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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Occurrence of Polychlorinated Diphenyl Sulfides (PCDPSs) in Surface Sediments and Surface Water from the Nanjing Section of the Yangtze River.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are dioxin-like compounds that could induce various adverse effects to organisms. However, little is known about the occurrence of PCDPSs in the riverine environment. In the present study, the concentrations of twenty-one types of PCDPSs in the surface sediments and in surface water from the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River were examined. A total of 19 types of PCDPSs were detected and ?PCDPSs concentrations in surface sediment and surface water ranged from 0.10 to 6.90 ng/g and 0.18 to 2.03 ng/L, respectively. The 2,2',4,4',5-penta-CDPS was the dominant congener in sediment (19.9%) and 2,2',3,3'-tetra-CDPS was the most abundant congener in water (12.2%). The tetra-CDPSs were the dominant congeners both in sediment and in water. Compared with sediment, the percentage of lower chlorinated PCDPSs in water increased distinctly. Source analysis revealed that the PCDPSs in the sediment and in the water mainly came from chemical wastewater rather than domestic sewage. There was a significant linear correlation between ?PCDPS concentrations and sediment TOC contents, while no linear correlation existed between ?PCDPS concentrations and water DOC contents. This study demonstrated the prevalent contamination by PCDPSs in sediments and in water from the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River.
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Large-scale uniform Au nanodisk arrays fabricated via x-ray interference lithography for reproducible and sensitive SERS substrate.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Large-scale Au nanodisk arrays on Si substrate are successfully fabricated via x-ray interference lithography and followed by electron-beam vapor deposition. The Au nanodisk arrays exhibit a significant, uniform, and reproducible surface enhancement on Raman scattering signal, which enables the detection of R6G as low as 10(-8) M with an enhancement factor of 10(6). Importantly, the Au nanodisk arrays SERS-active substrates with uniformly high sensitivity also have high reproducibility and stability. The diameters of the nanodisks and the inter-disk distance can be simply optimized to obtain high enhancement in Raman signal by varying exposure time and development time in XIL process. The electric fields of the Au nanodisks with various diameters and inter-disk distance simulated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) techniques further confirm that the Raman signal enhancement of Au nanodisks is determined by the diameters of nanodisks and the inter-disk distance of nanodisks. The Au/Ag double-layer bimetal nanodisk arrays are also fabricated which show a significant increase in the Raman signal enhancement than that of the Au nanodisk arrays. XIL nanofabrication appears to be a feasible approach to prepare uniform and reproducible SERS-active substrates with high sensitivity for practical SERS applications.
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Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd+0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill>liver>muscle at 3 days and liver>gill>muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd+OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.
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The effects of hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the toxicity of nickel to Daphnia magna under different pH levels.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Hydroxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs), with large amounts of hydrophilic groups attached on the nanoparticle surface, have caused considerable concern because of their inevitable release into aquatic environments. They may interact with other contaminants such as heavy metals and even influence their toxicity, fate, and transport. In the present study, the stability of OH-MWCNTs suspended in aerated Nanjing tap water (moderately hard) was evaluated using the spectrophotometric method. The toxicity of OH-MWCNTs to Daphnia magna was determined, and nontoxic concentrations were used in acute toxicity, accumulation, and sorption tests. It was found that OH-MWCNTs increased the Ni toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner under different pH levels. Nickel adsorption onto the OH-MWCNTs and the uptake of OH-MWCNTs increased the exposure of D. magna to Ni, which was verified by sorption and accumulation tests conducted under different pH levels. The lower pH level contributed to a higher overall toxicity, which could be interpreted by the increasing amount of Ni adsorption onto OH-MWCNTs with the decreasing pH levels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2522-2528. © 2014 SETAC.
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Relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and metabolic syndrome components in a Chinese population.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between arterial stiffness, as measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in a Chinese population. A total of 4,445 subjects were enrolled. The prevalence of MS in our study population was 21.7%, 17.2% and 25.6% for the general population, males and females, respectively. With adjustments for age, gender, cigarette smoking, heart rate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and the use of anti-hypertensive drug, the stepwise regression analysis showed that baPWV had a significant relationship with components of MS, including systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001), glucose (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P ?=? 0.04), and triglycerides (P < 0.001), but no relationship with waist circumference (P ?=? 0.25). With an increase in the number of the MS components, baPWV increased significantly both in women and men. This study indicated that the MS is indeed a risk factor for arterial stiffness. Monitoring of baPWV in patients with MS may help in identifying persons at high risk for cardiovascular disease.
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Rapid progression of nonculprit coronary lesions six weeks after successful primary PCI in culprit artery: a case report.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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We report a case of a 49-year-old man who was admitted with a 3-hour history of sudden onset of substernal chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed that the left circumflex artery (LCX) was acutely and totally occluded at the mid-portion. In addition, the proximal and mid-portion of the right coronary artery (RCA) had a 60% occlusion. We inferred that the LCX was the culprit artery and primary PCI was successfully performed. Six weeks later, the patient had an eventful course with recurrence of chest pain. Coronary angiography showed no significant stenosis in the previous LCX lesion, while the proximal and middle potion of the RCA had a 90% occlusion. Our case demonstrates the systemic nature of acute coronary syndromes and highlights the inherent instability of coronary artery disease.
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Metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus following in vivo exposure to waterborne zinc under different pH values.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effect of zinc and pH on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to 0.1 and 1.0mg Zn/L at three pH values (5.0, 7.25, 9.0) for 3, 12, and 30 d. After each exposure, the contents of three trace elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) were determined in liver. Generally, longer exposure to zinc (12d and 30 d) increased hepatic Zn and Cu deposition, but decreased Fe content. Increasing accumulation of Zn in the tissue was also observed with increasing zinc concentration in the exposure medium. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), together with the level of glutathione (GSH) were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress status. The decreases in the four measured biochemical parameters after 3d exposure might reflect the failure of the antioxidant defense system in neutralizing the ROS generated during the metabolic process, while the recovery of the antioxidants at days 12 and 30 suggested a possible shift toward a detoxification mechanism. With regard to the influence of pH on zinc toxicity, the general observation was that the living environment became more stressful when the water conditions changed from an acidic state toward a near-neutral or alkaline state.
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Diagnostic and prognostic value of minor elevated cardiac troponin levels for percutaneous coronary intervention-related myocardial injury: a prospective, single-center and double-blind study.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) and -T (cTnT) are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. However, the role of increased cTnI and cTnT in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related myocardial injury remains controversial. In this prospective, single-center and double-blind study, we aimed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of cTnI as well as cTnT (cTns) in PCI-related myocardial injury in a Chinese population. A total of 1,008 patients with stable angina pectoris and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome were recruited. The levels of cTnI and cTnT were examined before and after PCI. All patients were followed up for 26±9 months to observe the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Our results showed that post-PCI cTnI and/or cTnT levels were increased to more than the 99(th) percentile upper reference limit (URL) in 133 (13.2%) patients, among which 22 (2.2%) were more than 5 × 99(th) percentile URL. By univariate analysis, an elevation in cTns after PCI was not an independent predictor of increased MACEs, HR 1.35 (P ?=? 0.33, 95%CI: 0.74-2.46). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the incidence of PCI-related myocardial injury is not common in a Chinese population and minor elevated cTns levels may not be a sensitive prognostic marker for MACEs.
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Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to eight imidazolium bromide ionic liquids: a combined experimental and theoretical study.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Imidazolium bromide ionic liquids such as 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromides ([AMIm]Br) and 1-alkyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromides ([AMMIm]Br) are common-use organic salts. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these ILs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was applied to compare and analyze the effects of these ILs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus treated with different concentrations (2 and 20mg/L) for 3 and 16d. Changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the levels of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde were detected, indicating that these ILs exhibit potential biotoxicity. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index suggested that 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([HMIm]Br), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([OMIm]Br), 1-hexyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([HMMIm]Br), and 1-octyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([OMMIm]Br) showed the highest biotoxicity under different concentrations or exposure time, while 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([EMIm]Br) always showed the least stressful power towards the test organism. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were also conducted to interpret the experimental results. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order. In addition, theoretical calculations provided some valuable information on metabolic pathways of these ILs, which may help to get better understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. In general, the toxicological determination and analysis of these ILs were performed with a combined experimental and theoretical method, which may contribute to the future ecotoxicological studies.
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The influence of hydroxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and pH levels on the toxicity of lead to Daphnia magna.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The acute toxicity of lead was examined for Daphnia magna in waters with different pH values (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0) and different concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/L) of hydroxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OH-MWCNTs). The results indicated that pH values could affect the toxicity of lead. With pH values increasing from 5.0 to 9.0, the 24h-LC?? of Pb(II) increased from 0.784 to 9.473 mg/L, suggesting that the toxicity of Pb(II) was dramatically decreased. Although OH-MWCNTs almost caused no lethal effect to D. magna at the studied four concentrations, the combination of OH-MWCNTs and Pb(II) could cause more serious toxic effects to D. magna than Pb(II) alone. This study indicated that the synergistic effect caused by CNTs and lead could not be neglected.
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Association of admission serum calcium levels and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ST-elevated myocardial infarction: an eight-year, single-center study in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The relationship between admission serum calcium levels and in-hospital mortality in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been well definitively explored. The objective was to assess the predictive value of serum calcium levels on in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients.
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Quantification of endothelial microparticles on modified cytometric bead assay and prognosis in chest pain patients.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Background:?Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are vehicles released from activated or apoptotic endothelium. The aim of this study was to establish a new cytometric bead assay for EMPs and investigate the prognostic value of EMPs in chest pain patients. Methods and Results:?We invented and verified the cytometric bead assay to quantify EMP level in vitro. A total of 80 healthy volunteers and 350 chest pain patients were recruited and the EMPs measured. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) of documented coronary artery disease patients were recorded in the follow-up period. The level of EMPs statistically correlated with those of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitro. The EMP level in healthy subjects was <300.10. The patients had a remarkably higher EMP level than healthy subjects. Diabetes mellitus, EMP, and ET-1 levels were significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in chest pain patients. There was a significantly higher event incidence in the top tertile EMP level than in the lower tertile in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patient group. Conclusions:?A novel EMP quantification assay has been successfully established. The EMPs in vitro and in patients were significantly correlated with ET-1 and ICAM-1 level. The patients with a higher EMP level had a higher risk of MACE. EMP level is a predictor for MACE in ACS patients.??(Circ J?2014; 78: 206-214).
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Oxidative stress biomarkers in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to decabromodiphenyl ether and ethane, or their mixture.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and its commercial alternative decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) are two structurally similar brominated flame retardants, with evidence of their ubiquitous existence in aquatic ecosystems. The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatic oxidative stress inducing potential of BDE-209, DBDPE, and their mixture in Carassius auratus after exposure to different doses (10, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Results showed that oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the experimental groups with longer exposure duration, as indicated by significant inhibition in the antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease in the reduced glutathione level, as well as simultaneous elevation of lipid peroxidation level measured by malondialdehyde content. In addition, it was found that BDE-209 possessed a higher oxidative stress inducing ability than DBDPE. Considering the more pronounced antioxidant responses in combined exposure, the interaction of BDE-209 and DBDPE was presumed to be additive action.
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The effects of dietary supplementation with chromium picolinate throughout gestation on productive performance, Cr concentration, serum parameters, and colostrum composition in sows.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental chromium as chromium picolinate (CrPic) on productive performance, chromium (Cr) concentration, serum parameters, and colostrum composition in sows. Thirty Yorkshire sows were bred with semen from a pool of Landrace boars. The sows were equally grouped and treated with either a diet containing 0 (control) or 400 ppb dietary Cr supplementation throughout gestation. The sows received the same basal diet based on corn-DDGS meal. Supplemental CrPic increased (P??0.50) were observed in the gestation interval, sow mass, and backfat at insemination, after farrowing, at weaning and lactation loss. The number of piglets born alive, piglets per litter at weaning, and litter weaned mass were increased (P??0.05). The placental masses of sows were similar among treatments (P?>?0.05). Dietary supplementation with CrPic throughout gestation in sows showed increased (P??0.05) were observed in total protein concentration among treatments. No differences (P?>?0.05) were observed in total solids, protein, fat or lactose among sows fed the diets supplemented with CrPic compared with the control. This exciting finding provides evidence for an increase in mass gain and live-born piglets in sows supplemented with CrPic throughout gestation.
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Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: a combined experimental and theoretical study.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT>HBB>HBCD>TBBPA>BDE-209>DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure-activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined experimental and theoretical method for the toxicological determination and analysis of the BFRs, which may also be considered in future ecotoxicological studies.
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BlyS: a potential hallmark of multiple myeloma.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by bone lesions and production of a paraprotein. B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and its receptor (BAFFR) were highly expressed on peripheral blood and bone marrow B cells in MM patients as compared to those with monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and healthy donors. Serum BLyS levels in MM patients were significantly higher than those in MGUS patients and healthy controls. BLyS expression was increased in bone marrow specimens from MM patients as ascertained by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, BLyS, together with IL-2 and IL-6, significantly promoted MM cell proliferation and BLyS receptor expression compared with that in the control group. Treatment with bortezomib, a therapeutic proteasome inhibitor induced apoptosis and repressed the proliferation of RPMI8226 and U266 cells through inhibition of NF-?B p65 and I?B?. These findings suggest that BLyS is involved in the immunopathogenesis of MM and may prove to be a hallmark of MM.
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Beneficial effects of schisandrin B on the cardiac function in mice model of myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The fruit of Schisandra chinensis has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Accumulating evidence suggests that Schisandrin B (Sch B) has cardioprotection effect on myocardial ischemia in vitro. However, it is unclear whether Sch B has beneficial effects on continuous myocardial ischemia in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Sch B could improve cardiac function and attenuate myocardial remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) in mice. Mice model of MI was established by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Then the MI mice were randomly treated with Sch B or vehicle alone. After treatment for 3 weeks, Sch B could increase survival rate, improve heart function and decrease infarct size compared with vehicle. Moreover, Sch B could down-regulate some inflammatory cytokines, activate eNOS pathway, inhibit cell apoptosis, and enhance cell proliferation. Further in vitro study on H9c2 cells showed similar effects of Sch B on prevention of hypoxia-induced inflammation and cell apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Sch B can reduce inflammation, inhibit apoptosis, and improve cardiac function after ischemic injury. It represents a potential novel therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease.
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Application of L1-norm regularization to epicardial potential reconstruction based on gradient projection.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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The epicardial potential (EP)-targeted inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG) has been widely investigated as it is demonstrated that EPs reflect underlying myocardial activity. It is a well-known ill-posed problem as small noises in input data may yield a highly unstable solution. Traditionally, L2-norm regularization methods have been proposed to solve this ill-posed problem. But the L2-norm penalty function inherently leads to considerable smoothing of the solution, which reduces the accuracy of distinguishing abnormalities and locating diseased regions. Directly using the L1-norm penalty function, however, may greatly increase computational complexity due to its non-differentiability. We propose an L1-norm regularization method in order to reduce the computational complexity and make rapid convergence possible. Variable splitting is employed to make the L1-norm penalty function differentiable based on the observation that both positive and negative potentials exist on the epicardial surface. Then, the inverse problem of ECG is further formulated as a bound-constrained quadratic problem, which can be efficiently solved by gradient projection in an iterative manner. Extensive experiments conducted on both synthetic data and real data demonstrate that the proposed method can handle both measurement noise and geometry noise and obtain more accurate results than previous L2- and L1-norm regularization methods, especially when the noises are large.
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Initial experience with a magnetic navigation system for invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Magnetic navigation system (MNS) assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (MPCI) has been demonstrated an advantage over conventional PCI (CPCI) in complex lesions and tortuous vessels. However, the benefits of MNS in clinical unstable and vulnerable lesions were little studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of MPCI versus CPCI in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS).
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Suppression of oxLDL-induced MMP-9 and EMMPRIN expression by berberine via inhibition of NF-?B activation in human THP-1 macrophages.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2011
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Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) by macrophages leads to atherosclerotic plaque rupture by degradation of the extracellular matrix. NF-?B activation regulates many key inflammatory genes linked to atherosclerosis. In the present study, the function of berberine, a natural extract from Rhizoma coptidis, on MMP-9 and EMMPRIN expression, the role of NF-?B activation in oxLDL-stimulated macrophages, and the possible mechanism in which NF-?B activation is involved were investigated. Berberine inhibited the expression of MMP-9 and EMMPRIN at both mRNA and protein levels. The phosphorylation of I?B-? and nuclear translocation of p65 protein were reduced by berberine, suggesting that NF-?B activation was inhibited by berberine in oxLDL-stimulated macrophages. Overall, berberine suppressed the expression of MMP-9 and EMMPRIN by at least reducing partly the activity of NF-?B in oxLDL-induced macrophages.
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Experimental and theoretical study on IR and NMR spectra of several tetrachlorinated diphenyl sulfides.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Tetrachlorinated diphenyl sulfides (TCDPSs) are environmentally interesting compounds. In this paper, both experimental and theoretical studies on IR and (1)H NMR as well as (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 4 synthesized TCDPSs have been carried out. The optimized geometries were obtained at the B3LYP/6-311G** level by using the Gaussian 03 program. Meanwhile, related spectral parameters were calculated. In addition, the experimental values were compared with the calculated ones. The results show that the scaled theoretical vibration frequencies are in good accordance with the observations, and computed chemical shifts are consistent with the experimental values.
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Role of pocket flexibility in the modulation of estrogen receptor alpha by key residue arginine 394.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Estradiol derivatives, with similar structures as estradiol (E2) or estradiol metabolites, have been recognized to have detrimental health effects on wildlife and humans. However, data at the molecular level about interactions of these compounds with biological targets are still lacking. Herein, a flexible docking approach was used to characterize the molecular interaction of nine estradiol derivatives with estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) in the ligand-binding domain. All ligands were docked in the buried hydrophobic cavity of the steroid hormone pocket. In addition, the plasticity of an active site was also identified by reversing amino acid arginine 394 for better ligand-receptor binding affinity. Finally, bioassays based on genetically modified yeast strains were used to validate the quality of molecular simulation because of their rapidity and high sensitivity. The experimental findings about logarithm values of the median effective concentration (EC50) value had a linear correlation with computational binding affinity from molecular docking, which described a pattern of interaction between estradiol derivatives and ER. The estrogenic activity of all compounds, although more or less lower than E2, was proved to possess high severe environmental risks. Considering the sidechain flexibility in the ligand binding pocket, 17?-ethylestradiol-3-cyclopentylether was reported to correlate highly significantly with known induced fit conformational changes based upon proof-of-principle calculations on human ER? with the preservation of a strong salt bridge between glutamic acid 353 and arginine 394.
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Toxic effects of a high dose of non-ionic iodinated contrast media on renal glomerular and aortic endothelial cells in aged rats in vivo.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Iodinated contrast media (CM) can induce apoptosis and necrosis of renal tubular cells. The injuries of endothelial cells induced by CM on the systemic condition have not been fully understood. To assess the toxic effects of non-ionic CM on the glomerular and aortic endothelial cells, iopromide and iodixanol, two kinds of representative non-ionic CM, were used for the in vivo study. Sixty aged rats were respectively received the agents or normal sodium intravascularly. No obvious apoptosis and morphological change was detected in the glomerular and aortic endothelial cells apart from renal tubules after CM administration. However, expressions of the nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in glomerular endothelium were decreased at 12h after CM injection. Furthermore, plasma creatinine and endothelin-1 were increased and plasma nitric oxide (NO) was decreased significantly after CM administration. However, we failed to observe the significant increase of plasma von Willebrand Factor. These results suggest that non-ionic iodinated CM do not induce apoptosis and necrosis of glomerular and aortic endothelial cells in vivo. Decreased eNOS expression and increased plasma endothelin-1 may be involved in non-ionic iodinated CM-induced endothelial dysfunction and kidney injury.
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Coexpression of VEGF and angiopoietin-1 promotes angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation reduces apoptosis in porcine myocardial infarction (MI) heart.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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VEGF and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) are two major angiogenic factors being investigated for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting VEGF and Ang1 expression in the ischemic myocardium can increase their local therapeutic effects and reduce possible adverse effects. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) expressing cardiac-specific and hypoxia-inducible VEGF [AAV-myosin light chain-2v (MLC)VEGF] and Ang1 (AAV-MLCAng1) were coinjected (VEGF/Ang1 group) into six different sites of the porcine myocardium at the peri-infarct zone immediately after ligating the left descending coronary artery. An identical dose of AAV-Cytomegalovirus (CMV)LacZ or saline was injected into control animals. AAV genomes were detected in the liver in addition to the heart. RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA analyses showed that VEGF and Ang1 were predominantly expressed in the myocardium in the infarct core and border of the infarct heart. Gated single-photon emission computed tomography analyses showed that the VEGF/Ang1 group had better cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at 8 wk than at 2 wk after vector injection. Compared with the saline and LacZ controls, the VEGF/Ang1 group expressed higher phosphorylated Akt and Bcl-xL, less Caspase-3 and Bad, and had higher vascular density, more proliferating cardiomyocytes, and less apoptotic cells in the infarct and peri-infarct zones. Thus, cardiac-specific and hypoxia-induced coexpression of VEGF and Ang1 improves the perfusion and function of porcine MI heart through the induction of angiogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation, activation of prosurvival pathways, and reduction of cell apoptosis.
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The anti-malarial artemisinin inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines via the NF-?B canonical signaling pathway in PMA-induced THP-1 monocytes.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Several kinds of sesquiterpene lactones have been proven to inhibit NF-?B and to retard atherosclerosis by reducing lesion size and changing plaque composition. The anti-malarial artemisinin (Art) is a pure sesquiterpene lactone extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua (qinghao, sweet wormwood). In the present study, we demonstrate that artemisinin inhibits the secretion and the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced THP-1 human monocytes. We also found that the NF-?B specific inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, inhibited the expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that the NF-?B pathway may be involved in the decreased cytokine release. At all time-points (1-6 h), artemisinin impeded the phosphorylation of IKK?/ß, the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B? and the nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit. Additionally, artemisinin inhibited the translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis and by NF-?B binding assays. Our data indicate that artemisinin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on PMA-induced THP-1 monocytes, suggesting the potential role of artemisinin in preventing the inflammatory progression of atherosclerosis.
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Activation of calcium-sensing receptors is associated with apoptosis in a model of simulated cardiomyocytes ischemia/reperfusion.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) are G-protein coupled receptors which maintain systemic calcium homeostasis and participate in hormone secretion, activation of ion channels, cell apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that CaSRs induce apoptosis in isolated adult rat heart and in normal neonatal rat cardiomyocytes by G-protein-PLC-IP3 signaling transduction. However, little knowledge is presently available concerning the role of CaSRs in the apoptosis induced by ischemia and reperfusion in neonatal cardiomyocytes.
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Vibrational spectroscopic investigation and DFT studies on 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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In the present work, the infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of 2,2,4,4-tetrabromodiphenyl ether have been measured in the ranges of 400-4000cm(-1) and 100-4000cm(-1). The geometry optimized by the density functional theory Becke-3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) method with the 6-31G(d) basis set was in good agreement with the experimental data of analogues. The results have shown that the dihedral angle of biphenyl ether significantly increases with the addition of bromine substitution. The vibrational frequencies were evaluated by the B3LYP method in conjunction with basis sets of 6-31G(d), 6-31G(2df,p), 6-311+G(d,p), 6-311G+(2df,p), and 6-311++G(d,p), separately. The scaled frequencies resulted in excellent agreement with the observed spectral patterns. The correlation analysis and statistical comparisons indicated that the basis sets larger than 6-31G(d) resulted in no significant improvement in the accuracy of the vibration frequencies. The detailed assignments were performed according to the calculated results for B3LYP/6-31G(d) and then compared with those from a previous study on 4,4-dibromodiphenyl ether. The absence of coupling of C-O stretching and adjacent C-H in-plane deformation indicated a strong steric effect owing to the ortho bromine atoms in the title compound. Moreover, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and the Moller-Plesset second-order perturbation (MP2) method are applied to exclude the possible formation of intramolecular non-covalent interactions such as Br...Br and C-H...Br.
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HGF percutaneous endocardial injection induces cardiomyocyte proliferation and rescues cardiac function in pigs.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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To investigate the effect of cardiomyocyte proliferation induced by human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in pigs with chronic myocardial infarction (CMI).
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A novel approach to transplanting bone marrow stem cells to repair human myocardial infarction: delivery via a noninfarct-relative artery.
Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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Bone marrow stem cells are able to repair infarcted human myocardium following intracoronary transplantation via the infarct-relative artery. However, traditional reperfusion strategies fail to open the artery in some patients, making effective delivery impossible. Our previous study demonstrated a safe and efficient approach to delivering bone marrow stem cells via a noninfarcted artery in an animal myocardial infarction model. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via such an approach in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Sixteen patients with anterior AMI who had successfully undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in this pilot, randomized study. Three weeks after PCI, cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the myocardium via either the infarct-relative artery (left anterior descending branch artery, LAD) or a noninfarct-relative artery (right coronary artery, RCA). The safety and feasibility of the cell infusion were evaluated during the procedure and during 6 months of follow-up. In addition, 2D echocardiography, technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) and 18F-deoxyglucose single photon emission computed tomography were employed to examine cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, and viable cardiomyocytes, respectively, at day 4 after PCI and 6 months after the cell infusion. There were no arrhythmia and any other side-effects, including infections, allergic reactions or adverse clinical events, during, immediately after, or 6 months after cell transplantation. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion had improved 6 months after PCI/bone marrow stem cells transplantation. Viable cardiomyocytes metabolism was detected in the infarcted areas in both groups after the cell infusion, as demonstrated by 18F-deoxyglucose. Intracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via a noninfarct-relative artery appears safe and feasible in the treatment of patients with AMI.
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Immediate and long-term results of coronary angioplasty in patients aged 80 years and older.
Cardiol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Objectives. To observe the short- and long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in octogenarians (>80 y.o.) at our institution. Method. All octogenarians who underwent PCI during the study period were retrospectively retrieved from our database and clinically followed. Major adverse cardiac (and cerebral) events (MAC(C)E) was considered as primary outcome. Results. From January 2003 to December 2007, 140 octogenarians (mean age: 85+/-3 y.o., 79% of male) underwent PCI and were clinically followed 14+/-11 months. Procedural success was obtained in 100 percent of patients with single vessel disease, in 96 percent of patients with double vessel disease, and in 75 percent of patients with triple vessel disease. In-hospital, 30 days, and one year MACE rates were 5%, 5%, and 10.7%, respectively. Impaired left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.856 to 0.964, P = .002), diabetes mellitus (HR = 5.792, 95% CI = 1.785 to 18.796, P = .003), and low GFR (HR = 2.943, 95% CI = 1.161, to 7.464, P = .023) were independently associated with an increase risk of MACE at long-term followup. Conclusion. Coronary angiography can be successfully performed in elderly patients with single and double vessel disease. The results in triple vessel disease are encouraging. Low LV function, diabetes, and impaired renal function increase the risk of long-term major adverse cardiac events.
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Comparison of dual-source CT coronary angiography and conventional coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery disease.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery stenosis. From February 2008 to January 2009, dual-source CT coronary CT angiography (DSCT-CCTA) and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were both performed in 84 patients who had either clinical symptoms or a high risk of coronary artery disease. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT-CCTA was evaluated by comparing it with that of CAG, which was regarded as the gold standard for making the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Occlusion or stenosis of various degrees was revealed by DSCT-CCTA in 244 segments of 84 patients. Compared to CAG, segment-based sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of DSCT-CCTA were 97.4, 97.8, 92.2 and 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of DSCT-CCTA for the detection of coronary artery stenosis was 96.5%. The paired chi2 tests revealed no significant difference between DSCT-CCTA and CAG for making the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (P = 0.076). The diagnostic performance of DSCT-CCTA is generally as accurate as that of CAG. Thus, DSCT-CCTA is a reliable non-invasive method for detecting coronary artery stenosis.
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Tiered aquatic ecological risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides and their mixture in Jiangsu reach of Huaihe River, China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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A tiered approach consisting of several probabilistic options was used to refine aquatic ecological risk assessment (ERA) of individuals and mixture of various Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) detected in Jiangsu reach of Huaihe River, China. The tiered approach ranged from determined Hazard Quotient (HQ) to Joint Probability Curve and Monte Carlo simulation based HQ-distribution. The results from all levels of ERA methods in the tiered framework are consistent with each other. The results show that Endrin, o,p-Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (DDT), alpha-Endosulfan and beta-Endosulfan posed clear ecological risk; p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, Aldrin, Heptachlorepoxide and Methoxychlor posed potential risk; while Hexachlorocyclohexanes, Heptachlor, Dieldrin and Hexachlorobenzene posed negligible risk. Further, based on the concept of total equivalent concentration, combined ecological risk caused by the mixture of all detected OCPs was calculated, and it proved to be significantly higher than the risk caused by any individual OCP. Despite inevitable uncertainties in current ERA, a comprehensive tiered approach can help to get a more credible result of risks of individuals and mixture of hazardous pollutants and screen the major risk pollutants contributing to the combined ecological risk.
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Experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and FT-IR, Raman, NMR spectra of 4,4-dibromodiphenyl ether.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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In this work, both experimental and theoretical study on the FT-IR and Raman spectra as well as (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of 4,4-dibromodiphenyl ether have been carried out. The optimized geometry was obtained by using both HF and density functional B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d, p) basis sets. The calculated bond lengths and dihedral angles for both methods on 6-31G(d) level show the best agreement with the experimental data, while the dihedral angles of C(1)-O-C(1)-C(6) and C(1)-O-C(1)-C(2), critical geometry parameters for conformers in the ground state, indicates significant deviation of HF results from the experimental information. The harmonic vibration frequencies and intensities in IR and Raman spectra and chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated on the B3LYP/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p) levels. The scaled theoretical vibration frequencies present good agreement with the experimental values. The larger basis set makes no significant improvement in the accuracy of the vibration frequencies. Besides, chemical shifts of hydrogen and carbon computed on B3LYP/6-31G(d) level agree well with the observations.
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Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning enhances the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based regenerative therapy is currently regarded as an alternative approach to salvage the acute myocardial infarcted hearts. However, the efficiency of MSCs transplantation is limited by lower survival rate of engrafted MSCs. In previous study, we found that 1.0 microg/ml Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could protect MSCs against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and meanwhile enhance the proliferation of MSCs. Therefore, in the present study, we firstly preconditioned MSCs with 1.0 microg/ml LPS, then transplanted MSCs into ischemic myocardium, and observed the survival and cardiac protective capacity of MSCs in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Furthermore, we tried to explore the underlying mechanisms and the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in the signal pathway of LPS-induced cardiac protection.
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MicroRNA-125a-5p partly regulates the inflammatory response, lipid uptake, and ORP9 expression in oxLDL-stimulated monocyte/macrophages.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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The inflammatory responses of monocytes/macrophages and the stimulation of lipid uptake into these cells by oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are critical to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that many microRNAs play important roles in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation that accompany inflammatory responses. However, whether microRNAs are associated with monocyte/macrophage inflammatory responses or oxLDL stimulation is not yet known. The aim of the present study is to investigate microRNAs in monocytes/macrophages and their potential role in oxLDL-stimulation of lipid uptake and other atherosclerotic responses.
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Berberine reduces both MMP-9 and EMMPRIN expression through prevention of p38 pathway activation in PMA-induced macrophages.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Overproduction of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) by monocytes/macrophages leads to atherosclerotic plaque rupture by degrading the extracellular matrix. Serum MMP-9 levels may therefore represent a novel marker of inflammation in patients with known coronary artery disease. The purpose of our study was to determine if berberine, a natural extract from Rhizoma coptidis, had any effect on the expression of MMP-9 and EMMPRIN in PMA-induced macrophages.
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Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the development of atherosclerosis with suppressing CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression.
PLoS ONE
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Hydrogen sulfide, as a novel gaseous mediator, has been suggested to play a key role in atherogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which H(2)S affects atherosclerosis remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential role of H(2)S in atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism with respect to chemokines (CCL2, CCL5 and CX3CL1) and chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1) in macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 or mouse peritoneal macrophages were pre-incubated with saline or NaHS (50 µM, 100 µM, 200 µM), an H(2)S donor, and then stimulated with interferon-? (IFN-?) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was found that NaHS dose-dependently inhibited IFN-? or LPS-induced CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression, as well as CX3CR1-mediated chemotaxis in macrophages. Overexpression of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), an enzyme that catalyzes H(2)S biosynthesis resulted in a significant reduction in CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression as well as CX3CR1-mediated chemotaxis in stimulated macrophages. The inhibitory effect of H(2)S on CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression was mediated by modulation of proliferators-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) and NF-?B pathway. Furthermore, male apoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet and then randomly given NaHS (1 mg/kg, i.p., daily) or DL-propargylglycine (PAG, 10 mg/kg, i.p., daily). NaHS significantly inhibited aortic CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression and impeded aortic plaque development. NaHS had a better anti-atherogenic benefit when it was applied at the early stage of atherosclerosis. However, inhibition of H(2)S formation by PAG increased aortic CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression and exacerbated the extent of atherosclerosis. In addition, H(2)S had minimal effect on the expression of CCL2, CCL5, CCR2 and CCR5 in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, these data indicate that H(2)S hampers the progression of atherosclerosis in fat-fed apoE(-/-) mice and downregulates CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 expression on macrophages and in lesion plaques.
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MicroRNA 107 partly inhibits endothelial progenitor cells differentiation via HIF-1?.
PLoS ONE
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in tissue repair after ischemic heart disease. In particular, the recovery of endothelial function is reliant on the ability and rate of EPCs differentiate into mature endothelial cells. The present study evaluated the effect of microRNA 107 (miR-107) on the mechanism of EPCs differentiation. EPCs were isolated from rats bone marrow and miR-107 expression of EPCs in hypoxic and normoxic conditions were measured by real-time qualitative PCR. CD31 was analyzed by flow cytometry and eNOS was examined by real-time qualitative PCR and western blotting and these were used as markers of EPC differentiation. In order to reveal the mechanism, we used miR107 inhibitor and lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that targets miR-107 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 ? (HIF-1?) to alter miR107 and HIF-1? expression. MiR-107 expression were increased in EPCs under hypoxic conditions. Up-regulation of miR-107 partly suppressed the EPCs differentiation induced in hypoxia, while down-regulation of miR-107 promoted EPC differentiation. HIF-1? was the target. This study indicated that miR-107 was up-regulated in hypoxia to prevent EPCs differentiation via its target HIF-1?. The physiological mechanisms of miR-107 must be evaluated if it is to be used as a potential anti-ischemia therapeutic regime.
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