The cohesin complex is at the heart of many chromosomal activities, including sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation. Cohesin loading onto chromosomes depends on the Scc2-Scc4 cohesin loader complex, but the chromatin features that form cohesin loading sites remain poorly understood. Here we show that the RSC chromatin remodeling complex recruits budding yeast Scc2-Scc4 to broad nucleosome-free regions, which the cohesin loader helps to maintain. Consequently, inactivation of either the cohesin loader or the RSC complex has similar effects on nucleosome positioning, gene expression and sister chromatid cohesion. These results show an intimate link between local chromatin structure and higher-order chromosome architecture. Our findings pertain to the similarities between two severe human disorders, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, which is caused by alterations in the human cohesin loader, and Coffin-Siris syndrome, which results from alterations in human RSC complex components. Both syndromes can arise from gene misregulation due to related changes in the nucleosome landscape.
Billions of organisms, from bacteria to humans, migrate each year and research on their migration biology is expanding rapidly through ever more sophisticated remote sensing technologies. However, little is known about how migratory performance develops through life for any organism. To date, age variation has been almost systematically simplified into a dichotomous comparison between recently born juveniles at their first migration versus adults of unknown age. These comparisons have regularly highlighted better migratory performance by adults compared with juveniles, but it is unknown whether such variation is gradual or abrupt and whether it is driven by improvements within the individual, by selective mortality of poor performers, or both. Here we exploit the opportunity offered by long-term monitoring of individuals through Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite tracking to combine within-individual and cross-sectional data on 364 migration episodes from 92 individuals of a raptorial bird, aged 1-27 years old. We show that the development of migratory behaviour follows a consistent trajectory, more gradual and prolonged than previously appreciated, and that this is promoted by both individual improvements and selective mortality, mainly operating in early life and during the pre-breeding migration. Individuals of different age used different travelling tactics and varied in their ability to exploit tailwinds or to cope with wind drift. All individuals seemed aligned along a race with their contemporary peers, whose outcome was largely determined by the ability to depart early, affecting their subsequent recruitment, reproduction and survival. Understanding how climate change and human action can affect the migration of younger animals may be the key to managing and forecasting the declines of many threatened migrants.
Bioactive peptides (BPs) are amino acid sequences derived from food proteins. Their relevance lies in the biological activities they have once they are released from the parent protein. BPs or protein hydrolysates can be commercialized as nutraceutical products or functional ingredients according to their activities. Different food protein sources have been researched for their potential to generate BPs. However, with the exception of lunasin (derived from soy), animal protein sources have been predominantly exploited as commercial BPs sources. On the other hand, pulses have shown diverse BP contents without further impact on their commercialization. Pulses are a rich source of protein in the human diet and their consumption has been associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. The beneficial effect in human health has been related to their micronutrients, phytochemical bioactive compounds, and recently BPs. This article reviews the current literature about pulse protein hydrolysates and BPs with proved angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, cancer preventing, and other health promoting activities. Proteolysis process is commonly achieved by digestive and microorganism enzymes. BP purification and identification has consisted mainly on size segregation procedures followed by mass spectrometry techniques. Hydrolysis time, peptide size, and hydrophobicity are employed as process variants and structural features relevant for the BP activities. Finally, some considerations about industrial processing and BPs used as functional food ingredients were reviewed.
Symptoms of sleep apnea are markedly increased in children exposed to smoke from biomass fuels and are reduced by kitchen stoves that improve indoor biomass pollution. However, the impact of adherence to the use of improved stoves has not been critically examined.
Clonal dissemination of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) is a major concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms leading to the carbapenem resistance of an MDRPA clone. Isolates were obtained from a surgical wound, sputum, urine and a blood culture. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed high genomic homogeneity of these isolates and confirmed the circulation of an endemic clone belonging to serotype O4. Outer membrane protein (OMP) bands were visualized by SDS-PAGE, meropenem accumulation was measured in a bioassay and integrons were detected by PCR. Efflux pumps were studied for several antimicrobial agents and synergic combinations thereof in the presence or absence of both carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and Phe-Arg-?-naphthylamide (PA?N) at final concentrations of 10 and 40 mg l(-1), respectively. On OMP electrophoretic profiles, MDRPA showed a reduction of outer membrane porin D (OprD) and PCR demonstrated the presence of a class 1 integron with a cassette encoding aminoglycoside adenyltransferase B (aadB). Meropenem accumulation was slightly higher in bacilli than in the filamentous cells that formed in the presence of antibiotics. Overexpression of the efflux pump MexAB-OprM and a functional MexXY-OprM were detected in all isolates.
The objective of the study is to identify the changes in the nutritional parameters and the physical condition of teenage players after eating fishmeal as a nutritional complement. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study, blinded for investigators, was conducted, involving 100 teenage football players, divided in two groups, homogeneous in terms of all study parameters, one of which received fishmeal for four months. After evaluating the nutritional status and physical condition, before and after the intervention, no change was found in the nutritional and anthropometric status or laboratory results, or in the physical condition. However, those who received fishmeal did report a change in their hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in comparison to the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of fishmeal did not lead to changes in the nutritional status or the physical condition of teenage football players.
This study explored the evolutionary mechanism by which the clinical isolate PA110514 yields the imipenemresistant derivative PA116136. Both isolates were examined by PFGE and SDS-PAGE, which led to the identification of a new insertion sequence, ISPa133. This element was shown to have distinct chromosomal locations in each of the original isolates that appeared to explain the differences in imipenem susceptibilty. In strain PA110514, ISPa133 is located 56 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon, which has no effect on expression of the porin OprD. However, in strain PA116136 ISPa133 it is located in front of nucleotide 696 and, by interrupting the coding region, causes a loss of OprD expression, thus conferring imipenem resistance. In vitro experiments mimicking the natural conditions of selective pressure yielded imipenem-resistant strains in which ISPa133 similarly interrupted oprD. A mechanism is proposed whereby ISPa133 acts as a mobile switch, with its position in oprD depending on the degree of selective pressure exerted by imipenem.
Mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is essential for maintaining DNA methylation patterns after cell division. Disruption of DNMT1 catalytic activity results in whole genome cytosine demethylation of CpG dinucleotides, promoting severe dysfunctions in somatic cells and during embryonic development. While these observations indicate that DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation is required for proper cell function, the possibility that DNMT1 has a role independent of its catalytic activity is a matter of controversy. Here, we provide evidence that DNMT1 can support cell functions that do not require the C-terminal catalytic domain. We report that PCNA and DMAP1 domains in the N-terminal region of DNMT1 are sufficient to modulate E-cadherin expression in the absence of noticeable changes in DNA methylation patterns in the gene promoters involved. Changes in E-cadherin expression are directly associated with regulation of ?-catenin-dependent transcription. Present evidence suggests that the DNMT1 acts on E-cadherin expression through its direct interaction with the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor SNAIL1.
Syringobulbia is an uncommon condition, usually a late complication of syringomyelia. It has predilection for the dorsolateral region of the medulla leading to damage to vestibular nuclei and their connections, as well as to the descending sympathetic fibers. Oscillopsia, nystagmus, and Horner syndrome are frequent manifestations of syringobulbia. Oscillopsia may be a disturbing symptom for the patient, whereas Horner syndrome is usually an asymptomatic finding. MRI detection of syringomyelia has led to earlier treatment of syringomyelia and prevention of upward extension of the cavity. This probably explains why syringobulbia is less frequently encountered at present. We propose to describe the neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs that may be observed in patients with syringobulbia and the mechanisms involved in their appearance.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotyping still remains one of the most challenging issues for evolutionary ecologists. To date, none of the proposed methods have proven to be perfect, and all provide both important pros and cons. Although denaturing capillary electrophoresis has become a popular alternative, allele identification commonly relies upon conformational polymorphisms of two single-stranded DNA molecules at the most. Using the MHC class II (beta chain, exon 2) of the black kite (Aves: Accipitridae) as our model system, we show that the simultaneous analysis of overlapping PCR amplicons from the same target region substantially enhances allele discrimination. To cover this aim, we designed a multiplex PCR capable to generate four differentially sized and labeled amplicons from the same allele. Informative peaks to assist allele calling then fourfold those generated by the analysis of single PCR amplicons. Our approach proved successful to differentiate all the alleles (N=13) isolated from eight unrelated birds at a single optimal run temperature and electrophoretic conditions. In particular, we emphasize that this approach may constitute a straightforward and cost-effective alternative for the genotyping of single or duplicated MHC genes displaying low to moderate sets of divergent alleles.
Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by the chromosomal cohesin complex. In budding yeast, cohesin is loaded onto chromosomes during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. During S phase, the replication fork-associated acetyltransferase Eco1 acetylates the cohesin subunit Smc3 to promote the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. At the time of anaphase, Smc3 loses its acetylation again, but the Smc3 deacetylase and the possible importance of Smc3 deacetylation are unknown. Here, we show that the class I histone deacetylase family member Hos1 is responsible for Smc3 deacetylation. Cohesin is protected from deacetylation while bound to chromosomes but is deacetylated as soon as it dissociates from chromosomes at anaphase onset. Nonacetylated Smc3 is required as a substrate for cohesion establishment in the following cell cycle. Our results complete the description of an Smc3 acetylation cycle and provide unexpected insight into the importance of de novo Smc3 acetylation for cohesion establishment.
The last decades have witnessed a surge of studies analyzing the role of sex hormones on the behavior and ecology of wild bird populations, allowing a more integrated view of the evolution of avian physiology and life histories. Despite a marked progress, field studies show a considerable bias towards research on specific phylogenetic groups, neglecting a significant fraction of the class Aves. Here we analysed changes in the circulating levels of sex steroids in relation to reproductive behaviour in wild black kites (Milvus migrans), a long-lived and socially monogamous Accipitridae raptor. Males and females displayed a single seasonal peak of circulating testosterone (males) and estradiol (females) during pre-laying and laying. Absolute male testosterone levels were low even at the seasonal maximum and remained below detection limits in females. The latter results supports the idea that avian species establishing long-term pair bonds require lower amounts of circulating androgens for reproduction. Circulating progesterone showed a single seasonal peak in females and males, but their timing (during Incubation and Post-brooding respectively) did not overlap. The fact that females black kites perform the majority of incubation and males provide the majority of care to fledglings suggests that progesterone is involved in the expression of parental behaviors.
Lymphomas are assumed to originate at different stages of lymphocyte development through chromosomal aberrations. Thus, different lymphomas resemble lymphocytes at distinct differentiation stages and show characteristic morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional features. Here, we have performed a microarray-based DNA methylation profiling of 83 mature aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (maB-NHLs) characterized for their morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional features, including molecular Burkitt lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Hierarchic clustering indicated that methylation patterns in maB-NHLs were not strictly associated with morphologic, genetic, or transcriptional features. By supervised analyses, we identified 56 genes de novo methylated in all lymphoma subtypes studied and 22 methylated in a lymphoma subtype-specific manner. Remarkably, the group of genes de novo methylated in all lymphoma subtypes was significantly enriched for polycomb targets in embryonic stem cells. De novo methylated genes in all maB-NHLs studied were expressed at low levels in lymphomas and normal hematopoietic tissues but not in nonhematopoietic tissues. These findings, especially the enrichment for polycomb targets in stem cells, indicate that maB-NHLs with different morphologic, genetic, and transcriptional background share a similar stem cell-like epigenetic pattern. This suggests that maB-NHLs originate from cells with stem cell features or that stemness was acquired during lymphomagenesis by epigenetic remodeling.
The establishment of stable sister chromatid cohesion during DNA replication requires acetylation of the chromosomal cohesin complex by the replication fork-associated acetyltransferase Eco1. Cohesin acetylation is thought to facilitate replication fork progression by counteracting an as yet ill-defined cohesion "antiestablishment" activity imposed by the Wapl protein. Here, using budding yeast, we find no evidence that cohesin acetylation must overcome Wapl during replication fork progression. Instead, Wapl emerges as a negative regulator of cohesion maintenance in G2, a function that it likely exerts through its role as destabilizer of unacetylated, chromosome-bound cohesin. Our results suggest that acetylation renders cohesin Wapl-resistant from S phase onward until mitosis. In the absence of Wapl, sister chromatid cohesion functions well, suggesting that Wapl partakes in a cohesin function outside of sister chromatid cohesion. We find that Wapl is not required for cohesins known role in transcriptional regulation. Rather, cells lacking Wapl display increased chromosome condensation in both interphase and mitosis. Thus, as a conserved regulator of cohesin dynamics on chromosomes, Wapl controls cohesion maintenance after its establishment in S phase and adjusts the chromosome condensation status.
Migration research is in rapid expansion and increasingly based on sophisticated satellite-tracking devices subject to constant technological refinement, but is still ripe with descriptive studies and in need of meta-analyses looking for emergent generalisations. In particular, coexistence of studies and devices with different frequency of location sampling and spatial accuracy generates doubts of data compatibility, potentially preventing meta-analyses. We used satellite-tracking data on a migratory raptor to: (1) test whether data based on different location sampling frequencies and on different position subsampling approaches are compatible, and (2) seek potential solutions that enhance compatibility and enable eventual meta-analyses.
This study investigated the consequence of repeated stress on actin cytoskeleton remodeling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (Pfc), and the involvement of this remodeling in the expression of stress-induced motor cross-sensitization with cocaine. Wistar rats were restrained daily (2 h) for 7 days and, 3 weeks later, their NAc and Pfc were dissected 45 min after acute saline or cocaine (30 mg/kg i.p.). F-actin, actin-binding proteins (ABP) and GluR1 were quantified by Western blotting, and dendritic spines and postsynaptic density (PSD) size measured by electron microscopy. In the NAc from the stress plus cocaine group we observed a decrease in the phosphorylation of two ABPs, cofilin and cortactin, and an increase in the PSD size and the surface expression of GluR1, consistent with a more highly branched actin cytoskeleton. The Pfc also showed evidence of increased actin polymerization after stress as an increase was observed in Arp2, and in the number of spines. Inhibiting actin cycling and polymerization with latrunculin A into the NAc, but not the Pfc, inhibited the expression of cross-sensitization to cocaine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and restored the expression of GluR1 to control levels. This study shows that a history of repeated stress alters the ability of a subsequent cocaine injection to modulate dendritic spine morphology, actin dynamics and GluR1 expression in the NAc. Furthermore, by regulating GluR1 expression in the NAc, elevated actin cycling contributes to the expression of cross-sensitization between stress and cocaine, while stress-induced changes in the Pfc were not associated with cross-sensitization.
The ease with which populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be synchronized using the mating pheromone ?-factor has been invaluable for studies of the cell cycle. The ?-factor response pathway has also remained an important model to study the molecular mechanism of G-protein coupled receptor signalling. ?-Factor is a 13 amino acids long peptide that is readily available by automated peptide synthesis. However, only cells of the a mating type respond to ?-factor. Cells of the opposite ? mating type respond to a-factor, a farnesylated and C-terminally methylated 12 amino acids peptide. Because of its more difficult chemical synthesis, a-factor is not readily available and consequently the a-factor response is less well understood. Here we describe an improved strategy for producing a-factor, based on solid-phase peptide synthesis, followed by two simple steps in solution that show favourable characteristics and good yield. We demonstrate the successful use of the resulting a-factor to synchronize cell cycle progression of ? cells. Notably, the a-factor concentrations required for cell synchronization are an order of magnitude lower than typically used ?-factor concentrations. Despite a similar cell cycle response, shmoo formation was less pronounced compared to ?-factor-treated a cells. Our protocol makes a-factor widely accessible, extending the ease of cell cycle synchronization to budding yeast cells of both mating types and facilitating the study of a-factor signalling.
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