' (p ?0.01 for all). Specifically, subjects with MS had a 1.8 cm/s lower mean e' compared with controls (p = 0.01). Notably, differences in mean e' between those with and without MS were more pronounced at younger ages (p for interaction = 0.003). In conclusion, MS was associated with preclinical LV diastolic dysfunction independent of LV mass, as reflected by higher LA diameter, lower E/A ratio, and lower mean e'. This suggests that MS can lead to the development of diastolic dysfunction through mechanisms independent of hypertrophy. Differences in diastolic function were more pronounced at younger ages, highlighting the potential importance of early risk factor modification and preventive strategies in MS.
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Celecoxib enhances radiosensitivity via induction of G?-M phase arrest and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Previous work has proposed that celecoxib may be able to enhance the effects of radiotherapy. However, the underlying mechanism of this activity has not yet been determined.
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Acupoint-specific, frequency-dependent, and improved insulin sensitivity hypoglycemic effect of electroacupuncture applied to drug-combined therapy studied by a randomized control clinical trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The application of electroacupuncture (EA) to specific acupoints can induce a hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced rats, normal rats, and rats with steroid-induced insulin resistance. EA combined with the oral insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone improved insulin sensitivity in rats and humans with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). There are different hypoglycemic mechanisms between Zhongwan and Zusanli acupoints by EA stimulation. On low-frequency (2?Hz) stimulation at bilateral Zusanli acupoints, serotonin was involved in the hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. Moreover, after 15?Hz EA stimulation at the bilateral Zusanli acupoints, although enhanced insulin activity mainly acts on the insulin-sensitive target organs, the muscles must be considered. In addition, 15?Hz EA stimulation at the bilateral Zusanli acupoints has the combined effect of enhancing cholinergic nerve activity and increasing nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity to enhance insulin activity. Despite the well-documented effect of pain control by EA in many systemic diseases, there are few high-quality long-term clinical trials on the hypoglycemic effect of EA in DM. Combination treatment with EA and other medications seems to be an alternative treatment to achieve better therapeutic goals that merit future investigation.
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Positive association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk: new findings from an updated meta-analysis.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To investigate and clarify the relationship between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and prostate cancer risk.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of non-phosphorus-based fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase inhibitors: 2,5-Diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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With the aim of discovering a novel class of non-phosphorus-based fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) inhibitors, a series of 2,5-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles were synthesized based on the hit compound (1) resulting from a high-throughput screening (HTS). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the identification of several compounds with comparable inhibitory activities to AMP, the natural allosteric inhibitor of FBPase. Notably, compound 22 and 27b, bearing a terminal carboxyl or 1H-tetrazole, demonstrated remarkable inhibition to gluconeogenesis (GNG). In addition, both inhibition and binding mode to the enzyme were investigated by enzymatic kinetics and in silico experiments for representative compounds 16 and 22.
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Initial experience of correlating parameters of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To determine the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters.
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Comparison of characteristics and outcomes of patients with heart failure preserved ejection fraction versus reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in an urban cohort.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Despite significant advances in therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there are no evidence-based therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), also known as diastolic heart failure (HF). Differences in pathophysiologic mechanisms are touted as to why patients with HFpEF purportedly do not derive similar therapeutic benefits compared with HFrEF. Similarly, the relative frequencies of HFpEF and HFrEF may differ between hospitalized and ambulatory settings. There are limited data on the prevalence, characteristics, treatment, and short-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with HFpEF. We sought to investigate these in patients hospitalized with HFpEF in an urban, hospitalized setting using the Get With The Guidelines registry. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive discharges (n = 1,701) with a diagnosis of acute decompensated HF from December 1, 2006 to September 30, 2008. Patients with HFpEF (n = 499) were older, overweight, predominantly women, and had underlying hypertension and dyslipidemia. Presenting blood pressure and levels of creatinine were higher, with lower brain natriuretic peptide levels compared with patients with HFrEF (n = 598). Length of stay and 30-day mortality were comparable between patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. Thirty-day readmission was initially lower in patients with HFpEF. However 30-day mortality from any cause after the index HF hospitalization and survival curve at 1-year was no different between patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. In conclusion, lower 30-day readmissions do not translate into improved long-term outcome in patients with HFpEF.
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Using temperature-time integration as a critical parameter in using monopolar radiofrequency ablations.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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It is generally believed that radiofrequency energy delivered to the tissue determines the RFA lesion size. The purpose of this study was to re-evaluate this relationship and propose a potentially parameter of temperature-time integration as a better indicator of RFA lesion size. Using an Ex Vivo lesioning model, fixed 300 J RFA lesions were created under target temperature settings of 65, 75, and 85 °C. The lesion sizes were recorded and compared. Under the target temperature of 65 and 75 °C, the RFA procedures were sustained for a period of time after reaching the target temperature. The correlation between the lesion size and the sustained time (Ts) after reaching the target temperature was calculated. Under the same amount of energy output (300 J), the lesion size created under the three different target temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C) differs significantly. When the target temperature was set to 75 °C, the correlation coefficient between the Ts and the lesion area and the maximal effective radius (Mer) were 0.913 and 0.971, respectively. When the target temperature was set to 65 °C, the correlation coefficient between the Ts and the lesion area and the Mer were 0.962 and 0.923, respectively. The RFA lesion size is not proportional to the total delivered energy. The Temperature-time integration appears to be a much better indicator that critically influences the lesion size.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activating hypoglycemic effect of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis aqueous extract and improvement of insulin sensitivity in steroid induced insulin resistant rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The active components of Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, GJ) exhibit a hypoglycemic effect by improving insulin secretion and lowering plasma lipids. In the present study, we fed a water extract of gardenia to steroid-induced insulin-resistant (SIIR) rats and observed changes in signaling proteins in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the insulin-sensitizing effect of GJ and evaluate its possibility as an insulin-sensitizing agent.
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Preliminary study of acoustic analysis for evaluating speech-aid oral prostheses: Characteristic dips in octave spectrum for comparison of nasality.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Acoustic analysis is often used in speech evaluation but seldom for the evaluation of oral prostheses designed for reconstruction of surgical defect. This study aimed to introduce the application of acoustic analysis for patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) due to oral surgery and rehabilitated with oral speech-aid prostheses.
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Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the nasopharynx: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Plasmacytoma is an extremely rare and discrete solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells. Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) tends to occur during the fifth and seventh decades of life and is rarely diagnosed in younger patients. Only four cases of EMP have been previously reported in relatively young patients. Here we report a 15-year-old patient presenting with long-term nasal obstruction, who was found to have EMP of the nasopharynx. The patient was treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy with a satisfactory outcome. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes the the youngest individual with nasopharyngeal EMP to be reported in the literature.
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Antibody formation in pregnant women with maternal-neonatal human platelet antigen mismatch from a hospital in northern Taiwan.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is a clinical syndrome that resembles hemolytic disease of the newborn, affecting the platelets only. The thrombocytopenia results from the maternal alloantibodies reacting with specific human platelet antigens (HPAs) on the fetal platelets. Forty-four maternal plasma samples were screened for platelet alloantibodies using qualitative solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kit (LIFECODES Pakplus, Hologic Gen-Probe GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI, USA), and both the maternal and the corresponding cord blood samples were genotyped (LIFECODES ThromboType, Hologic Gen-Probe GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI, USA). HPA genotyping results correlated with the genetic frequencies in the Taiwan population. A total of 34 newborns (77.3%) had partial HPA genotyping mismatches with the corresponding mothers. The most common partial mismatches between mothers and neonates in HPA genotypes were 13 (29.5%) in both HPA-3b and HPA-15a, followed by 12 (27.3%) in HPA-15b, and 8 (18.2%) in HPA-3a. The frequencies of homozygotic mother with heterozygotic neonate were 15.9% in both HPA-3a and HPA-15b, 9.1% in HPA-15a, 6.8% in HPA-3b, and 2.3% in both HPA-2a and HPA-6a. In this study, maternal HPA antibodies were found in five samples, whereas HLA class I antibodies were found in seven maternal plasma samples from the antibody screen. The results from this study have demonstrated that HPA mismatch is not the main cause for the production of HPA alloantibodies.
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MAPK pathway mediates the induction of visfatin in neonatal SD rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with glucose.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The protein visfatin is an insulin mimetic that has been shown to reduce plasma glucose levels, increase cytokine production and induce angiogenesis. However, few studies have focused on visfatin expression in cardiomyocytes at the cellular level. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate visfatin expression and its potential mechanisms in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to high-glucose concentrations. Primary cultures of 2-to 3-day-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with increasing concentrations of glucose. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitor SB203580, extra cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway inhibitor PD098059 and c-Jun NH 2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway inhibitor SP600125 were used to block the effect of glucose on visfatin expression. Cell viability following each glucose treatment was determined using the MTT assay. Expression of visfatin was detected using RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Increased glucose concentration directly correlated with an increased expression of visfatin mRNA and protein in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Following high doses of glucose, visfatin mRNA and protein expression peaked after 24 h with no significant change thereafter. Increased visfatin expression was blocked by the P38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, suggesting a potential mechanism not yet identified. Expression of visfatin in cardiomyocytes was increased through the P38 MAPK pathway in the presence of high-glucose concentrations.
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Acute and subacute toxicity study of 1,8-cineole in mice.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effects of acute and subacute toxicity of 1,8-cineole in Kunming mice were studied. After acute oral administration, the LD50 value (95% CL) was 3849 mg/kg (3488.8~4247.1 mg/kg). In the subacute toxicity study, there were no significant differences in body weight and relative organ weight between the control group and 1,8-cineole treatment groups. The histopathological examinations showed that granular degeneration and vacuolar degeneration appeared in liver and kidney tissue after administration of high dose of 1,8-cineole. Under electron microscopy, a series of ultrastructural changes were observed: The electron microscopy assays indicated that the influence of 1,8-cineole on the target organ at the subcellular level were mainly on the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and other membrane type structure of liver and kidney.
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Effects of Ixeris Chinensis (Thunb.) Nakai boiling water extract on hepatitis B viral activity and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma are major diseases that affect the Taiwanese population. Therefore, the development of an alternative herbal medicine that can effectively treat these diseases is a research target. In this study, we tested Ixeris Chinensis (Thunb.) Nakai boiling water extract (ICTN BWE) in vitro and analysed its effects on the HBV and liver cancer.
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Treating malignant glioma in Chinese patients: update on temozolomide.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Malignant glioma, ie, anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma, is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor in the People's Republic of China, and is particularly aggressive. The median survival of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma is only 12-14 months despite advanced therapeutic strategies. Treatment of malignant glioma consists mainly of surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Temozolomide (TMZ), a second-generation oral alkylating agent, is playing an increasingly important role in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients. Since the publication of a study by Stupp et al in 2005, which used a protocol of conventional fractionated irradiation with concomitant TMZ followed by standard TMZ for six cycles, many clinical studies in the People's Republic of China have demonstrated that such a treatment strategy has significantly improved efficacy with limited side effects for newly diagnosed glioblastoma after surgery as compared with strategies that do not contain TMZ. However, as a relatively new agent, the history and development of TMZ for malignant glioma is not well documented in Chinese patients. Multicenter, randomized controlled trials including appropriately sized patient populations investigating multiple aspects of TMZ therapy and related combination therapies are warranted in patients with malignant glioma. This review provides an update on the efficacy, mechanism of action, adverse reactions, and clinical role of TMZ in the treatment of malignant glioma in Chinese patients.
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Building bridges toward invasion: tumor promoter treatment induces a novel protein kinase C-dependent phenotype in MCF10A mammary cell acini.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) alters many cellular processes through activation of its receptor protein kinase C (PKC), including gene expression, cell cycle, and the regulation of cell morphology, raising an important question for developing targeted methods to prevent cancer: which effects of TPA are crucial for carcinogenesis? To address this question, we studied TPA action in the 3-dimensional (3D) MCF10A human breast epithelial cell system, which models important features of in vivo epithelial tissue including growth constraints, structural organization of cells, and establishment of a basement membrane. MCF10A cells, which are immortalized but nontumorigenic, form hollow, spheroid structures in 3D culture referred to as acini. The development of normal acini requires the tight spatiotemporal regulation of cellular proliferation, polarization, apoptosis, and growth arrest. Treatment of MCF10A acini with TPA caused the appearance of multi-acinar structures. Surprisingly, this phenotype did not involve an increase in cell number or major changes in cell death, and polarization. Instead, live cell and confocal microscopy revealed that TPA stimulates MCF10A acini to aggregate. TPA induces the PKC-dependent production of actin-based protrusions, which leads to the formation of cellular bridges between acini, the clustering of acini, and allows cells to move into adjacent acini. During this process, the integrity of the laminin V basement membrane is disrupted, while E-cadherin-based cell-cell contacts remain intact. Altogether, our results show that under the biochemical and structural constraints of epithelial tissue, as modeled by the 3D MCF10A system, TPA induces a novel PKC-dependent phenotype that resembles local invasion. Of the many effects caused by TPA, these studies highlight the aggressive production of actin-based cellular protrusions as a potentially important event along the pathway to carcinogenesis.
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Incidence and metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma with respect to ABO blood groups: a case-controlled study in northeast of China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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ABO blood groups have been suggested to contribute to the development of certain tumors; however, the associations between ABO blood groups and the incidence and metastases of cutaneous malignant melanomas have not been fully evaluated in Chinese populations. Thus, we investigated these associations with a case-controlled study in northeast of China.
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Skewed distribution of IL-7 receptor-?-expressing effector memory CD8+ T cells with distinct functional characteristics in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CD8(+) T cells play important roles in anti-tumor immunity but distribution profile or functional characteristics of effector memory subsets during tumor progression are unclear. We found that, in oral squamous carcinoma patients, circulating CD8(+) T cell pools skewed toward effector memory subsets with the distribution frequency of CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-) CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells negatively correlated with each other. A significantly higher frequency of CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells among total CD8(+) T cells was found in peripheral blood or tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, but not in regional lymph nodes. The CD127(hi) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells maintained significantly higher IFN-?, IL-2 productivity and ex vivo proliferative capacity, while the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells or CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells exhibited higher granzyme B productivity and susceptibility to activation induced cell death. A higher ratio of CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells to CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells was associated with advanced cancer staging and poor differentiation of tumor cells. Therefore, the CD127(lo) CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD8(+) T cells and CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells are functionally similar CD8(+) T cell subsets which exhibit late differentiated effector phenotypes and the shift of peripheral CD8(+) effector memory balance toward CCR7(-)CD45RA(+)CD8(+) T cells is associated with OSCC progression.
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[Residues and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments and marine organisms from Dapeng Bay, Shenzhen].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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In order to assess contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), surface sediments and marine organism samples of fish, shrimp and shellfish were collected from the Dapeng Bay, Shenzhen in October 2011. Concentrations fof sixteen priority PAHs were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PAHs (Sigma PAHs ) ranged from 216. 56 ng.g-1 to 1 314. 92 ng.g-1 dry weight in sediment samples and from 70. 88 ng.g-1 to 251.90 ng.g-1 wet weight in biological samples, respectively. The mean concentration was the highest in fish (171.52 ng.g-1 ), followed by mussel (134.75 ng.g-1) and shrimp (123.35 ng.g-1) in the studied marine organisms. Compared with those in other water bodies around the world, PAHs pollution in the studied area was at medium level. The dominant fraction in the surface sediments was the 4-ring PAHs. Identification of PAH sources suggested that PAHs in Dapeng Bay were likely originated from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The most abundant PAHs were 3-ring PAHs in the tissues of organisms, which may be governed by their feeding behaviors, habitats, and bioavailability of PAHs. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in surface sediments might have adverse impacts on local ecosystem. Health risk analysis revealed that the potency equivalent concentrations of BaP to the total PAHs in marine organisms from Dapeng Bay were relatively high and may cause some concerns on human health by consumption.
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Combined application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in early diagnosis of vulnerable carotid atherosclerotic plaques.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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To assess the correlations between atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and inflammatory activity by combined use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for focal liver lesions in Chinese patients: a multicenter, open-label, phase III study.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Contrast agents help to improve visibility in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, owing to the large interstitial spaces of the liver, there is a reduction in the natural contrast gradient between lesions and healthy tissue. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the liver-specific MR imaging contrast agent gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) in Chinese patients.
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Formal ring-opening/cross-coupling reactions of 2-pyrones: iron-catalyzed entry into stereodefined dienyl carboxylates.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Open access: Despite the exceptional level of sophistication in cross-coupling chemistry, reactions of substrates that incorporate the leaving group as an integral part into a heterocyclic scaffold are scarce. The title reaction outlines the utility of this reaction format (see scheme; acac=acetylacetonate), provides a convenient entry into stereodefined diene carboxylates, and adds a new chapter to the field of iron catalysis.
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[Testing immunogenicity of recombinant antibody by surface plasmon resonance].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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With the development of bio-technological drugs, drug immunogenicity evaluation has become key factor of clarifying safety and efficacy of these drugs. It has become the focus to establish a stable and reliable evaluation system. Due to the advantages such as continuous real-time monitoring, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology has been widely used in bio-technological drugs immunogenicity assessments. Our study applied this technology to detect anti-drug antibody (ADA) of a recombinant human anti-rabies monoclonal antibody NM57 in the sera of 48 volunteers admitted in phase I clinical trials. This method could satisfy the basic requirements of detection of ADA.
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Oxygen isotope exchange between O2 and CO2 over hot platinum: an innovative technique for measuring ?17O in CO2.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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The isotopic composition of carbon dioxide provides a powerful tool and has been widely used for constraining the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. In this work, we demonstrate a simple, rapid, and clean way for measuring the triple oxygen isotope ratio of carbon dioxide with high precision. The method depends on isotope exchange between O2 and CO2 in the presence of platinum at high temperature and allows rapid measurement of ?(17)O of CO2. The method has been established and confirmed through several tests by using artificially made CO2 with known ?(17)O values. The analytical precision obtained for determining ?(17)O in CO2 is 0.045‰ (1 - ? standard deviation).
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Levels, composition profiles and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Nanao Island, a representative mariculture base in South China.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Levels, composition profiles and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Nanao Island, one of the largest mariculture bases in South China were investigated. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 265.49 to 951.27 ng/g (dry weight) with a mean of 515.90 ng/g, and seven possible carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 76.94% of total PAHs. Among various mariculture sections, the highest PAHs level was found in the large seaweed culture; while the lowest concentration was detected in the abandoned culture. The composition of PAHs was characterized by low molecular weight PAHs, and Phe Ant and Pyr were the dominant constituent. PAHs may be mainly originated from petroleum and combustion of biomass and coal. Risk assessments suggested that the probability of adverse effect was lower than 25% and PAHs exposure was moderately carcinogenic.
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Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing N-alkyl-substituted amine biphenolate ligands: unexpected ligand degradation and divergent complex constitutions governed by N-alkyls.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The reactivity and thermal stability of zirconium and hafnium complexes containing the N-alkyl-substituted amine biphenolate ligands of the type [RN(CH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2)2](2-) ([R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), or nPr (1c)) were investigated. The reactions of either [1a]M(OiPr)2 (M = Zr or Hf) with equimolar H2[1a] or M(OiPr)4(HOiPr) (M = Zr or Hf) with 2 equiv of H2[1a] at 25 °C in diethyl ether or 80 °C in toluene afford moderate yields of colorless crystals of M[1a](OiPr)(iPrOCH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2) (M = Zr (4a) or Hf (5a)). Controlled experiments revealed that the production of 4a and 5a proceeds via unexpected thermal degradation of H2[1a] that produces a highly reactive, transient ortho-quinone methide intermediate. Similar reactions employing H2[1b] and H2[1c], however, led to the formation of homoleptic bis-ligand complexes Zr[1b]2 (8b) and M[1c]2 (M = Zr (8c) or Hf (9c)) as colorless crystals. Decisive factors governing these divergent reaction pathways and complex constitutions are discussed. The X-ray structures of 4a, 5a, 8b, 8c, and 9c are presented.
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Patterns of recurrence and second primary tumors in oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery alone.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The aim of the present study is to review the recurrence patterns and incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) who underwent surgery alone without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Data on patients recorded in the head and neck cancer registry of Cathay General Hospital were reviewed. A total of 72 patients with T1-3N0 OSCC who underwent surgery alone were included. Among the 72 patients, 44 had T1 tumors, 22 had T2 tumors, and 6 had T3 tumors. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 77.3%, the recurrence-free survival rate was 74.1%, and the SPT-free survival rate was 73%. Eighteen (25%) patients had disease recurrence (regional recurrence in nine patients, local recurrence in seven patients, and locoregional recurrence in two patients). Most patients with local recurrence alone (6/7 patients, 85.7%) could be salvaged with treatment. However, locoregional control was obtained in only five (45.5%) of 11 patients with neck recurrence after surgical salvage therapy. At the time of analysis, 20 patients developed SPTs, and 15 (75%) of the SPTs were in the oral cavity. The annual incidence of SPT was 5%. Neck recurrence and SPT were associated with 48.4% and 24.4% lower 5-year OS rates, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that neck recurrence was a significant risk factor for low OS (p = 0.008). Neck recurrence was the most important prognostic factor for OS. The incidence of SPT development was high. Regular and long-term monitoring for recurrence and development of SPTs is necessary to improve the survival rate.
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Aqueous extracts of Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes) lower the levels of plasma glucose by activating the cholinergic nerve in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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In our previous research, Cordyceps militaris (CM) had a hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. In this study we wanted to elucidate whether CM also had an effect on diabetic rats. Twelve rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were separated randomly into 2 groups. First, aqueous extracts of CM 10 mg/kg (CM group) or saline (control group) was fed to the rats; then the plasma glucose levels were assayed. Second, the signaling proteins IRS-1 and GLUT-4 collected from the muscle were detected. Finally, another 2 groups of rats were injected with atropine 0.1 mg/kg intraperitoneally just before the CM/saline feeding, and the assays mentioned above were repeated. Blood glucose decreased 7.2% in the CM group but only 1.5% in the control group (P < 0.05). The IRS-1 signal was 2.9-fold higher than actin in the CM group but only 0.8-fold higher in the control group (P < 0.005). In GLUT-4 signal, the difference was 1.7- vs. 0.6-fold, respectively, compared with actin (P < 0.05). However, atropine injection made CM-induced hypoglycemia or elevation of IRS-1 and GLUT-4 not significant. In conclusion, CM had a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and atropine blocked it. Therefore, the cholinergic activation also was considered to be involved in the hypoglycemic effect of CM in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
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Arylsulfonylamino-benzanilides as inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (SLC10A2).
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. Inhibition of ASBT would reduce bile acid pool size and lower cholesterol levels. In this report, a series of novel arylsulfonylaminobenzanilides were designed and synthesized as potential inhibitors of ASBT. Most of them demonstrated great potency against ASBTs bile acid transport activity. In particular, compound 5g? inhibited ASBT activity with an IC?? value of 0.11 ?M. These compounds represent potential cholesterol-lowering drugs.
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MicroRNA-200c Regulates the Sensitivity of Chemotherapy of Gastric Cancer SGC7901/DDP Cells by Directly Targeting RhoE.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Gastric cancer remains a worldwide burden as the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Drug resistance of chemotherapy looms as a major clinical obstacle to successful treatment. Recent evidence indicated that miRNA-200c can restore the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to cisplatin and cetuximab. The expression of miRNA-200c and RhoE were investigated in gastric cancer tissues and cells (SGC7901 and SGC7901/DDP) by qRT-PCR. A luciferase reporter assay was done to understand the potential correlation between miRNA-200c and RhoE. Pre-miR-200c was transfected in SGC7901/DDP cells to confirm whether miRNA-200c could regulate RhoE expression. RhoE was knocked down to explore the role of RhoE on sensitivity of chemotherapy in gastric cancer by MTT. Western blot analysis was performed to further explore the mechanism of RhoE in regulating drug resistance. The results showed that miRNA-200c was significantly lower in cancerous tissues than those in the paired normal tissues, whereas the expression of RhoE was just the opposite. The significant difference of miRNA-200c and RhoE were observed between SGC7901 cells and SGC7901/DDP cells. miRNA-200c has target sites in the 3-UTR of RhoE mRNA by luciferase reporter assay. Transfection of pre-miR-200c reduces RhoE expression. Meanwhile, the knockdown of RhoE enhanced the sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells and changed expression of some genes. These suggested that miRNA-200c regulated the sensitivity of chemotherapy to cisplatin (DDP) in gastric cancer by possibly targeting RhoE.
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Serum levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) are associated with tumor progression and treatment outcome in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The aim of this cohort study was to examine the role of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) on oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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Zirconium and hafnium complexes containing N-alkyl substituted amine biphenolate ligands: coordination chemistry and living ring-opening polymerization catalysis.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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The coordination chemistry of zirconium and hafnium complexes containing the tridentate amine biphenolate ligands [RN(CH2-2-O-3,5-C6H2(tBu)2)2](2-) ([R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), nPr (1c)) featuring distinct N-alkyl substituents is described. Alcoholysis of Zr(OiPr)4(HOiPr) or Hf(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1a] in diethyl ether solutions at -35 °C generates the corresponding five-coordinate [1a]M(OiPr)2 (M = Zr (2a), Hf (3a)) in high isolated yield. Similar reactions employing H2[1b] produce six-coordinate [1b]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2b·HOiPr), Hf (3b·HOiPr)) as an isopropanol adduct. Repetitive trituration of 2b·HOiPr and 3b·HOiPr with diethyl ether gives five-coordinate 2b and 3b, respectively. Treatment of M(OiPr)4(HOiPr) with H2[1c] under similar conditions affords six-coordinate [1c]M(OiPr)2(HOiPr) (M = Zr (2c·HOiPr), Hf (3c·HOiPr)), subsequent recrystallization of which from acetonitrile-diethyl ether solutions leads to acetonitrile adducts 2c·MeCN and 3c·MeCN. Reactivity studies of these zirconium and hafnium complexes revealed that they are all active catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone. Among them, the N-isopropyl derived complexes are most reactive. Polymerizations catalyzed by 2b, 3b and 3c·MeCN were proved to be living. The X-ray structures of 2a·HOiPr, 2a·MeCN, 2c·HOiPr, 2c·MeCN, and 3c·MeCN are presented.
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Electroacupuncture and rosiglitazone combined therapy as a means of treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of rosiglitazone (TZD) and electroacupuncture (EA) combined therapy as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients by randomized single-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 31 newly diagnostic T2DM patients, who fulfilled the studys eligibility criteria, were recruited. The individuals were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group (TZD, N = 15) and the experimental group (TZD + EA, N = 16). Changes in their plasma free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, and insulin levels, together with their homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indices, were statistically compared before and after treatment. Hypoglycemic activity (%) was also compared between these two groups. Results. There was no significant difference in hypoglycemic activity between the TZD and TZD + EA group. The effectiveness of the combined therapy seems to derive from an improvement in insulin resistance and a significant lowering of the secreted insulin rather than the effect of TZD alone on T2DM. The combined treatment had no significant adverse effects. A lower plasma FFA concentration is likely to be the mechanism that causes this effect. Conclusion. This combined therapy seems to suppress endogenous insulin secretion by improving insulin resistance via a mechanism involving a reduction in plasma FFA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01577095.
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Pretreatment interleukin-6 serum levels are associated with patient survival for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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This study aims to determine the role of serum interleukin-6 concentration for oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas.
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Nanoscroll Buffered Hybrid Nanostructural VO2 (B) Cathodes for High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium Storage.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Hybrid nanostructural VO2 (B) composed of nanoscrolls, nanobelts and nanowires is synthesized through a hydrothermal-driven splitting and self-rolled method. The hybrid nanostructure with nanoscroll buffered effect provides facile strain relaxation for swelling during lithiation/delithiation, resulting in the excellent structural stability and cyclability. The interior of nanoscrolls and the interconnected voids shorten the ion diffusion pathway, which greatly enhances the rate performance.
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Titanium complexes of tridentate aminebiphenolate ligands containing distinct N-alkyls: profound N-substituent effect on ring-opening polymerization catalysis.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The synthesis, structural characterization, and reactivity studies of titanium complexes supported by tridentate amine biphenolate ligands of the type [RN(CH(2)-2-O-3,5-C(6)H(2)(tBu)(2))(2)](2-) {[R-ONO](2-); R = tBu (1a), iPr (1b), nPr (1c)} are described. Alcoholysis of Ti(OiPr)(4) with H(2)[1a-1c] in diethyl ether solutions at 25 °C generates quantitatively the corresponding [R-ONO]Ti(OiPr)(2) (2a-2c) as a yellow crystalline solid. X-ray diffraction studies of 2b and 2c showed them to be five-coordinate, trigonal-bipyramidal species. Ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone (?-CL) catalyzed by 2b and 2c proved to be living, as evidenced by the narrow molecular weight distributions of the derived polymers and the linear dependence of number-averaged molecular weights on the monomer-to-catalyst ratios or polymerization time. Kinetic studies revealed that the polymerization rates are first-order in the concentration of ?-CL and first-order in that of 2b and 2c. The propagation rate of 2c is ca. 15 times faster than that of 2b, highlighting a profound substituent effect of primary versus secondary N-alkyls. In sharp contrast, reactions employing catalytic 2a produce either low-molecular-weight oligomers or polymers characteristic of somewhat wider molecular weight distributions, depending on the polymerization temperatures.
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Increasing rates of low-risk human papillomavirus infections in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: association with clinical outcomes.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have been causally linked to oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the potential role of low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types in the pathogenesis of this malignancy remains unclear.
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Midlatitude atmospheric OH response to the most recent 11-y solar cycle.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The hydroxyl radical (OH) plays an important role in middle atmospheric photochemistry, particularly in ozone (O(3)) chemistry. Because it is mainly produced through photolysis and has a short chemical lifetime, OH is expected to show rapid responses to solar forcing [e.g., the 11-y solar cycle (SC)], resulting in variabilities in related middle atmospheric O(3) chemistry. Here, we present an effort to investigate such OH variability using long-term observations (from space and the surface) and model simulations. Ground-based measurements and data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Aura satellite suggest an ?7-10% decrease in OH column abundance from solar maximum to solar minimum that is highly correlated with changes in total solar irradiance, solar Mg-II index, and Lyman-? index during SC 23. However, model simulations using a commonly accepted solar UV variability parameterization give much smaller OH variability (?3%). Although this discrepancy could result partially from the limitations in our current understanding of middle atmospheric chemistry, recently published solar spectral irradiance data from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment suggest a solar UV variability that is much larger than previously believed. With a solar forcing derived from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment data, modeled OH variability (?6-7%) agrees much better with observations. Model simulations reveal the detailed chemical mechanisms, suggesting that such OH variability and the corresponding catalytic chemistry may dominate the O(3) SC signal in the upper stratosphere. Continuing measurements through SC 24 are required to understand this OH variability and its impacts on O(3) further.
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Clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis with 46,XX male sex reversal syndrome: case reports.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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To investigate the clinical characteristics of different categories of sex-reversed 46,XX individuals and their relationships with chromosomal karyotype and the SRY gene.
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Circulating level of lipocalin 2 as a predictor of severity in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the differential plasma levels of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) and its complex with MMP-9 (where MMP is matrix metalloproteinase) before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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Neuroprotective effects of madecassoside in early stage of Parkinsons disease induced by MPTP in rats.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of madecassoside, isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Centella asiatica, in the rat model of early phase of parkinsonism. During intragastric administrations of madecassoside for 7 days, the rats were injected with MPTP on the 7th day. And for the following 14 days, madecassoside were also administered. On the 14th day, the behavioral tests were assessed after 1h of administration. And then, the rats were sacrificed, substantia nigra and striatum were dissected. The content of DA, MDA, GSH, and Bcl-2/Bax gene expression levels and BDNF protein level was determined. Treatment with madecassoside was found to improve locomotor dysfunction and to protect dopaminergic neuron by antagonizing MPTP induced neurotoxicity. Madecassoside significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine in the striatum. The MDA contents were significantly decreased while the GSH levels, Bcl-2/Bax ratio and protein expression of BDNF were significantly increased in madecassoside treated groups. These results indicated that madecassoside was effective in recovering MPTP-induced early signs of parkinsonism via its neuroprotective effects including reversing the depletion of DA, antioxidant activity, increasing ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increasing protein expression of BDNF.
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Conditionally ablated Pten in prostate basal cells promotes basal-to-luminal differentiation and causes invasive prostate cancer in mice.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Prostate glands comprise two major epithelial cell types: luminal and basal. Luminal cells have long been considered the cellular origin of prostate cancer (CaP). However, recent evidence from a prostate regeneration assay suggests that prostate basal cells can also give rise to CaP. Here, we characterize Pten-deficient prostate lesions arising from keratin 5-expressing basal cells in a temporally controlled system in mice. Pten-deficient prostate lesions arising from basal cells exhibited luminal phenotypes with higher invasiveness, and the cell fate of Pten-deficient basal cells was traced to neoplastic luminal cells. After temporally ablating Pten in keratin 8-expressing luminal cells, luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate tumors exhibited slower disease progression, compared with basal-derived tumors, within 13 weeks after Pten ablation. Cellular proliferation was significantly increased in basal-derived versus luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate lesions. Increased tumor invasion into the smooth muscle layer and aberrantly regulated aggressive signatures (Smad4 and Spp1) were identified exclusively in basal-derived Pten-deficient lesions. Interestingly, p63-expressing cells, which represent basal stem and progenitor cells of basal-derived Pten-deficient prostate lesions, were significantly increased, relative to cells of the luminal-derived prostate lesion. Furthermore, castration did not suppress cellular proliferation of either basal-derived or luminal-derived Pten-deficient prostate tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that, although prostate malignancy can originate from both basal and luminal populations, these two populations differ in aggressive potential.
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Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day.
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Association between Ischemic Stroke and Iron-Deficiency Anemia: A Population-Based Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Very little is known about the relationship between non-sickle cell anemia and stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) with stroke based on a nationwide coverage database in Taiwan.
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