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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p inhibitors can reduce the cytotoxicity of Ebola virus glycoprotein in vitro.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever syndrome in humans and has been associated with mortality rates of up to 91% in Zaire, the most lethal strain. Though the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) mediates widespread inflammation and cellular damage, these changes have mainly focused on alterations at the protein level, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the molecular pathogenesis underlying this lethal disease is not fully understood. Here, we report that the mi-RNAs hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p were induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) following expression of EBOV GP. Among the proteins encoded by predicted targets of these miRNAs, the adhesion-related molecules tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), dystroglycan1 (DAG1) and the caspase 8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (CFLAR) were significantly downregulated in EBOV GP-expressing HUVECs. Moreover, inhibition of hsa-miR-1246, hsa-miR-320a and hsa-miR-196b-5p, or overexpression of TFPI, DAG1 and CFLAR rescued the cell viability that was induced by EBOV GP. Our results provide a novel molecular basis for EBOV pathogenesis and may contribute to the development of strategies to protect against future EBOV pandemics.
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Identification of linear B-cell epitopes within Tarp of Chlamydia trachomatis.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted pathogens. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Chlamydial translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) can induce cellular and humoral immune responses in murine models and has been regarded as a potential vaccine candidate. In this report, the amino acid sequence of Tarp was analyzed using computer-assisted techniques to scan B-cell epitopes, and six possible linear B-cell epitopes peptides (aa80-95, aa107-123, aa152-170, aa171-186, aa239-253 and aa497-513) with high predicted antigenicity and high conservation were investigated. Sera from mice immunized with these potential immunodominant peptides was analyzed by ELISA, which showed that epitope 152-170 elicited serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and epitope 171-186 elicited both serum IgG and mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A response. The response of immune sera of epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp antigen obtained from the Hela229 cells infected with C. trachomatis was confirmed by Western blot and indirect fluorescence assay. In addition, binding of the antibodies against epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp was further confirmed by competitive ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the putative epitope (aa171-186) was an immunodominant B-cell epitope of Tarp. If proven protective and safe, this epitope, in combination with other well-documented epitopes, might be included into a candidate epitope-based vaccine against C. trachomatis. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Genome-wide association study combined with biological context can reveal more disease-related SNPs altering microRNA target seed sites.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Emerging studies demonstrate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resided in the microRNA recognition element seed sites (MRESSs) in 3'UTR of mRNAs are putative biomarkers for human diseases and cancers. However, exhaustively experimental validation for the causality of MRESS SNPs is impractical. Therefore bioinformatics have been introduced to predict causal MRESS SNPs. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) provides a way to detect susceptibility of millions of SNPs simultaneously by taking linkage disequilibrium (LD) into account, but the multiple-testing corrections implemented to suppress false positive rate always sacrificed the sensitivity. In our study, we proposed a method to identify candidate causal MRESS SNPs from 12 GWAS datasets without performing multiple-testing corrections. Alternatively, we used biological context to ensure credibility of the selected SNPs.
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Identification of oxidative stress and responsive genes of HepG2 cells exposed to quinocetone, and compared with its metabolites.
Cell Biol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Quinocetone, a new quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivative used in food-producing animals in China, exerts genotoxic effects on HepG2 cells. It triggers significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in vitro, but the detailed mechanism by which quinocetone induces adverse biological effects is not yet known. We analyzed the mechanisms behind quinocetone intoxication by investigating oxidative stress based on non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activities, and by identifying differentially regulated genes of HepG2 cells exposed to quinocetone using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization to illustrate the toxicity mechanism of quinocetone. Meanwhile, the characteristics of oxidative stress and differentially regulated genes induced by quinocetone metabolites, 1,4-bisdesoxyquinocetone and 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, were investigated too. Results showed that quinocetone damaged the antioxidant defense abilities of HepG2 cells by reducing the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, lowering glutathione concentration, and elevating malondialdehyde level. We identified 160 quinocetone-responsive genes that were associated with cell proliferation, glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1; and prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide. The expressions of some differentially regulated genes were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. However, quinocetone metabolites showed little effects on HepG2 cells. These results showed that reactive oxygen species were the key mediators of quinocetone cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells and that c-MYC-dependent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway may be associated with quinocetone-induced toxicity.
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Lead tolerance mechanism in sterilized seedlings of Potamogeton crispus L.: Subcellular distribution, polyamines and proline.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The effects of increasing concentrations of lead (Pb) on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, soluble protein, Pb accumulation, nutrients, polyamines (PAs) and proline metabolism were investigated in sterilized seedlings of Potamogeton crispus L. after 5d exposure. Significant oxidative stress was not caused, indicated by a little induction of MDA content and soluble proteins. Pb accumulation increased in a concentration-dependent manner and most of Pb was stored in the cell wall. Total P, Mg, Na and Zn rose and total Fe fell; total Ca increased at 25?M Pb but then declined. The nutrients in cell wall fraction changed in the same pattern as total nutrients, whereas those in soluble and organelle fraction declined. Total putrescine (Put) decreased markedly, while total spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and (Spd+Spm)/Put ratio increased progressively but then declined. The trends for free, perchloric acid soluble conjugated (PS-conjugated) and perchloric acid insoluble bound (PIS-bound) PAs were similar to those on total PAs, except that PIS-bound Spm increased significantly. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities rose gradually, while diamine oxidase (DAO) initially increased but then declined. Proline content increased initially only to decline later, due to the increase of r-glutamyl kinase (GK) activity. Meanwhile, ornithine-d-aminotransferase (OAT) activity gradually reduced, while no significant change was observed in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Our results indicated that the tolerance of P. crispus to Pb stress was based on cell wall compartmentalization combined with increase of nutrients, alterations of PAs, and induction of proline.
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Codon usage bias in human cytomegalovirus and its biological implication.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, a worldwide contagion, causes a serious disorder in infected individuals. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much molecular information about this virus. The effective number of codon (ENC) values, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, codon adaptation index (CAI), and nucleotide contents was investigated in approximately 160 coding sequences (CDS) among 17 human cytomegalovirus genomes using the software CodonW. Linear regression analysis and logistic regression were performed to explore the preliminary data. The results showed that, overall, HCMV genomes had low codon usage bias (mean ENC=47.619). However, the ENC of individual CDS varied widely and was distributed unevenly between host-related genes and viral-self-function genes (P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=3.194), as did the GC content (P=0.016, OR=2.178). The ENC values correlated with CAI, GC content, and the nucleotide composing at the 3rd codon position (GC3s) (P<0.001). There was a significant variation in the codon preference that depended on the RSCU data. The predicted ENC curve suggested that mutational pressure, rather than natural selection, was one of the main factors that determined the codon usage bias in HCMV. Among 123 genes with known function, the genes related to viral self-replication and viral-host interaction showed different ENC and CAI values, and GC and GC3s contents. In conclusion, the detailed codon usage bias theoretically revealed information concerning HCMV evolution and could be a valuable additional parameter for HCMV gene function research.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the bean pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Spilomelinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Maruca testulalis was determined (GenBank accession number KJ623250). It is 15,110?bp in length, and included 13 PCGs, 2 rRNA gens, 22 tRNA genes, and a A?+?T-rich region. Its gene order and orientation are identical to other crambid species. The AT-skew and GC-skew of the entire mitogenome are negative and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A?+?T nucleotides (80.6%). All PCGs begin with ATN codons, except for COI which is initiated by CGA. All the 22 tRAN genes can be fold into the typical clover-leaf secondary structure except for tRNA(ser)(AGN). The 335?bp long A?+?T-rich region is located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) and contains some common features of the other lepidopterans, including the motif ATAGT followed by 14?bp poly-T stretches and a microsatellite-like (AT)11 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.
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Sulfated glucan can improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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To evaluate the immune effect of sulfated glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGSC) on chickens, two experiments were researched. In vitro experiment, the effects of SGSC on chicken splenic lymphocyte proliferation were determined. The results displayed that SGSC could significantly stimulate chicken splenic lymphocyte proliferation. In vivo experiment, 200 14-day-old chickens were averagely divided into 5 groups. The chickens, except blank control (BC) group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three SGSC groups were injected, respectively, with the SGSC at low, medium and high concentrations, in vaccination control (VC) and BC group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the first vaccination, the lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) were measured. The results showed that SGSC at suitable dose could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, and improve serum IL-2 and IFN-? concentrations. It indicated that SGSC could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, and would be as the candidate of a new-type immune adjuvant.
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A multi-epitope vaccine based on Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein induces specific immunity in mice.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) multi-epitope of Chlamydia trachomatis. A short gene of multi-epitope derived from MOMP containing multiple T- and B-cell epitopes was artificially synthesized. The recombinant plasmid pET32a(+) containing codon optimized MOMP multi-epitope gene was constructed. Expression of the fusion protein Trx-His-MOMP multi-epitope in Escherichia coli was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis. Balb/c mice were inoculated with the purified fusion protein subcutaneously three times with 2-week intervals. Results showed that the MOMP multi-epitope elicited not only strong humoral immune responses to C. trachomatis by generating significantly high levels of specific antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a), but also a cellular immune response by inducing robust cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in mice. Furthermore, the MOMP multi-epitope substantially primed secretion of IFN-?, revealing that this vaccine could induce a strong Th1 response. Finally, the mice vaccinated with the MOMP multi-epitope displayed a reduction of C. trachomatis shedding upon a chlamydial challenge and an accelerated clearance of the infected C. trachomatis. In conclusion, the MOMP multi-epitope vaccine may have the potentiality for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against the C. trachomatis infection.
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Four major factors regulate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway in cancers induced by infection of human papillomaviruses.
Curr. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Epidemiological surveys and molecular studies have indicated that infection of human papillomavirus (HPV)itself is necessary but insufficient for completing transformation of the human epithelial cells in vivo to lead to different cancers. Mounting evidence exists that HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins indeed alter the cellular and molecular events in their transformed cells to induce cancers through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is, nonetheless, of the central importance, which tightly modulates many cellular events that occur in cells to lead them to be cancerous under the action of oncogenic factors. The cancinogenic roles of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in HPV-induced cancers are generally regulated by different upstream signaling molecules such as upstream receptor tyrosine kinases. In this article, we review that the four major upstream signaling molecules (growth factor receptor, notch receptor, Ras and PI3KCA genes) regulate PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway to confer oncogenicity in HPV-immortalized epithelial cells and various transformed phenotypes.
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MNV primarily surveillance by a recombination VP1-derived ELISA in Beijing area in China.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Murine norovirus (MNV) was first found as a surrogate for human norovirus study. However, MNV infection was mostly prevalent in laboratory mice, and its immunomodulatory properties may affect the outcome of animal experiments. MNV surveillance had been performed in Europe, North America and some other countries, but not in China. Nowadays, the complete MNV virions had been used as antigen in MNV serological detection. However, the complexity in the preparation of virions might affect the antigen stability, and the virulence recovery of virion antigen had also been detected. In this study, the caspid VP1 protein was proved to be the mostly predominant antigen in MNV virions. An ELISA method using the recombination VP1 as antigen was developed (rVP1 ELISA). The rVP1 ELISA is more sensitive and less specific than the MNV virion-derived IFA method. To address the prevalence of MNV in China, a totally 600 mouse serum samples from Beijing area were tested by rVP1 ELISA and confirmed by IFA and WB. The MNV infection rate was 11.67%, but most of the MNV-positive samples were from experimental facilities (MNV rate=30.94%), not from commercial vendors (MNV rate=0.27%). Collectively, a sensitive rVP1 ELISA was developed in the current study, and the MNV investigation by rVP1 ELISA showed that MNV infection was mostly prevalent in the laboratory mice, especially the mice from experimental facilities in Beijing area in China.
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Osteosarcoma metastasis: prospective role of ezrin.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Osteosarcoma is the most commonly diagnosed primary malignant bone tumor, with similar global incidence rate across childhood and adolescence. Patients with localized disease have a 5-year survival period of 80 %; however, the prognosis is poor in those with metastatic osteosarcoma. The origin of the primary tumor is most frequently the metaphyseal (actively growing) regions of the distal femur, proximal tibia, and proximal humerus, although the tumor can develop in any bone, and the most likely sites for metastasis are the lungs and bone. Ezrin is a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins that functions as a cross-linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, and ezrin also plays a positive role in maintaining cell shape and polarity and facilitates membrane-trafficking pathways, cell migration, cell signaling, growth regulation, and differentiation. There is strong evidence to suggest that ezrin is necessary for osteosarcoma metastasis. The objective of the current review is to summarize the know-how about metastatic progression in osteosarcoma, with a focus on ezrin. Despite the promise that preliminary studies on ezrin have shown, there is a great need to further analyze the role of ezrin in osteosarcoma metastasis and to determine its usefulness as a biomarker for the disease.
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Latent infection of human cytomegalovirus is associated with the development of gastric cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The worldwide contagion, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), may cause a series of disorders in infected individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HCMV infection is associated with the development of gastric cancer. In this study, the positive expression of unique long (UL)133-UL138 and immediate-early (IE)1 genes, which are associated with viral latency and replication, respectively, were detected using nested polymerase chain reaction. A ?(2) test and logistic regression analysis were performed to further investigate the preliminary data. The data indicated that the positive rate of UL133, UL135 and UL136 expression in cancer tissues was higher than that in paired normal tissues (P=0.01, 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). However, no significant differences were identified in the UL133-138 locus and IE1 gene when associated with clinicopathological features. Furthermore, seven infection patterns were identified, with the UL133 + UL138 infection pattern representing the largest proportion in the cancer (60.34%) and normal tissues (42.11%). In conclusion, it is possible that the UL133-UL138 locus is important in the occurrence of gastric cancer. The mechanism by which UL133-UL138 locus expression differs in human gastric cancer requires further investigation.
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[Expression of HPV16 E7 protein and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To prepare a prokaryotic expression vector carrying E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and a polyclonal antibody against it.
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Identification of in vitro metabolites of a new anticoccidial drug nitromezuril using HepG2 cells, rat S9 and primary hepatocytes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Nitromezuril is a novel triazine compound possessing remarkable anticoccidial activity that could have possible future use in the prevention of coccidiosis; however, its metabolic characteristics have still not been revealed.
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Hepatitis B virus surface antigen as delivery vector can enhance Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope immune response in mice.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. trachomatis is considered to be an ideal candidate for prophylactic vaccine. We designed a MOMP multi-epitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides and developed hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as antigen delivery vehicle. In order to study the immunogenicity and efficacy of the candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection, we engineered a recombinant plasmid expressing HBsAg and MOMP multi-epitope genes. Results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay revealed successful expression of the recombinant HBsAg/MOMP multi-epitope gene at both the transcription and translation levels. Intramuscular administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Chlamydia and HBsAg but also cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against Chlamydia. In addition, mice inoculated with the rHBsAg were highly resistant to C. trachomatis genital infection. The rHBsAg DNA with MOMP multi-epitope appended at the C terminus of the HBsAg stimulated a stronger immune response and protective response than that appended at the N terminus. Together, our results suggested that use of a recombinant HBsAg encoding the MOMP multi-epitope could be a powerful approach to developing a safe and immunogenic C. trachomatis vaccine.
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Multiple-integrations of HPV16 genome and altered transcription of viral oncogenes and cellular genes are associated with the development of cervical cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The constitutive expression of the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 viral oncogenes is the major cause of cervical cancer. To comprehensively explore the composition of HPV16 early transcripts and their genomic annotation, cervical squamous epithelial tissues from 40 HPV16-infected patients were collected for analysis of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT). We observed different transcription patterns of HPV16 oncogenes in progression of cervical lesions to cervical cancer and identified one novel transcript. Multiple-integration events in the tissues of cervical carcinoma (CxCa) are significantly more often than those of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Moreover, most cellular genes within or near these integration sites are cancer-associated genes. Taken together, this study suggests that the multiple-integrations of HPV genome during persistent viral infection, which thereby alters the expression patterns of viral oncogenes and integration-related cellular genes, play a crucial role in progression of cervical lesions to cervix cancer.
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Subcellular localization of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and its unique regulation by lipid environment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Synthesis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (GalDAG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (GalGalDAG), the major membrane lipids in cyanobacteria, begins with production of the intermediate precursor monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (GlcDAG), by monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase (MGS). In Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Synechocystis) this activity is catalyzed by an integral membrane protein, Sll1377 or MgdA. In silico sequence analysis revealed that cyanobacterial homologues of MgdA are highly conserved and comprise a distinct group of lipid glycosyltransferases. Global regulation of lipid synthesis in Synechocystis and, more specifically, the influence of the lipid environment on MgdA activity have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we purified membrane subfractions from this organism and assayed MGS activity in vitro, with and without different lipids and other potential effectors. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDAG) potently stimulates MgdA activity, in contrast to other enzymes of a similar nature, which are activated by phosphatidylglycerol instead. Moreover, the final products of galactolipid synthesis, GalDAG and GalGalDAG, inhibited this activity. Western blotting revealed the presence of MgdA both in plasma and thylakoid membranes, with a high specific level of the MgdA protein in the plasma membrane but highest MGS activity in the thylakoid membrane. This discrepancy in the subcellular localization of enzyme activity and protein may indicate the presence of either an unknown regulator and/or an as yet unidentified MGS-type enzyme. Furthermore, the stimulation of MgdA activity by SQDAG observed here provides a new insight into regulation of the biogenesis of both sulfolipids and galactolipids in cyanobacteria.
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[Expressions of Sonic hedgehog and maixmetallo proteinase 2 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the clinicopathological implications].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To investigate the expressions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and maixmetallo proteinases 2 (MMP2) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and their association with the clinicopathological features.
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Dysregulations of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in rats with valproic acid and high fat diet induced fatty liver.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Both high fat diet (HFD) and valproic acid (VPA) interfere with mitochondrial ?-oxidation of fatty acids, which subsequently triggers microvesicular fatty liver and hepatic dysfunction. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the major phase II drug metabolism enzymes, play a pivotal role in detoxifying various exogenous and endogenous compounds. This study aimed to investigate the dysregulation patterns of major UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) induced by VPA and/or HFD. Biochemical and histopathological results showed that chronic treatments of VPA and HFD induced fatty liver and liver dysfunction in a synergistic manner. VPA upregulated the mRNA levels of UGT1A1, 1A6, 1A7, and UGT2B1. Notably, the protein expression and enzymatic activity of UGT1A6 were significantly increased in rats treated with HFD or VPA alone, and were further enhanced by HFD and VPA co-treatment. This dysregulation pattern was largely recapitulated in the in vitro HepG2 cells assay by using VPA and oleic acid treatment. Moreover, the induction of UGTs was accompanied by the increased expression of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). In line with the up-regulation of UGT1A1 and UGT1A6, urine recovery of VPA glucuronide (VPA-G) was sharply increased by VPA treatment, and the co-treatment of HFD further aggravated this change. Since VPA is necessarily prescribed for long-term and the prevalence of HFD life style nowadays, the combined effect of HFD and VPA on disturbing UGTs should take concerns in the clinics.
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Abnormal hypermethylation of promoter region downregulates chemokine CXC ligand 14 expression in gastric cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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CXCL14, a new member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, is differentially expressed in several types of tumors. The expression of CXCL14 and its clinical significance in gastric cancer are unclear to date. In this study, the expression of CXCL14 was detected by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry assay. DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR. Students t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to evaluate the differences of the CXCL14 expression between the groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the clinical significance of CXCL14 expression in gastric cancer. Data indicated that the levels of CXCL14 mRNA declined (P<0.001) in gastric carcinoma tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed the decrease of CXCL14 protein in the tumor tissue (P<0.001). Analysis of CpG islands methylation in CXCL14 promoter region and first exon area indicated that the abnormal hypermethylation of promoter region in tumor tissue is one of the mechanisms causing the reduction. When gastric cancer cells were demethylated with 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine, CXCL14 expression was restored. Downregulation of CXCL14 was associated with the depth of penetration (P<0.001) and positively correlated with prognosis in stage III/IV (P=0.046). In conclusion, it is possible that CXCL14 is involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Hypermethylation in the promoter is one of the reasons that CXCL14 has lower expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. The level of CXCL14 expression may be a valuable adjuvant parameter in predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer patients and, thus, a potential therapeutic target.
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Immunogenicity of a multiepitope plasmid DNA encoding T and B lymphocyte epitopes from latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) of Epstein-Barr virus as a vaccine in mice.
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human oncogenic herpesvirus associating with several malignant diseases. Latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) of EBV is considered to be an ideal candidate for immunotherapy or prophylactic EBV vaccine. We designed a LMP2 multiepitope containing T and B-cell epitope-rich peptides and constructed a recombinant plasmid containing mammalian codonoptimization EBV LMP2 multiepitope (pcDNA3.1+/EBV-LMP2 multiepitope). After pcDNA3.1+/EBV-LMP2 multiepitope was transfected into COS-7 cells, significant expression of the multiepitope in COS-7 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay. Western blot analysis indicated that serum from immunized mice could be discerned by the EBV-LMP2 protein and the EBV-LMP2 multiepitope specifically. The plasmid DNA of EBV-LMP2 multiepitope induced high levels anti-EBV membrane protein and anti-EBV LMP2 multiepitope IgG in mice. T lymphocytes from spleen of immunized mice showed a strong CTL activity. The present study suggested that plasmid DNA encoding EBV LMP2 multiepitope capable of stimulating enough cellular and humoral immunity could have potential for preventing or controlling EBV infection and EBV associated disease in mice.
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Anticoccidial effects of a novel triazine nitromezuril in broiler chickens.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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The anticoccidial efficacy of 2-(3-methyl-4-(4-nitrophenoxy)phenyl)-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione (nitromezuril, NZL), a novel triazine compound, was evaluated in three different studies under experimental conditions. The anticoccidial efficacy was chiefly evaluated using the anticoccidial index (ACI). The resistance level was determined by calculating ACI, percentage optimum anticoccidial activity (POAA), reduction in lesion scores (RLS) and relative oocyst production (ROP). In the dose determination study (study A), NZL was added to the diet at doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mg/kg to test its efficacy against coccidiosis caused by Eimeria tenella. Groups treated with NZL 1mg/kg feed could observe the faecal dropping scores and caecal lesions. ACIs of NZL-treated groups reached 179-199. In the study on the anticoccidial efficacy of 3mg/kg NZL in the diet (study B), only a few faecal oocysts and slight lesions were observed. NZL significantly promoted weight gain (WG) and reduced lesion scores (LS) compared to controls receiving diclazuril (DZL) (P<0.05). ACIs of NZL-treated groups were 193, 192, 191 and 163 for E. tenella, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima, respectively, whereas those of DZL-treated groups were 185, 176, 176 and 148. In the cross-drug resistance study (study C), ACIs of NZL and toltrazuril (TZL)-treated groups ranged from 188 to 204, which were significantly higher than those of DZL-treated groups (P<0.05). NZL- and TZL-treated groups were sensitive to experimentally induced DZL-resistant E. tenella, whereas DZL-treated groups showed complete resistance. No cross-resistance was observed between DZL and NZL or TZL. Based on the abovementioned studies, it was concluded that diets containing 3 mg/kg NZL had an excellent efficacy in preventing coccidiosis in broiler chickens. The activity of 3mg/kg NZL in the diet was equal or superior to that of 1 mg/kg DZL. These results are of great significance for the future applications of NZL; however, its actual mechanism of action remains unknown. NZL is a potential novel anticoccidial agent suitable for further development.
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Nuclear translocation and accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase involved in diclazuril-induced apoptosis in Eimeria tenella (E. tenella).
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In mammalian cells, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) has recently been shown to be implicated in numerous apoptotic paradigms, especially in neuronal apoptosis, and has been demonstrated to play a vital role in some neurodegenerative disorders. However, this phenomenon has not been reported in protists. In the present study, we report for the first time that such a mechanism is involved in diclazuril-induced apoptosis in Eimeria tenella (E. tenella). We found that upon treatment of parasites with diclazuril, the expression levels of GAPDH transcript and protein were significantly increased in second-generation merozoites. Then, we examined the subcellular localization of GAPDH by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. The results show that a considerable amount of GAPDH protein appeared in the nucleus within diclazuril-treated second-generation merozoites; in contrast, the control group had very low levels of GAPDH in the nucleus. The glycolytic activity of GAPDH was kinetically analyzed in different subcellular fractions. A substantial decrease (48.5%) in glycolytic activity of GAPDH in the nucleus was displayed. Moreover, the activities of caspases-3, -9, and -8 were measured in cell extracts using specific caspase substrates. The data show significant increases in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in the diclazuril-treated group.
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Novel immunodominant epitopes derived from MAGE-A3 and its significance in serological diagnosis of gastric cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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To evaluate the significance of MAGE-A3 novel immunodominant epitopes in serological diagnosis of gastric cancer.
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Ongoing activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors mediates maturation of exosomal multivesicular endosomes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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During late endosome maturation, cargo molecules are sorted into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs), and are either delivered to lysosomes for degradation or fused with the plasma membranes for exosome release. The mechanism underlying formation of exosomal ILVs and cargo sorting into ILVs destined for exosome release is still unclear. Here we show that inhibitory G protein (Gi)-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors regulate exosomal MVE maturation. Gi-coupled S1P receptors on MVEs are constitutively activated through a constant supply of S1P via autocrine activation within organelles. We also found that the continuous activation of Gi-coupled S1P receptors on MVEs is essential for cargo sorting into ILVs destined for exosome release. Our results reveal a mechanism underlying ESCRT-independent maturation of exosomal MVEs.
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Investigating the concordance of Gene Ontology terms reveals the intra- and inter-platform reproducibility of enrichment analysis.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Reliability and Reproducibility of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are essential for the biological interpretation of microarray data. The microarray quality control (MAQC) project launched by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) elucidated that the lists of DEGs generated by intra- and inter-platform comparisons can reach a high level of concordance, which mainly depended on the statistical criteria used for ranking and selecting DEGs. Generally, it will produce reproducible lists of DEGs when combining fold change ranking with a non-stringent p-value cutoff. For further interpretation of the gene expression data, statistical methods of gene enrichment analysis provide powerful tools for associating the DEGs with prior biological knowledge, e.g. Gene Ontology (GO) terms and pathways, and are widely used in genome-wide research. Although the DEG lists generated from the same compared conditions proved to be reliable, the reproducible enrichment results are still crucial to the discovery of the underlying molecular mechanism differentiating the two conditions. Therefore, it is important to know whether the enrichment results are still reproducible, when using the lists of DEGs generated by different statistic criteria from inter-laboratory and cross-platform comparisons. In our study, we used the MAQC data sets for systematically accessing the intra- and inter-platform concordance of GO terms enriched by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and LRpath.
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Using gene expression programming to infer gene regulatory networks from time-series data.
Comput Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Gene regulatory networks inference is currently a topic under heavy research in the systems biology field. In this paper, gene regulatory networks are inferred via evolutionary model based on time-series microarray data. A non-linear differential equation model is adopted. Gene expression programming (GEP) is applied to identify the structure of the model and least mean square (LMS) is used to optimize the parameters in ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The proposed work has been first verified by synthetic data with noise-free and noisy time-series data, respectively, and then its effectiveness is confirmed by three real time-series expression datasets. Finally, a gene regulatory network was constructed with 12 Yeast genes. Experimental results demonstrate that our model can improve the prediction accuracy of microarray time-series data effectively.
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Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides can improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Cordyceps militaris polysaccharide (CMP) was prepared by water decoction and ethanol precipitation. The fractional CMP40 and CMP50 were extracted from the CMP solution by stepwise precipitation with ethanol at 40% and 50% of working concentration, respectively. The immune-enhancing activities of two polysaccharides were researched. In vitro experiment, the effects of two polysaccharides on chicken peripheral lymphocyte proliferation were determined by MTT assay. The result displayed that two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, the action of CMP40 was significantly or numerically stronger than those of CMP50. In vivo experiment, 320 14-day-old chickens were averagely divided into eight groups. The chickens, except blank control (BC) group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three CMP40 fraction groups and three CMP50 fraction groups were injected respectively with the polysaccharide at low, medium and high concentrations, in vaccination control (VC) and BC group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the first vaccination, the lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titre and interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 were measured. The results showed that CMP40 and CMP50 at suitable dose could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titre, and improve serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 concentrations. It indicated that CMP40 fraction and CMP50 fraction could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, and would be as the candidate of a new-type immune adjuvant.
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Deletion of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 leader peptidase LepB1 affects photosynthetic complexes and respiration.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses two leader peptidases, LepB1 (Sll0716) and LepB2 (Slr1377), responsible for the processing of signal peptide-containing proteins. Deletion of the gene for LepB1 results in an inability to grow photoautotrophically and an extreme light sensitivity. Here we show, using a combination of Blue Native/SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and iTRAQ analysis, that lack of LepB1 strongly affects the cells ability to accumulate wild-type levels of both photosystem I (PSI) and cytochrome (Cyt) b6f complexes. The impaired assembly of PSI and Cyt b6f is considered to be caused by the no or slow processing of the integral subunits PsaF and Cyt f respectively. In particular, PsaF, one of the PSI subunits, was found incorporated into PSI in its unprocessed form, which could influence the assembly and/or stability of PSI. In contrast to these results, we found the amount of assembled photosystem II (PSII) unchanged, despite a slower processing of PsbO. Thus, imbalance in the ratios of PSI and Cyt b6f to photosystem II leads to an imbalanced photosynthetic electron flow up- and down-stream of the plastoquinone pool, resulting in the observed light sensitivity of the mutant. We conclude that LepB1 is the natural leader peptidase for PsaF, PsbO, and Cyt f. The maturation of PsbO and Cyt f can be partially performed by LepB2, whereas PsaF processing is completely dependent on LepB1. iTRAQ analysis also revealed a number of indirect effects accompanying the mutation, primarily a strong induction of the CydAB oxidase as well as a significant decrease in phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll/heme biosynthesis enzymes.
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Association studies of MMP-9 in Parkinsons disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) share several clinical and neuropathologic features, and studies suggest that several gene mutations and polymorphisms are involved in both conditions. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and ALS, and the C(-1562)T polymorphism in the MMP-9 gene leads to higher promoter activity. We therefore investigated whether this polymorphism predisposes to both PD and sporadic ALS (sALS). Samples from 351 subjects with PD and 351 healthy controls from two major cities in China were compared, while samples from 226 subjects with sALS were compared to the same number of controls from three centers in China. A possible association between the C(-1562)T polymorphism in the MMP-9 gene and PD or sALS was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our results show a significant association between the C(-1562)T polymorphism in the MMP-9 gene and risk of PD (odds ratio = 2.268, 95% CI 1.506-3.416, p<0.001) as well as risk of sALS (odds ratio = 2.163, 95% CI 1.233-3.796, p = 0.006), supporting a role for MMP-9 polymorphism in the risk for PD and sALS.
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Thioacetamide intoxication triggers transcriptional up-regulation but enzyme inactivation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Thioacetamide (TAA) is a potent hepatotoxicant and has been widely used to develop experimental liver fibrosis/cirrhosis models. Although the liver toxicity of TAA has been extensively studied, little is known about its potential influence on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) associated with the development of liver fibrosis. The study presented here aimed to uncover the regulation patterns of UGTs in TAA-induced liver fibrosis of rats. Potential counteracting effects of hepatoprotective agents were also determined. TAA treatment for 8 weeks induced a significant transcriptional up-regulation of the major UGT isoforms, including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and UGT2B1, accompanied with the dramatic elevations of most typical serum biomarkers of liver function and fibrosis scores. Upon TAA intoxication, the mRNA and protein levels of the major UGT isoforms were increased to 1.5- to 2.5-fold and 2.5- to 3.3-fold of that of the normal control, respectively. The hepatoprotective agents Schisandra spp. lignans extract and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate could largely abolish TAA-induced up-regulation of all three UGT isoforms. However, enzyme activities of UGTs remained unchanged after TAA treatment. The dissociation of protein expression and enzyme activity could possibly be attributed to the inactivating effects of TAA, upon a NADPH-dependent bioactivation, on UGTs. This study suggests that the transcriptional up-regulation of UGTs may be an alternative mechanism of their preserved activities in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis.
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Identification and characterization of novel B-cell epitopes within EBV latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2).
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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The purpose of this study was to screen and identify the linear B-cell epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2). The secondary structure and surface properties of EBV LMP2A protein were analyzed. In combination with hydrophilicity, accessibility, flexibility, and antigenicity analysis, and average antigenicity index (AI) of epitope peptide investigation, three peptides were selected as potential candidates of linear B-cell epitopes. The peptides were 199-209 (RIEDPPFNSLL), 318-322 (TLNLT), and 381-391 (KSLSSTEFIPN). The fragments encoding potential B-cell epitopes were cloned and overexpressed in an E. coli system. The immune sera of these fusion proteins were collected from BALB/c mice by subcutaneously immunizing them three times. Western blotting results showed that these epitope recombinant proteins could be recognized by the serum antibodies against the whole LMP2 from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Indirect ELISA measuring individual sera from 196 NPC patients, 44 infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients, 253 healthy adults, and 61 healthy children, indicated that NPC patients had significantly higher reactivity to these epitope-fused proteins compared with IM and healthy individuals (p?
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[Prediction and research on homology of B-cell epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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We predict in this paper B-cell epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and analyze the results matched with the related autoantigens sequence of human. We selected EBV-1 standard strain NA-1 amino acid sequence as the basis. We predicted B-cell dominant epitopes of EBNA-1 with the methods of SOPMA, GOR and HNN, combined with the multi-parameter analysis of transmembrane domain, hydrophilicity profile, surface probability, antigenicity index, polarity and average flexibility. The blastp method was adopted to analyze the matched results between the predicted B-cell epitopes of EBNA-1 and the related autoantigens sequence of human. The results have shown that the possible B-cell dominant epitopes of EBNA-1 were located in the N terminal regions of 16-23, 35-78, 332-337, 340-357, 398-404, 419-432 and 620-637, in which different regions gained higher scores when matched with small nuclear ribonucleoprotein SmB, SmD, ribonucleoprotein SSA, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNP A1, hnRNP G, respectively. It was available to predict B-cell dominant epitopes of EBNA-1 with multiparameter methods and to analyze the same or similar autoantigens sequences of human, which laid a theory foundation for the study of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.
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Enhanced Y1H assays for Arabidopsis.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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We present an Arabidopsis thaliana full-length transcription factor resource of 92% of root stele-expressed transcription factors and 74.5% of root-expressed transcription factors. We demonstrate its use with enhanced yeast one-hybrid (eY1H) screening for rapid, systematic mapping of plant transcription factor-promoter interactions. We identified 158 interactions with 13 stele-expressed promoters, many of which occur physically or are regulatory in planta.
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Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a tuberculosis DNA vaccine expressing a fusion protein of Ag85B-Esat6-HspX in mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Tuberculosis remains a major infectious disease worldwide due to the low efficacy of available vaccine of the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). DNA vaccines are especially promising candidates; however, the efficacy of DNA vaccine expressing single antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) is limited. In this study, a plasmid DNA vaccine, pAEH, was constructed and designed to express a fusion protein of the Ag85B, Esat6, and HspX of MTb. Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy as well as therapeutic effect were assessed in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Vaccination with the pAEH significantly increased the frequency of peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, but not ??T cells, similar to that of vaccination with the BCG, and induced significantly higher levels of HspX-specific T cell proliferation, as compared with vaccination with BCG or the pHspX. Furthermore, vaccination with the pAEH increased the frequency of Ag85B, Esat6 and HspX-specific IFN?-secreting T cells, accompanied by significantly higher levels of IFN-? and IL-2 production ex vivo, as compared with that of the BCG or pHspX-vaccinated mice. Apparently, vaccination with the pAEH induced potent Th1 responses in mice. More importantly, vaccination with the pAEH inhibited the replication of virulent MTb in the lungs and spleens, even after MTb infection, and related lung inflammation in mice. Potentially, the newly developed pAEH vaccine may be used for the prevention and therapeutic intervention of MTb infection.
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Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection induced by a vaccine based on the major outer membrane multi-epitope human papillomavirus major capsid protein L1.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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The administration of an efficacious vaccine is the most effective long-term measure to control the genital tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in humans. The current challenge for Ct vaccine development is to develop an effective delivery vehicle for induction of a high level of mucosal T and complementary B cell responses. We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) multiepitope of Ct delivered with the human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 as a vehicle with adjuvant properties, in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) containing mammalian codon-optimization HPV6b L1 gene and Ct MOMP multiepitope was constructed. The Ct MOMP multiepitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides was inserted into C-terminal of HPV6b L1-coding sequence. The constructed plasmid after verified by enzyme restriction assay and DNA sequencing was transfected into COS-7 cells. Expression of the chimeric gene in COS-7 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed successful expression of the chimeric HPV6b L1/Ct MOMP multiepitope gene both at the mRNA and protein levels in transfected COS-7 cells. Intramuscular (IM) administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Ct MOMP, but also Th1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against the Ct MOMP epitopes. In addition, recipients of IM immunization of HPV6b L1/Ct MOMP multiepitope were highly resistant to infection. Altogether, the results suggested that IM delivery of HPV6b L1-MOMP multiepitope may be a suitable vaccine regimen potentially capable of inducing protective mucosal immunity against Ct infection.
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A stele-enriched gene regulatory network in the Arabidopsis root.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Tightly controlled gene expression is a hallmark of multicellular development and is accomplished by transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Although many studies have focused on identifying downstream targets of these molecules, less is known about the factors that regulate their differential expression. We used data from high spatial resolution gene expression experiments and yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) and two-hybrid (Y2H) assays to delineate a subset of interactions occurring within a gene regulatory network (GRN) that determines tissue-specific TF and miRNA expression in plants. We find that upstream TFs are expressed in more diverse cell types than their targets and that promoters that are bound by a relatively large number of TFs correspond to key developmental regulators. The regulatory consequence of many TFs for their target was experimentally determined using genetic analysis. Remarkably, molecular phenotypes were identified for 65% of the TFs, but morphological phenotypes were associated with only 16%. This indicates that the GRN is robust, and that gene expression changes may be canalized or buffered.
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Identification of immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes within the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted pathogens. Chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) can induce strong cellular and humoral immune responses in murine models and has been regarded as a potential vaccine candidate. In this report, the amino acid sequence of MOMP was analyzed using computer-assisted techniques to scan B-cell epitopes, and three possible linear B-cell epitopes peptides (VLKTDVNKE, TKDASIDYHE, TRLIDERAAH) with high predicted antigenicity and high conservation were investigated. The DNA coding region for each potential epitope was cloned into pET32a(+) and expressed as Trx-His-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. The fusion proteins were purified by Ni-NTA agarose beads and followed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. We immunized mice with these three fusion proteins. The sera containing anti-epitope antibodies from the immunized mice could recognize C. trachomatis serovars D and E in ELISA. Antisera of these fusion proteins displayed an inhibitory effect on invasion of serovar E by in vitro neutralization assays. In addition, serum samples from convalescent C. trachomatis-infected patients were reactive with the epitope fusion proteins by western blot assay. Our results showed that the epitope sequences selected by bioinformatic analysis are highly conserved C. trachomatis MOMP B-cell epitopes, and could be good candidates for the development of subunit vaccines, which can be used in clinical diagnosis.
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Simultaneous determination of triclabendazole and its metabolites in bovine and goat tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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A sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of triclabendazole, its main metabolites (triclabendazole sulphone and triclabendazole sulphoxide) and a marker residue (ketotriclabendazole) in bovine and goat muscle, liver, and kidney samples is developed and validated. Analyte extraction from samples is effectively performed using liquid-liquid extraction by acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation is performed on a C?? reversed-phase column with gradient elution. The analytes are detected by tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry after positive electrospray ionization by multiple reaction monitoring. The limits of detection for analytes are found to be 0.25-2.5 ?g/kg in muscle tissues and 1-10 ?g/kg in liver and kidney tissues, respectively. The recoveries of edible bovine and goat tissues range from 84.9% to 109.5% when spiked at different levels with analytes, with relative standard deviations generally below 12.8%.
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Expression of HPV6b L1/EBV LMP2 multiepitope and immunogenicity in mice.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 is an important vehicle for the delivery of epitopes. To investigate the expression and immunogenicity of hybridized HPV6b L1 containing multiepitope of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency membrane protein 2 (LMP2), a recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) containing mammalian codon-optimization HPV6b L1 gene and EBV LMP2 multiepitope was constructed. The EBV LMP2 multiepitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides was inserted into C-terminal of HPV6b L1-coding sequence. The constructed plasmid after verified by enzyme restriction assay and DNA sequencing was transfected into COS-7 cells. Expression of the chimeric gene in COS-7 cells was confirmed by RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed successful expression of the chimeric HPV6b L1/EBV LMP2 multiepitope gene both at the mRNA and protein levels in transfected COS-7 cells. Intramuscular administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against HPV6b L1 virus-like particle and EBV LMP2, but also cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against the EBV LMP2 epitopes. The present results confirmed that HPV L1 protein is potential to deliver multiepitope of EBV LMP2 as immunogen to the MHC class I and class II pathways, extending the use of HPV L1 as delivery vehicles.
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Activated networking of platelet activating factor receptor and FAK/STAT1 induces malignant potential in BRCA1-mutant at-risk ovarian epithelium.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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It is essential to understand the molecular basis of ovarian cancer etiology and tumor development to provide more effective preventive and therapeutic approaches to reduce mortality. Particularly, the molecular targets and pathways involved in early malignant transformation are still not clear. Pro-inflammatory lipids and pathways have been reported to play significant roles in ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. The major objective of this study was to explore and determine whether platelet activating factor (PAF) and receptor associated networking pathways might significantly induce malignant potential in BRCA1-mutant at-risk epithelial cells.
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The B73 maize genome: complexity, diversity, and dynamics.
Patrick S Schnable, Doreen Ware, Robert S Fulton, Joshua C Stein, Fusheng Wei, Shiran Pasternak, Chengzhi Liang, Jianwei Zhang, Lucinda Fulton, Tina A Graves, Patrick Minx, Amy Denise Reily, Laura Courtney, Scott S Kruchowski, Chad Tomlinson, Cindy Strong, Kim Delehaunty, Catrina Fronick, Bill Courtney, Susan M Rock, Eddie Belter, Feiyu Du, Kyung Kim, Rachel M Abbott, Marc Cotton, Andy Levy, Pamela Marchetto, Kerri Ochoa, Stephanie M Jackson, Barbara Gillam, Weizu Chen, Le Yan, Jamey Higginbotham, Marco Cardenas, Jason Waligorski, Elizabeth Applebaum, Lindsey Phelps, Jason Falcone, Krishna Kanchi, Thynn Thane, Adam Scimone, Nay Thane, Jessica Henke, Tom Wang, Jessica Ruppert, Neha Shah, Kelsi Rotter, Jennifer Hodges, Elizabeth Ingenthron, Matt Cordes, Sara Kohlberg, Jennifer Sgro, Brandon Delgado, Kelly Mead, Asif Chinwalla, Shawn Leonard, Kevin Crouse, Kristi Collura, Dave Kudrna, Jennifer Currie, Ruifeng He, Angelina Angelova, Shanmugam Rajasekar, Teri Mueller, Rene Lomeli, Gabriel Scara, Ara Ko, Krista Delaney, Marina Wissotski, Georgina Lopez, David Campos, Michele Braidotti, Elizabeth Ashley, Wolfgang Golser, Hyeran Kim, Seunghee Lee, Jinke Lin, Zeljko Dujmic, Woojin Kim, Jayson Talag, Andrea Zuccolo, Chuanzhu Fan, Aswathy Sebastian, Melissa Kramer, Lori Spiegel, Lidia Nascimento, Theresa Zutavern, Beth Miller, Claude Ambroise, Stephanie Müller, Will Spooner, Apurva Narechania, Liya Ren, Sharon Wei, Sunita Kumari, Ben Faga, Michael J Levy, Linda McMahan, Peter Van Buren, Matthew W Vaughn, Kai Ying, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Scott J Emrich, Yi Jia, Ananth Kalyanaraman, An-Ping Hsia, W Brad Barbazuk, Regina S Baucom, Thomas P Brutnell, Nicholas C Carpita, Cristian Chaparro, Jer-Ming Chia, Jean-Marc Deragon, James C Estill, Yan Fu, Jeffrey A Jeddeloh, Yujun Han, Hyeran Lee, Pinghua Li, Damon R Lisch, Sanzhen Liu, Zhijie Liu, Dawn Holligan Nagel, Maureen C McCann, Phillip SanMiguel, Alan M Myers, Dan Nettleton, John Nguyen, Bryan W Penning, Lalit Ponnala, Kevin L Schneider, David C Schwartz, Anupma Sharma, Carol Soderlund, Nathan M Springer, Qi Sun, Hao Wang, Michael Waterman, Richard Westerman, Thomas K Wolfgruber, Lixing Yang, Yeisoo Yu, Lifang Zhang, Shiguo Zhou, Qihui Zhu, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, R Kelly Dawe, Jiming Jiang, Ning Jiang, Gernot G Presting, Susan R Wessler, Srinivas Aluru, Robert A Martienssen, Sandra W Clifton, W Richard McCombie, Rod A Wing, Richard K Wilson.
Science
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2009
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We report an improved draft nucleotide sequence of the 2.3-gigabase genome of maize, an important crop plant and model for biological research. Over 32,000 genes were predicted, of which 99.8% were placed on reference chromosomes. Nearly 85% of the genome is composed of hundreds of families of transposable elements, dispersed nonuniformly across the genome. These were responsible for the capture and amplification of numerous gene fragments and affect the composition, sizes, and positions of centromeres. We also report on the correlation of methylation-poor regions with Mu transposon insertions and recombination, and copy number variants with insertions and/or deletions, as well as how uneven gene losses between duplicated regions were involved in returning an ancient allotetraploid to a genetically diploid state. These analyses inform and set the stage for further investigations to improve our understanding of the domestication and agricultural improvements of maize.
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Synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of cyanide-bridged low-dimensional heterometallic Fe(III)-Mn(II) complexes.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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With trans-dicyanideiron(III) precursor K[Fe(salen)(CN)(2)] x CH(3)OH (1) (H(2)salen = N,N-bis(salicyl)ethylenediamine) as a building block, four new cyanide-bridged heterometallic Fe(III)-Mn(II) complexes {[Fe(salen)(CN)(2)](2)[Mn(bipy)(2)]} x CH(3)OH x 2 H(2)O (2), {[Fe(salen)(CN)(2)](2)[Mn(phen)(2)]} x CH(3)OH (3), and {[Fe(salen)(CN)(2)][Mn(L)]}ClO(4) x CH(3)OH [L = L(a) (4) and L(b) (5)] have been successfully assembled. Single X-ray diffraction analyses reveals the trinuclear Fe(III)(2)Mn(II) nature of complexes 2 and 3 comprised of one [Mn(bipy)(2)](2+)/[Mn(phen)(2)](2+) and two [Fe(salen)(CN)(2)](-) units, and the one-dimensional cyanide-bridged cationic polymeric single chain nature of complexes 4 and 5 consisting of alternating units of [Mn(L)](2+) (L = L(a) and L(b)) and [Fe(salen)(CN)(2)](-) with free ClO(4)(-) as balanced anions. Investigations into the magnetic properties of these four heterometallic cyanide-bridged Fe(III)-Mn(II) complexes reveals the overall antiferromagnetic interaction between neighbouring Fe(III) and Mn(II) ions through the bridging cyanide group. On the basis of the Hamiltonian H = -2JS(Mn)(S(Fe(1)) + S(Fe(2))), the magnetic simulation for the trimeric complexes 2 and 3 gives the magnetic coupling constant 2J(MnFe) = -2.68(4) cm(-1) for 2 and 2J(MnFe) = -2.46(8) cm(-1) for 3, respectively. A best-fit to the magnetic susceptibilities of 4 and 5 based on the one-dimensional alternating chain model leads to the magnetic coupling constants 2J(1) = -6.50(2) and 2J(2) = -1.57(1) cm(-1) for 4 and 2J(1) = -5.35(2) and 2J(2) = -0.93(1) cm(-1) for 5.
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Detailed analysis of a contiguous 22-Mb region of the maize genome.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Most of our understanding of plant genome structure and evolution has come from the careful annotation of small (e.g., 100 kb) sequenced genomic regions or from automated annotation of complete genome sequences. Here, we sequenced and carefully annotated a contiguous 22 Mb region of maize chromosome 4 using an improved pseudomolecule for annotation. The sequence segment was comprehensively ordered, oriented, and confirmed using the maize optical map. Nearly 84% of the sequence is composed of transposable elements (TEs) that are mostly nested within each other, of which most families are low-copy. We identified 544 gene models using multiple levels of evidence, as well as five miRNA genes. Gene fragments, many captured by TEs, are prevalent within this region. Elimination of gene redundancy from a tetraploid maize ancestor that originated a few million years ago is responsible in this region for most disruptions of synteny with sorghum and rice. Consistent with other sub-genomic analyses in maize, small RNA mapping showed that many small RNAs match TEs and that most TEs match small RNAs. These results, performed on approximately 1% of the maize genome, demonstrate the feasibility of refining the B73 RefGen_v1 genome assembly by incorporating optical map, high-resolution genetic map, and comparative genomic data sets. Such improvements, along with those of gene and repeat annotation, will serve to promote future functional genomic and phylogenomic research in maize and other grasses.
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In silico method for systematic analysis of feature importance in microRNA-mRNA interactions.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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MicroRNA (miRNA), which is short non-coding RNA, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of many biological processes and affects the stability and/or translation of mRNA. Recently, machine learning algorithms were developed to predict potential miRNA targets. Most of these methods are robust but are not sensitive to redundant or irrelevant features. Despite their good performance, the relative importance of each feature is still unclear. With increasing experimental data becoming available, research interest has shifted from higher prediction performance to uncovering the mechanism of microRNA-mRNA interactions.
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A genome-wide characterization of microRNA genes in maize.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play essential roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. We conducted a genome-wide survey of maize miRNA genes, characterizing their structure, expression, and evolution. Computational approaches based on homology and secondary structure modeling identified 150 high-confidence genes within 26 miRNA families. For 25 families, expression was verified by deep-sequencing of small RNA libraries that were prepared from an assortment of maize tissues. PCR-RACE amplification of 68 miRNA transcript precursors, representing 18 families conserved across several plant species, showed that splice variation and the use of alternative transcriptional start and stop sites is common within this class of genes. Comparison of sequence variation data from diverse maize inbred lines versus teosinte accessions suggest that the mature miRNAs are under strong purifying selection while the flanking sequences evolve equivalently to other genes. Since maize is derived from an ancient tetraploid, the effect of whole-genome duplication on miRNA evolution was examined. We found that, like protein-coding genes, duplicated miRNA genes underwent extensive gene-loss, with approximately 35% of ancestral sites retained as duplicate homoeologous miRNA genes. This number is higher than that observed with protein-coding genes. A search for putative miRNA targets indicated bias towards genes in regulatory and metabolic pathways. As maize is one of the principal models for plant growth and development, this study will serve as a foundation for future research into the functional roles of miRNA genes.
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[Cloning of cDNAs encoding skin antimicrobial peptide precursors from Chinese brown frogs, Rana chensinensis and determination of antimicrobial, anticancer and hemolysis activity].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2009
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Amphibian skin antimicrobial peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterium and cytotoxic activity responsible for inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. In this present study, six cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptide precursors were cloned from the skin of Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis by RT-PCR and 3-RACE procedure and identified as preprotemporin-1CEa, preprotemporin-1CEb, preprotemporin-1CEc, preprobrevinin-1CEa, preprobrevinin-1CEb, and preprochensinin-1, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of cDNA encoding 59-65 amino acid composed of 289-315 bp. Preprotemporin-1CEa, preprotemporin-1CEb and preprotemporin-1CEc are members of temporin family, which usually are short, hydrophobic, and C-terminally alpha-amidated antimicrobial peptides. Preprobrevinin-1CEa and preprobrevinin-1CEb were identified as the members of the brevinin-1 family of antimicrobial peptides since both peptides contain "RANA box" that its responsible for forming Cys-bridged cyclic heptapeptides at the C-terminal region of peptide. The nucleotide acid sequence and the deduced amino acid Sequence of preprochensinin-1 were not found to be identity with any known amphibian skin defensive peptides, so, preprochensinin-1 was identified as a novel peptide precursor. Four of bioactive peptides: temporin-1CEa, temporin-1CEb, brevinin-1CEa and chensinin-1 were synthesized to investigate their antimicrobial, anticancer and haemolysis activities. The results showed that all of the synthesized antimicrobial peptides in this study inhibited the growth of the Gram-positive bacterium, and exhibited the anticancer activity against the growth of MCF-7 cells and HeLa cells. Analysis of the R. chensinensis bioactive peptides and their gene expression will be beneficial for preservation of this species.
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Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptide precursors from the skin of the Chinese brown frog, Rana chensinensis.
Zool. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
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Skin plays a key role in the daily survival of amphibians. In the present study, six cDNAs encoding amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide precursors from the Chinese brown frog Rana chensinensis, were cloned and identified as preprobrevinin-1CEc, preprobrevinin-1CEb, preprotemporin-1CEa, preprotemporin-1CEb, preprotemporin-1CEc, and preprochensinin-1. Preprotemporin-1CEa, CEb, and CEc are members of the temporin family, which are usually short, hydrophobic, and C-terminally alpha-amidated antimicrobial peptides. Preprobrevinin-1CEa and CEb were identified as members of the brevinin-1 family of antimicrobial peptides, because both peptides contain a "Rana box" that is responsible for forming C-terminal Cys-bridged cyclic heptapeptides. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of preprochensinin-1 were not similar to any known amphibian skin defensive peptides. Four bioactive peptides were chemically synthesized according to the deduced amino acid sequences of six prepropeptides from R. chensinensis skin, and their antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and haemolytic properties were evaluated. All of the synthesized peptides inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Brevinin-1CEa showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The novel amphibian skin peptide chensinin-1 was active against Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus lactis at a concentration of 11.6 microM, but did not inhibit the growth of MCF-7 and HeLa cells at 200 microM, and had no haemolytic activity at a concentration of 500 microM. Temporin-1CEa exhibited the greatest ability to inhibit the growth of MCF-7 cells. Its antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities may be due to its high degree of alpha-helical confirmation and amphipathic nature.
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Differential expression of miRNAs in response to salt stress in maize roots.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Corn (Zea mays) responds to salt stress via changes in gene expression, metabolism and physiology. This adaptation is achieved through the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to act as key regulating factors of post-transcriptional gene expression. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs in plants responses to abiotic stresses.
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The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approximately 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approximately 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approximately 75% larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approximately 70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum-rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24% of genes are grass-specific and 7% are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghums drought tolerance.
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Nongenomic effect of estrogen on the MAPK signaling pathway and calcium influx in endometrial carcinoma cells.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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17beta-Estradiol (E2) is well known to interact with intracellular receptors that act as nuclear transcription factors. However, abundant evidence now indicates that E2 can also rapidly induce several nongenomic effects through signaling pathways related to cell growth, preservation, and differentiation. We studied the nongenomic effects of E2 in two human endometrial carcinoma cell lines, Ishikawa (estrogen receptor (ER) positive) and Hec-1A (ER negative or low) by cultivating them with either E2 or its membrane-impermeable conjugate, E2-BSA. We found that phosphorylation of Erk1/2 could be induced by either E2 or E2-BSA in Ishikawa cells. In Hec-1A cells, only E2 was able to induce Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Although the existence of a nongenomic component to the response was indicated by the finding that it could not be completely inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI182780,and it can also be inhibited by calcium inhibitor Nifedipine partly. Phosphorylation of Akt could not be induced, either by E2 or E2-BSA, in either cell line. Both E2 and E2-BSA elicited calcium influx in Ishikawa cells. In contrast to these nongenomic effects, only E2 was able to stimulate expression of the anti-apoptotic-protein Bcl-2. Taken together, these data indicate that nongenomic effects such as Erk1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx can be initiated from the membrane in Ishikawa cell, and calcium can activate Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Except for ER, there must be other binding location of estrogen in endometrial cancer cells, and the nongenomic effects of estrogen initiated from plasma membrane by E2-BSA cannot lead to transcriptional effect of Bcl-2 expression.
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[The study of regional specification for the medical equipment acceptance].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
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Standardization of medical equipment acceptance regional specification is elaborated., by virtue of regional resources to further improve the acceptance level, to strengthen the quality management of medical devices is strengthened through the improvement of acceptance level with regional shared resources.
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Intron definition and a branch site adenosine at nt 385 control RNA splicing of HPV16 E6*I and E7 expression.
PLoS ONE
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HPV16 E6 and E7, two viral oncogenes, are expressed from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA. In this report, we provide the evidence that the bicistronic pre-mRNA intron 1 contains three 5 splice sites (5 ss) and three 3 splice sites (3 ss) normally used in HPV16(+) cervical cancer and its derived cell lines. The choice of two novel alternative 5 ss (nt 221 5 ss and nt 191 5 ss) produces two novel isoforms of E6E7 mRNAs (E6*V and E6*VI). The nt 226 5 ss and nt 409 3 ss is preferentially selected over the other splice sites crossing over the intron to excise a minimal length of the intron in RNA splicing. We identified AACAAAC as the preferred branch point sequence (BPS) and an adenosine at nt 385 (underlined) in the BPS as a branch site to dictate the selection of the nt 409 3 ss for E6*I splicing and E7 expression. Introduction of point mutations into the mapped BPS led to reduced U2 binding to the BPS and thereby inhibition of the second step of E6E7 splicing at the nt 409 3 ss. Importantly, the E6E7 bicistronic RNA with a mutant BPS and inefficient splicing makes little or no E7 and the resulted E6 with mutations of (91)QYNK(94) to (91)PSFW(94) displays attenuate activity on p53 degradation. Together, our data provide structural basis of the E6E7 intron 1 for better understanding of how viral E6 and E7 expression is regulated by alternative RNA splicing. This study elucidates for the first time a mapped branch point in HPV16 genome involved in viral oncogene expression.
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Characterization of miRNAs in response to short-term waterlogging in three inbred lines of Zea mays.
PLoS ONE
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Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.
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Increase of stress resistance in Lactococcus lactis via a novel food-grade vector expressing a shsp gene from Streptococcus thermophilus.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
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The effects of the expression of a small heat shock protein (shsp) gene from Streptococcus thermophilus on stress resistance in Lactococcus lactis under different environmental stresses were investigated in this study. pMG36e-shsp, an expression vector, was first constructed by inserting a shsp open reading frame (ORF) cloned from S. thermophilus strain St-QC into pMG36e. Then, a food-grade expression vector, pMG-shsp, was generated by deleting the erythromycin resistance gene from pMG36e-shsp. The transformation rate of pMG-shsp was comparable to that of pMG36e-shsp when each of these two vectors was introduced into L. lactis. These results demonstrated that the shsp ORF could successfully used as a food-grade selection marker in both pMG-shsp and pMG36e-shsp. Furthermore, the growth characteristics were almost the same between L. lactis ML23 transformants harboring pMG36e or pMG-shsp. The survival rate of L. lactis ML23 expressing the shsp ORF were increased to 0.032%, 0.006%, 0.0027%, 0.03%, and 0.16% under the following environmental stresses: heat, acid, ethanol, bile salt and H2O2, respectively. These results indicated that the expression of the shsp gene in the food-grade vector pMG-shsp conferred resistance to environmental stresses without affecting the growth characteristics of L. lactis ML23.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.