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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Active surveillance in patients with a PSA >10 ng/mL.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer is controversial. Some consider it an unreliable marker and others as sufficient evidence to exclude patients from AS. We analyzed our cohort of AS patients with a PSA over 10 ng/mL.
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Cost-Effectiveness of Diabetes Pay-for-Performance Incentive Designs.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) Program implemented a diabetes pay-for-performance program (P4P) based on process-of-care measures in 2001. In late 2006, that P4P program was revised to also include achievement of intermediate health outcomes.
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Subaxial Injury Classification Scoring system Treatment Recommendations - External Agreement study based on Retrospective Review of 185 Patients.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Study design. Retrospective case series.Objective. To test validity of Subaxial injury classification (SLIC) treatment recommendations.Background. Though SLIC has been tested for reliability, external studies that test the validity of its treatment recommendations are lacking.Methods. SLIC score was determined by reviewing imaging studies and clinical records in a consecutive series of 185 patients with subaxial cervical spine trauma presenting to a level 1 spinal injuries referral center. Details including attending surgeon responsible for treatment decision, treatment received and surgical approach were collected.Results. Treatment received matched SLIC guidelines in 93.6% non-surgically managed and 96.3% surgically managed patients. The mean SLIC score of the surgically treated group of patients was significantly higher than the non-surgical group (7.14 vs. 2.22, p<0.001). 66 patients had a SLIC score of three or less and 94% of them were non-surgically managed (p<0.001). 102 patients had a SLIC score of five or more and 95% of them were surgically managed (p<0.001). 17 patients had a SLIC score of four, 65% were non-surgically managed (p = 0.032). Injury morphology scores were not predictive for surgical approach. Increasing SLIC scores correlated with increasing complexity of treatment (r = 0.77, P<0.001). The distribution of patients with regard to severity of injuries and treatment delivered by the seven spinal surgeons was comparable. The past practise of these seven fellowship- trained spine surgeons was individually in agreement with SLIC treatment recommendations.Conclusion. Our past practise reflects SLIC treatment recommendations of non-surgical treatment for SLIC score three or less and surgical treatment for SLIC scores five or more. The use of SLIC as an ordinal severity scale is validated as increasing SLIC scores correlated with increasing complexity of treatment. The injury morphology score did not predict surgical approach. Significantly higher numbers of patients with SLIC score of four were treated non-surgically.
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Femtosecond fiber laser welding of dissimilar metals.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this paper, welding of dissimilar metals was demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, by using a high-energy high-repetition-rate femtosecond fiber laser. Metallurgical and mechanical properties were investigated and analyzed under various processing parameters (pulse energy, repetition rate, and welding speed). Results showed that the formation of intermetallic brittle phases and welding defects could be effectively reduced. Strong welding quality with more than 210 MPa tensile strength for stainless steel-aluminum and 175 MPa tensile strength for stainless steel-magnesium has been demonstrated. A minimal heat affected zone and uniform and homogenous phase transformation in the welding region have been demonstrated. This laser-welding technique can be extended for various applications in semiconductor, automobile, aerospace, and biomedical industries.
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A 20-year disease survey of captive formosan serows (Capricornis swinhoej) at the Taipei Zoo (1991-2011).
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) is endemic to Taiwan. The wild population has declined dramatically over the past few decades and the species is listed as a "precious and rare species" protected under law in Taiwan. Disease investigations have been rare except for sporadic observations of wild individuals, and no long-term disease survey has been performed on this species. The objective of this study was to identify and report on the most common diseases in captive Formosan serows and determine the potential causes. Medical records of Formosan serows (n = 62) housed at the Taipei Zoo over a 20-yr period (1991-2011) were collected and analyzed for this study. The most common diseases affected the gastrointestinal system and the skin. Parasitic etiologies accounted for greater than 85% of these diseases, and coinfection was common. Coccidia and lice were the most common endo- and ectoparasites, respectively. High mortality was noted in serows less than 1 yr old associated with parasitism. The results from this study could provide vital information on disease prevention and species management, which may greatly help in rehabilitation of captive and wild populations.
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell and Nanotechnology-Based Therapeutics.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can be genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state and can provide promising medical applications, such as diagnosis, prognosis, drug screening for therapeutical development, and monitoring disease progression. Despite myriad advances, traditional viral-based reprogramming for generating hiPSCs has safety risks that hinder further practical applications of hiPSCs. In the past decade, non-viral-based reprogramming has been used as an alternative to produce hiPSCs and enhance their differentiation. In addition, the efficiency of non-viral-based reprogramming is generally poor, compared to that of viral-based reprogramming. Recent studies in nanoscale-structured particles have made progress in addressing many applications of hiPSCs for clinical practice. The combination of hiPSCs and nanotechnology will actually act as the therapeutic platform for personalized medicine and can be the remedies against various diseases in the future. In this article we review recent advances in cellular reprogramming and hiPSCs-related research, such as cell source, delivery system and direct reprogramming, as well as some of its potential clinical applications, including mitochondrial and retinal disease. We also briefly summarize the current incorporation of nanotechnology in patien-specific-hiPSCs for future therapeutically treatments.
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Role of low exposure to metals as male reproductive toxicants.
Int J Environ Health Res
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The objective of the study was to examine the associations between environmentally relevant low metal concentrations and semen quality parameters in men. The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and lead (Pb) in the seminal plasma and urine were measured from 196 male human subjects in Taiwan. Urinary Cd concentrations were negatively associated with sperm viability (p = 0.006). Seminal plasma Cu concentrations of the normal group (??15?×?10(6)/ml) were significantly lower than those of the abnormal group (p = 0.023). However, the linear regression analysis showed a weak association between Cu concentration and sperm concentration, along with other semen parameters. No significant relationship between other metals (As, Pb, Zn, and Se) and semen quality was observed.
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The effects of anterior vacuum disc on surgical outcomes of degenerative versus spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: at a minimum two-year follow-up.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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The vacuum phenomenon within the intervertebral disc usually represents disc degeneration. There are no reports in the English literature that focus on the effect of an anterior vacuum disc on surgical outcome of same-segment spondylolisthesis.
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Targeted Silencing of MLL5? Inhibits Tumor Growth and Promotes Gamma-Irradiation Sensitization in HPV16/18-Associated Cervical Cancers.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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We previously identified a novel MLL5 isoform, MLL5?, which was essential for E6 and E7 transcriptional activation in HPV16/18-associated cervical cancers. In this report, we investigated the potential of RNAi-mediated silencing of MLL5? through the use of MLL5?-siRNA as a novel therapeutic strategy for HPV16/18-positive cervical cancer. We observed concurrent downregulation of E6 and E7 after MLL5? silencing, leading to growth inhibition via the activation of apoptosis and senescence in the HeLa cell model. This corresponded with the enhanced antitumor effects of MLL5?-siRNA compared with E6- or E7-siRNA single treatments. Significant reduction in tumor size after MLL?-siRNA treatment in the HeLa xenograft tumor model further emphasized the importance of MLL5? in HPV16/18-associated tumor growth and the potential of RNAi therapeutics that target MLL5?. We also identified MLL5? as a modulator of gamma-irradiation (IR) sensitization properties of cisplatin. We observed that while MLL5? silencing alone was enough to evoke cisplatin-like IR sensitization in tumor cells in vitro, overexpression of MLL5? inhibited the ability of cisplatin to sensitize HeLa cells to IR-induced cytotoxicity. MLL5?-siRNA-IR cotreatment was also observed to enhance tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Taken together, our findings highlight the potential of targeted silencing of MLL5? via the use of MLL5?-siRNA as a novel therapeutic strategy and propose that MLL5?-siRNA could be a viable alternative for cisplatin in the current cisplatin-based chemotherapeutics for HPV16/18-associated cervical cancers. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(11); 2572-82. ©2014 AACR.
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Parkin-mediated K63-polyubiquitination targets ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 for degradation by the autophagy-lysosome system.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a key neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme which is mutated in Parkinson disease (PD) and in childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder with optic atrophy. Furthermore, reduced UCH-L1 protein levels are associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, whereas up-regulation of UCH-L1 protein expression is found in multiple types of cancer. However, very little is known about how UCH-L1 protein level is regulated in cells. Here, we report that UCH-L1 is a novel interactor and substrate of PD-linked E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin. We find that parkin mediates K63-linked polyubiquitination of UCH-L1 in cooperation with the Ubc13/Uev1a E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex and promotes UCH-L1 degradation by the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Targeted disruption of parkin gene expression in mice causes a significant decrease in UCH-L1 ubiquitination with a concomitant increase in UCH-L1 protein level in brain, supporting an in vivo role of parkin in regulating UCH-L1 ubiquitination and degradation. Our findings reveal a direct link between parkin-mediated ubiquitin signaling and UCH-L1 regulation, and they have important implications for understanding the roles of these two proteins in health and disease.
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A Mechanically Robust and Highly Ion-Conductive Polymer-Blend Coating for High-Power and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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A mechanically robust and ion-conductive polymeric coating containing two polymers, polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether and poly(allyl amine), with four tailored functional groups is developed for graphite and graphite-Si composite anodes. The coating, acting as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase, leads to remarkable enhancement in capacity reversibility, cycling stability, and high-rate performance of the studied anodes.
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Retinoid acid-related orphan receptor ?, ROR?, participates in diurnal transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolic genes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The hepatic circadian clock plays a pivotal role in regulating major aspects of energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. In this study, we show that ROR? robustly regulates the rhythmic expression of several lipid metabolic genes, including the insulin-induced gene 2a, Insig2a, elongation of very long chain fatty acids-like 3, Elovl3 and sterol 12?-hydroxylase, Cyp8b1, by enhancing their expression at ZT20-4. The time-dependent increase in their expression correlates with the rhythmic expression pattern of ROR?. The enhanced recruitment of ROR? to ROREs in their promoter region, increased histone acetylation, and reporter and mutation analysis support the concept that ROR? regulates the transcription of several lipid metabolic genes directly by binding ROREs in their promoter regulatory region. Consistent with the disrupted expression of a number of lipid metabolic genes, loss of ROR? reduced the level of several lipids in liver and blood in a ZT-preferred manner. Particularly the whole-body bile acid pool size was considerably reduced in ROR?(-/-) mice in part through its regulation of several Cyp genes. Similar observations were made in liver-specific ROR?-deficient mice. Altogether, our study indicates that ROR? functions as an important link between the circadian clock and the transcriptional regulation of several metabolic genes.
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Functional characterization of cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in adipogenesis and obesity.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Adipogenesis plays a critical role in the initiation and progression of obesity. Although cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have emerged as a potential therapeutic target for cardiometabolic disease, the functional contribution of EETs to adipogenesis and the pathogenesis of obesity remain poorly understood. Our studies demonstrated that induction of adipogenesis in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells (in vitro) and obesity-associated adipose expansion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice (in vivo) significantly dysregulate the CYP epoxygenase pathway and evoke a marked suppression of adipose-derived EET levels. Subsequent in vitro experiments demonstrated that exogenous EET analog administration elicits potent anti-adipogenic effects via inhibition of the early phase of adipogenesis. Furthermore, EET analog administration to mice significantly mitigated HFD-induced weight gain, adipose tissue expansion, pro-adipogenic gene expression, and glucose intolerance. Collectively, these findings suggest that suppression of EET bioavailability in adipose tissue is a key pathological consequence of obesity, and strategies that promote the protective effects of EETs in adipose tissue offer enormous therapeutic potential for obesity and its downstream pathological consequences.
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Surgical outcomes of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis with anterior vacuum disc: Can the intervertebral cage overcome intradiscal vacuum phenomenon and enhance posterolateral fusion?
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The vacuum phenomenon within an intervertebral disc is not an uncommon radiographic finding in the elderly. However, no reports in the English literature have focused on the effect of an anterior vacuum disc in relation to surgical outcome of same-segment spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized that instrumented posterolateral fusion is not adequate in this situation and that additional interbody fusion with cages would provide better radiographic and clinical outcomes.
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Systolic blood pressure, choroidal thickness, and axial length in patients with myopic maculopathy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In the population-based Shihpai Eye Study, patients aged >65 years with myopic maculopathy were found to have higher systolic blood pressure. This finding deserved further exploration because this is the only correctable factor for preventing maculopathy in patients with high myopia. Therefore, we investigated the association between myopic maculopathy and systolic blood pressure, as well as other ocular parameters in this study.
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An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians.
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Highly Selective and Sensitive Near-Infrared-Fluorescent Probes for the Detection of Cellular Hydrogen Sulfide and the Imaging of H2 S in Mice.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Herein, we report the development of two fluorescent probes for the highly selective and sensitive detection of H2 S. The probes take advantage of a Cu(II) ?cyclen complex, which acts as a reaction center for H2 S and as a quencher of BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene)-based fluorophores with emissions at 765 and 680?nm, respectively. These non-fluorescent probes could only be turned on by the addition of H2 S, and not by other potentially interfering biomolecules, including reactive oxygen species, cysteine, and glutathione. In a chemical system, both probes detected H2 S with a detection limit of 80?nM. The probes were successfully used for the endogenous detection of H2 S in HEK 293 cells, for measuring the H2 S-release activity of dietary organosulfides in MCF-7 cells, and for the in?vivo imaging of H2 S in mice.
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Management and clinical outcomes of intraocular foreign bodies with the aid of orbital computed tomography.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Computed tomography (CT) is known to be the first-line imaging method for patients with or suspect to have intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs). The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes in the management of IOFBs with the aid of CT.
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Adjunctive Orbital Radiotherapy for Ocular Adnexal IgG4-related Disease: Preliminary Experience in Patients Refractory or Intolerant to Corticosteroid Therapy.
Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To present the clinical outcomes of combined orbital radiotherapy and systemic corticosteroid for patients with refractory ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3 patients with histopathologically confirmed ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease who had been refractory or intolerant to corticosteroid therapy and treated with adjunctive orbital radiotherapy (2000 cGy; 10 fractions). Clinical improvement was assessed by monitoring the patient's ability to taper corticosteroid to discontinuation and by follow-up radiologic examination. Results: All 3 patients had a favorable response to adjunctive radiotherapy with improvement of the clinical symptoms and radiologic abnormalities. Systemic corticosteroid was tapered and discontinued in all patients successfully. There were no adverse effects of treatment or recurrence after a mean follow-up of 19 months. Conclusion: Adjunctive radiotherapy can help to achieve stable disease and cessation of systemic corticosteroid in patients with refractory ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease.
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Avian oncogenic virus differential diagnosis in chickens using oligonucleotide microarray.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Avian oncogenic viruses include the avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). Multiple oncogenic viral infections are frequently seen, with even Marek's disease vaccines reported to be contaminated with ALV and REV. The gross lesions caused by avian oncogenic viruses often overlap, making differentiation diagnosis based on histopathology difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid approach to simultaneously differentiate, subgroup and pathotype the avian oncogenic viruses. The oligonucleotide microarray was employed in this study. Particular DNA sequences were recognized using specific hybridization between the DNA target and probe on the microarray, followed with colorimetric development through enzyme reaction. With 10 designed probes, ALV-A, ALV-E, ALV-J, REV, MDV pathogenic and vaccine strains were clearly discriminated on the microarray with the naked eyes. The detection limit was 27 copy numbers, which was 10-100 times lower than multiplex PCR. Of 102 field samples screened using the oligonucleotide microarray, 32 samples were positive for ALV-E, 17 samples were positive for ALV-J, 6 samples were positive for REV, 4 samples were positive for MDV, 7 samples were positive for both ALV-A and ALV-E, 5 samples were positive for ALV-A, ALV-E and ALV-J, one sample was positive for both ALV-J and MDV, and 3 samples were positive for both REV and MDV. The oligonucleotide microarray, an easy-to-use, high-specificity, high-sensitivity and extendable assay, presents a potent technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and the detection of multiple avian oncogenic viral infections under field conditions.
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Nuclear Localization Signal-enhanced Polyurethane-Short Branch Polyethylenimine-mediated Delivery of Let-7a Inhibited Cancer Stem-like Properties by Targeting the 3'UTR of HMGA2 in Anaplastic Astrocytoma.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is a grade III glioma that often occurs in middle-aged patients and presents a uniformly poor prognosis. A small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) possessing a self-renewing capacity is reported to be responsible for tumor recurrence and therapeutic resistance. An accumulating amount of microRNAs (miRNA) were found aberrantly expressed in human cancers, and regulate CSCs. Efforts have been made to couple miRNAs with non-viral gene delivery approaches to target specific genes in cancer cells. However, the efficiency of delivery of miRNAs to AA-derived CSCs is still an applicability hurdle. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and applicability of non-viral vector-mediated delivery of Let-7a with regard to eradication of AA and AA-derived CSC cells. Herein, our miRNA/mRNA-microarray and RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of Let-7a, a tumor-suppressive miRNA, is inversely correlated with the levels of HMGA2 and Sox2 in the AA side population (SP(+)) cells. Luciferase reporter assay showed that Let-7a directly targets the 3'UTRs of HMGA2 in AA-SP(+) cells. Knockdown of HMGA2 significantly suppressed the protein expression of Sox2 in AA-SP(+) cells, whereas overexpression of HMGA2 up-regulated Sox2 expression in AA-SP(-). Nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptides can facilitate nuclear targeting of DNA and are used to improve gene delivery. Using polyurethane-short branch polyethylenimine (PU-PEI) as a therapeutic delivery vehicle, we conjugated NLS with Let-7 and successfully delivered it to AA-SP(+) cells, resulting in significantly suppressed expression of HMGA2 and Sox2, tumorigenicity, and CSC-like abilities. This treatment facilitated the differentiation of AA-SP(+) cells into non-SP CSCs. Furthermore, PU-PEI-mediated delivery of NLS-conjugated Let-7a in AA-SP(+) cells suppressed the expression of drug-resistant and anti-apoptotic genes, and increased cell sensitivity to radiation. Finally, the in vivo delivery of PU-PEI-NLS-Let-7a significantly suppressed the tumorigenesis of AA-SP(+) cells, and synergistically improved the survival rate of orthotopically AA-SP(+)-transplanted immunocompromised mice when combined with radiotherapy. Therefore, PU-PEI-NLS-Let-7a is a potential novel therapeutic approach for AA.
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A three-step approach with adaptive additive magnitude selection for the sharpening of images.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Aimed to find the additive magnitude automatically and adaptively, we propose a three-step and model-based approach for the sharpening of images in this paper. In the first pass, a Grey prediction model is applied to find a global maximal additive magnitude so that the condition of oversharpening in images to be sharpened can be avoided. During the second pass, edge pixels are picked out with our previously proposed edge detection mechanism. In this pass, a low-pass filter is also applied so that isolated pixels will not be regarded as around an edge. In the final pass, those pixels detected as around an edge are adjusted adaptively based on the local statistics, and those nonedge pixels are kept unaltered. Extensive experiments on natural images as well as medical images with subjective and objective evaluations will be given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach.
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Neovascular glaucoma after central retinal vein occlusion in pre-existing glaucoma.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To determine the outcome of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in pre-existing glaucoma and the predisposing factors of developing neovascular glaucoma (NVG).
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The cystathionine ?-lyase/hydrogen sulfide system maintains cellular glutathione status.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated to exhibit antioxidative properties in many models. CSE (cystathionine ?-lyase) is an important enzyme responsible for endogenous H2S production in mammalian systems, but little is known about the modulation of endogenous H2S production and its antioxidative activity. We found that inhibiting CSE activity with PAG (propargylglycine) or silencing CSE expression using an siRNA approach resulted in a greater reduction in cell viability under exposure to the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cellular oxidative stress also increased significantly upon PAG inhibition or CSE knockdown. Further experiments using an activity-null Y60A mutant, a hyperactive E339A mutant and a control E349A mutant demonstrated that modulation of CSE catalytic activity altered its antioxidative activity. The increased sensitivity towards H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in CSE-siRNA-transfected cells was associated with a decreased glutathione concentration (GSH) and glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG). Incubation of cells with exogenous H2S increased the GSH concentration and GSH/GSSG ratio. Moreover, exogenous H2S preserved the cellular glutathione status under BSO (buthionine sulfoximine)-induced glutathione depletion. Taken together, the results of the present study provide molecular insights into the antioxidative activity of CSE and highlights the importance of the CSE/H2S system in maintaining cellular glutathione status.
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Regular Transition Zone Biopsy during Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer May Improve Detection of Pathological Progression.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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We investigated the frequency of cancer and pathological progression in transition zone biopsies in men undergoing multiple rebiopsies while on active surveillance.
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Vascular characterization of mice with endothelial expression of cytochrome P450 4F2.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A and 4F enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Although CYP4A-derived 20-HETE is known to have prohypertensive and proangiogenic properties, the effects of CYP4F-derived metabolites are not well characterized. To investigate the role of CYP4F2 in vascular disease, we generated mice with endothelial expression of human CYP4F2 (Tie2-CYP4F2-Tr). LC/MS/MS analysis revealed 2-foldincreases in 20-HETE levels in tissues and endothelial cells (ECs), relative to wild-type (WT) controls. Tie2-CYP4F2-Tr ECs demonstrated increases in growth (267.1 ± 33.4 vs. 205.0 ± 13% at 48 h) and tube formation (7.7 ± 1.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.5 tubes/field) that were 20-HETE dependent and associated with up-regulation of prooxidant NADPH oxidase and proangiogenic VEGF. Increases in VEGF and NADPH oxidase levels were abrogated by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and MAPK, respectively, suggesting the possibility of crosstalk between pathways. Interestingly, IL-6 levels in Tie2-CYP4F2-Tr mice (18.6 ± 2.7 vs. 7.9 ± 2.7 pg/ml) were up-regulated via NADPH oxidase- and 20-HETE-dependent mechanisms. Although Tie2-CYP4F2-Tr aortas displayed increased vasoconstriction, vasorelaxation and blood pressure were unchanged. Our findings indicate that human CYP4F2 significantly increases 20-HETE production, CYP4F2-derived 20-HETE mediates EC proliferation and angiogenesis via VEGF- and NADPH oxidase-dependent manners, and the Tie2-CYP4F2-Tr mouse is a novel model for examining the pathophysiological effects of CYP4F2-derived 20-HETE in the vasculature.-Cheng, J., Edin, M. L., Hoopes, S. L., Li, H., Bradbury, J. A., Graves, J. P., DeGraff, L. M., Lih, F. B., Garcia, V., Shaik, J. S. B., Tomer, K. B., Flake, G. P., Falck, J. R., Lee, C. R., Poloyac, S. M., Schwartzman, M. L., Zeldin, D. C. Vascular characterization of mice with endothelial expression of cytochrome P450 4F2.
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Intra-articular transplantation of porcine adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis: A pilot study.
World J Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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To test whether intra-articular injection of porcine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can treat canine osteoarthritis (OA).
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Clinical Aggressiveness of Myxofibrosarcomas Associates with Down-Regulation of p12CDK2AP1: Prognostic Implication of a Putative Tumor Suppressor that Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial Pathway.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Attenuated endogenous protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1 (p12(CDK2AP1)) and its active homodimer p25(CDK2AP1) were found in myxofibrosarcoma-derived cell lines. Clinical and biological significances of this putative tumor suppressor in myxofibrosarcoma were studied.
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Basal and inducible anti-inflammatory epoxygenase activity in endothelial cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The roles of CYP lipid-metabolizing pathways in endothelial cells are poorly understood. Human endothelial cells expressed CYP2J2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) mRNA and protein. The TLR-4 agonist LPS (1 ?g/ml; 24 h) induced CYP2J2 but not sEH mRNA and protein. LC-MS/MS analysis of the stable commonly used human endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 showed active epoxygenase and epoxide hydrolase activity: with arachidonic acid (stable epoxide products 5,6-DHET, and 14,15-DHET), linoleic acid (9,10-EPOME and 12,13-EPOME and their stable epoxide hydrolase products 9,10-DHOME and 12,13-DHOME), docosahexaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 19,20-DiHDPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (stable epoxide hydrolase product 17,18-DHET) being formed. Inhibition of epoxygenases using either SKF525A or MS-PPOH induced TNF? release, but did not affect LPS, IL-1?, or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNF? release. In contrast, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by AUDA or TPPU inhibited basal, LPS, IL-1? and PMA induced TNF? release, and LPS-induced NF?B p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, human endothelial cells contain a TLR-4 regulated epoxygenase CYP2J2 and metabolize linoleic acid>eicosapentaenoic acid > arachidonic acid>docosahexaenoic acid to products with anti-inflammatory activity.
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Ocular adnexal IgG4-related disease: clinical features, outcome, and factors associated with response to systemic steroids.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate clinical characteristics, outcome, and factors associated with response to systemic administration of steroids in patients with ocular adnexal immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease.
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Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced matrix metalloproteinase activation by the modulation of the lectin-like oxLDL receptor 1-regulated signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) has been found in atherosclerotic lesions. Previous reports have identified that oxLDL, via the upregulation of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1), modulates the expression of MMPs in endothelial cells. Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE), from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has often been considered as a therapeutic compound for cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the probable molecular mechanisms underlying the antiatherogenic effects of GbE. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GbE on oxLDL-activated MMPs of human endothelial cells and to test the involvement of LOX-1 and protein kinase C (PKC)-?, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?).
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Selective and eco-friendly method for determination of mercury(II) ions in aqueous samples using an on-line AuNPs-PDMS composite microfluidic device/ICP-MS system.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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In this study we developed an on-line, eco-friendly, and highly selective method using a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite microfluidic (MF) chip coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to separate trace Hg(2+) ions from aqueous samples. Because Hg(2+) ions interact with AuNPs to form Hg-Au complexes, we were able to separate Hg(2+) ions from aqueous samples. We prepared the AuNPs-PDMS composite through in situ synthesis using a PDMS cross-linking agent to both reduce and embed AuNPs onto PDMS microchannels so that no additional reductants were required for either AuNP synthesis or the PDMS surface modification (2% HAuCl4, room temperature, 48 h). To optimize the proposed on-line system, we investigated several factors that influenced the separation of Hg(2+) ions in the AuNPs-PDMS/MF, including adsorption pH, adsorption and elution flow rates, microchannel length, and interferences from coexisting ions. Under optimized conditions (pH 6.0; adsorption/elution flow rates: 0.05/0.5 mL min(-1); channel length: 840 mm), we evaluated the accuracy of the system using a standard addition method; the measured values had agreements of ? 93.0% with certified values obtained for Hg(2+) ions. The relative standard deviations of the proposed method ranged from 2.24% to 6.21%. The limit of detection for Hg(2+) for the proposed on-line AuNPs-PDMS/MF/ICP-MS analytical method was as low as 0.07 µg L(-1).
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Estimation of standardized hospital costs from Medicare claims that reflect resource requirements for care: impact for cohort studies linked to Medicare claims.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To compare cost estimates for hospital stays calculated using diagnosis-related group (DRG) weights to actual Medicare payments.
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Inhibition of Fumonisin B1 Cytotoxicity by Nanosilicate Platelets during Mouse Embryo Development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanosilicate platelets (NSP), the form of natural silicate clay that was exfoliated from montmorillonite (MMT), is widely used as a feed additive for its high non-specific binding capacity with mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1), and has been evaluated its safety for biomedical use including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and lethal dosage (LD). In the study, we further examined its toxicity on the development of CD1 mouse embryos and its capacity to prevent teratogenesis-induced by FB1. In vitro cultures, NSP did not disturb the development and the quality of intact pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, newborn mice from females consumed with NSP showed no abnormalities. NSP had an unexpected high adsorption capacity in vitro. In contrast to female mice consumed with FB1 only, a very low residual level of FB1 in the circulation, reduced incidence of neutral tube defects and significantly increased fetal weight were observed in the females consumed with FB1 and NSP, suggesting a high alleviation effect of NSP on FB1 in vivo. Furthermore, FB1 treatment disturbed the gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes (longevity assurance homolog 5, LASS 5; sphingosine kinase 1, Sphk1; sphingosine kinase 2, Sphk2; sphingosine 1- phosphate lyase, Sgpl1; sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase, Sgpp1) in the maternal liver, uterus, fetus, and placenta, but NSP administration reversed the perturbations. Based on these findings, we conclude that NSP is a feasible and effective agent for supplementary use in reducing the toxicity of FB1 to animals.
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The cytochrome p450 epoxygenase pathway regulates the hepatic inflammatory response in Fatty liver disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fatty liver disease is an emerging public health problem without effective therapies, and chronic hepatic inflammation is a key pathologic mediator in its progression. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have potent anti-inflammatory effects. Although promoting the effects of EETs elicits anti-inflammatory and protective effects in the cardiovascular system, the contribution of CYP-derived EETs to the regulation of fatty liver disease-associated inflammation and injury is unknown. Using the atherogenic diet model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH), our studies demonstrated that induction of fatty liver disease significantly and preferentially suppresses hepatic CYP epoxygenase expression and activity, and both hepatic and circulating levels of EETs in mice. Furthermore, mice with targeted disruption of Ephx2 (the gene encoding soluble epoxide hydrolase) exhibited restored hepatic and circulating EET levels and a significantly attenuated induction of hepatic inflammation and injury. Collectively, these data suggest that suppression of hepatic CYP-mediated EET biosynthesis is an important pathological consequence of fatty liver disease-associated inflammation, and that the CYP epoxygenase pathway is a central regulator of the hepatic inflammatory response in NAFLD/NASH. Future studies investigating the utility of therapeutic strategies that promote the effects of CYP-derived EETs in NAFLD/NASH are warranted.
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapy Ameliorates Hyperoxia-Augmented Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury through Suppressing the Src Pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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High tidal volume (VT) mechanical ventilation (MV) can induce the recruitment of neutrophils, release of inflammatory cytokines and free radicals, and disruption of alveolar epithelial and endothelial barriers. It is proposed to be the triggering factor that initiates ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and concomitant hyperoxia further aggravates the progression of VILI. The Src protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) family is one of the most critical families to intracellular signal transduction related to acute inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory abilities of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to improve acute lung injuries (ALIs); however, the mechanisms regulating the interactions between MV, hyperoxia, and iPSCs have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we hypothesize that Src PTK plays a critical role in the regulation of oxidants and inflammation-induced VILI during hyperoxia. iPSC therapy can ameliorate acute hyperoxic VILI by suppressing the Src pathway.
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Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many female breast cancer (FBC) patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western medication (WM) concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan.
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Persistent exudative retinal detachment after photodynamic therapy and intravitreal bevacizumab injection for multiple retinal capillary hemangiomas in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used in treating peripheral retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH) with satisfactory results. We report a rare case of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease with three large peripheral RCHs, treated with PDT and intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVB), who developed persistent bullous exudative retinal detachment (RD) despite significant tumor regression. The patient is a sporadic case of VHL disease, with a de novo nonsense mutation in codon 161 with C ? T transition at nucleotide position 694 of the VHL gene. Multiple RCHs were noted in both eyes. Four small RCHs were found in the left eye and were treated with laser photocoagulation. Three large RCHs in the peripheral retina of the right eye were complicated with cystoid macular edema and subretinal fluid accumulation. The RCHs were treated with PDT combined with IVB, and bullous exudative RD developed on the second day after treatment. Three months after PDT, the tumors had regressed significantly, but exudative RD persisted, despite multiple IVB and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection (IVTA). External drainage with sclera buckling, IVB, and IVTA were performed, and the retina attached after surgical intervention. The application of PDT in the treatment of RCHs and its possible complications are discussed.
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High power 2 µm femtosecond fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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A high power polarization maintaining femtosecond Tm-doped fiber laser system is demonstrated. A chirped fiber Bragg grating with normal dispersion was used to compensate the anomalous dispersion from the regular fiber in the 2 µm seed oscillator to generate mode locked pulses with a pulse repetition rate of 30.84 MHz. After chirped pulse amplification, an amplified power of 78 W was obtained. The pulse was compressed by a chirped volume Bragg grating based pulse compressor. A pulse duration of 760 fs and an average power of 36 W were obtained after compressor.
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Trace elements, oxidative stress and glycemic control in young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
J Trace Elem Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Trace elements and oxidative stress are associated with glycemic control and diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we analyzed the levels of serum copper, zinc, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary MDA and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in 33 type 1 diabetic patients with optimal and suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1C<9.0%) and 40 patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1C?9%) and 27 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls to evaluate the differences between these markers in different glycemic control states. Diabetic patients, especially poor-glycemic-control subjects (HbA1C?9%), exhibited significantly lower levels of serum zinc and increased levels of serum copper (and, therefore, increased serum copper-to-zinc ratios), serum SOD, blood MDA, and urinary MDA and 8-OHdG, relative to non-diabetic subjects. Furthermore, significant correlations existed in these patients between the serum copper, serum copper-to-zinc ratio, and urinary MDA (all p<0.001) and the levels of urinary 8-OHdG (p=0.007) and HbA1C. Our results suggest that high serum copper levels and oxidative stress correlate with glycemic control. Therefore, strict glycemic control, decreased oxidative stress, and a lower copper concentration might prevent diabetic complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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Minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage for infectious spondylodiscitis.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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The primary goals for treating infectious spondylodiscitis are to make an accurate diagnosis, isolate the causative organism, and prescribe effective antibiotic therapy based on the culture data. A positive culture of the responsible organism is not required for diagnosis, although it is extremely important for successful treatment and prevention of further morbidity. Surgical intervention is usually reserved for cases that are unresponsive to antibiotic therapy and for patients who have developed progressive spinal deformity or instability, epidural abscesses, or neurological impairment. However, the incidence of perioperative morbidity is particularly increased in elderly patients or in those with poor general condition. With improved endoscopic instruments and techniques, our clinical experiences demonstrate that spinal infections can be successfully treated by minimally invasive percutaneous endoscopic debridement. Direct endoscopic observation and collection of sufficient quantities of samples for microbiological examinations from the infected region are usually possible. This article summarizes the diagnostic and therapeutic values of percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and drainage (PEDD) used to treat patients with spondylodiscitis. Our clinical evidence-based survey suggests that PEDD can provide adequate retrieval of specimens and has high diagnostic efficacy, thereby enabling prompt and sensitive antibiotic therapy to the offending pathogens. We propose that PEDD is an effective alternative for treating infectious spondylodiscitis and should be considered prior to extensive anterior surgery in selected cases. This method is particularly suitable for patients with early-stage spinal infection or serious medical conditions.
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Chemical and physical properties of bone cement for vertebroplasty.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Vertebral compression fracture is the most common complication of osteoporosis. It may result in persistent severe pain and limited mobility, and significantly impacts the quality of life. Vertebroplasty involves a percutaneous injection of bone cement into the collapsed vertebrae by fluorescent guide. The most commonly used bone cement in percutaneous vertebroplasty is based on the polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomers to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polymers. However, information on the properties of bone cement is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the clinical community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the physical properties of PMMA. The effects of altering the portions and contents of monomer liquid and polymer powders on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also discussed. This information will allow spine surgeons to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific clinical applications and improve safety.
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Effects of push/pull perfusion and ultrasonication on the extraction efficiencies of phthalate esters in sports drink samples using on-line hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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In previous studies, we developed a process, on-line ultrasound-assisted push/pull perfusion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (UA-PPP-HF-LPME), combining the techniques of push/pull perfusion (PPP) and ultrasonication with hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), to achieve rapid extraction of acidic phenols from water samples. In this present study, we further evaluated three more-advanced and novel effects of PPP and ultrasonication on the extraction efficiencies of neutral high-molecular-weight phthalate esters (HPAEs) in sports drinks. First, we found that inner-fiber fluid leakage occurs only in push-only perfusion-based and pull-only perfusion-based HF-LPME, but not in the PPP mode. Second, we identified a significant negative interaction between ultrasonication and temperature. Third, we found that the extraction time of the newly proposed system could be shortened by more than 93%. From an investigation of the factors affecting UA-PPP-HF-LPME, we established optimal extraction conditions and achieved acceptable on-line enrichment factors of 92-146 for HPAEs with a sampling time of just 2 min.
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Epoxyeicosanoids promote organ and tissue regeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, regulate inflammation, angiogenesis, and vascular tone. Despite pleiotropic effects on cells, the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in normal organ and tissue regeneration remains unknown. EETs are produced predominantly in the endothelium. Normal organ and tissue regeneration require an active paracrine role of the microvascular endothelium, which in turn depends on angiogenic growth factors. Thus, we hypothesize that endothelial cells stimulate organ and tissue regeneration via production of bioactive EETs. To determine whether endothelial-derived EETs affect physiologic tissue growth in vivo, we used genetic and pharmacological tools to manipulate endogenous EET levels. We show that endothelial-derived EETs play a critical role in accelerating tissue growth in vivo, including liver regeneration, kidney compensatory growth, lung compensatory growth, wound healing, corneal neovascularization, and retinal vascularization. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results, whereas lowering EET levels, either genetically or pharmacologically, delayed tissue regeneration, demonstrating that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect normal organ and tissue growth. We also show that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous EET levels, promote liver and lung regeneration. Thus, our observations indicate a central role for EETs in organ and tissue regeneration and their contribution to tissue homeostasis.
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Comparison of postoperative effects between lidocaine infusion, meloxicam, and their combination in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Vet Anaesth Analg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous (IV) lidocaine, meloxicam, and their combination in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
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Titanium carbide@polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles prepared by controlled heterogeneous nucleation for rechargeable batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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A unique nanostructure consisting of a TiC nanoparticle core and a conformal polypyrrole shell doped with p-toluene sulfonate has been synthesized by a controlled heterogeneous nucleation process. As an electrode material in a Li-ion containing organic electrolyte, the nanocomposite exhibits remarkable high-rate (up to 400 C-rate) charge-discharge capability and cycling stability even at 50 °C.
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Prospective evaluation of irrigation fluid absorption during pure transurethral bipolar plasma vaporisation of the prostate using expired-breath ethanol measurements.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To investigate if absorption of irrigation fluid occurs during bipolar plasma vaporisation (BPV) of the prostate. To examine the clinical predictors of increased risk of fluid absorption and to assess if changes in serum electrolytes, venous pH, haemoglobin or haematocrit are able to detect intra-operative fluid absorption.
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Evaluation of ranges of motion of a new constrained acetabular prosthesis for canine total hip replacement.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Total hip replacement (THR) is considered to be the most effective treatment option for advanced osteoarthritis of the hip in large breed dogs. However, a proportion of post-THR patients suffer prosthesis dislocation for various reasons, which may be addressed by a constrained acetabular prosthesis design. The study proposed a new THR with constrained acetabular component that aimed to decrease the incidence of postoperative dislocation while maintaining the necessary range of motion (ROM); and, through computer-simulated implantations, evaluated the ROM of the THR with and without malpositioning of the acetabular component.
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Detection of anti-reticuloendotheliosis virus antibody by blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with expression envelope protein.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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The current reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) antibody detection kit that uses enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) needs concentrated virus, which is difficult to obtain due to its poor propagation in cells. In addition, this kit detects only chicken antibody but not other species. To overcome these disadvantages, we cloned and expressed REV env gene to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which we used for antibody detection in ELISA. Three mAbs were prepared from mice. These three mAbs could recognize REVs from ducks and geese by immunodot assay. In addition, the epitopes that the three mAbs recognized were determined by using three different env protein fragments by western blotting. One mAb was used to develop a blocking ELISA (bELISA) coated with expressed env protein to detect anti-REV antibody in chicken serum. This assay had a 98.8% (79/80) agreement with a commercial ELISA kit. Another 146 chicken sera with known neutralization antibodies were used as positive controls to evaluate this bELISA. The sensitivity and specificity this bELISA were 88.9% (40/45) and 94.8% (91/96), respectively. Thus, this bELISA could be used for anti-REV antibody detection in birds.
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Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in exacerbation of allergen-induced airway remodeling by multiwalled carbon nanotubes.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The emergence of nanotechnology has produced a multitude of engineered nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and concerns have been raised about their effects on human health, especially for susceptible populations such as individuals with asthma. Multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) have been shown to exacerbate ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway remodeling in mice. Moreover, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described as a protective factor in asthma. We postulated that COX-2-deficient (COX-2(-/-)) mice would be susceptible to MWCNT-induced exacerbations of allergen-induced airway remodeling, including airway inflammation, fibrosis, and mucus-cell metaplasia (i.e., the formation of goblet cells). Wild-type (WT) or COX-2(-/-) mice were sensitized to OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation before a single dose of MWCNTs (4 mg/kg) delivered to the lungs by oropharyngeal aspiration. MWCNTs significantly increased OVA-induced lung inflammation and mucus-cell metaplasia in COX-2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. However, airway fibrosis after exposure to allergen and MWCNTs was no different between WT and COX-2(-/-) mice. Concentrations of certain prostanoids (prostaglandin D2 and thromboxane B2) were enhanced by OVA or MWCNTs in COX-2(-/-) mice. No differences in COX-1 mRNA concentrations were evident between WT and COX-2(-/-) mice treated with OVA and MWCNTs. Interestingly, MWCNTs significantly enhanced allergen-induced cytokines involved in Th2 (IL-13 and IL-5), Th1 (CXCL10), and Th17 (IL-17A) inflammatory responses in COX-2(-/-) mice, but not in WT mice. We conclude that exacerbations of allergen-induced airway inflammation and mucus-cell metaplasia by MWCNTs are enhanced by deficiencies in COX-2, and are associated with the activation of a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17 immune response.
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An on-line push/pull perfusion-based hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction system for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of alkylphenols in water samples.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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In this study, we employed a novel on-line method, push/pull perfusion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (PPP-HF-LPME), to extract 4-tert-butylphenol, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-n-octylphenol from river and tap water samples; we then separated and quantified the extracted analytes through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using this approach, we overcame the problem of fluid loss across the porous HF membrane to the donor phase, permitting on-line coupling of HF-LPME to HPLC. In our PPP-HF-LPME system, we used a push/pull syringe pump as the driving source to perfuse the acceptor phase, while employing a heating mantle and an ultrasonic probe to accelerate mass transfer. We optimized the experimental conditions such as the nature of the HF supported intermediary phase and the acceptor phase, the composition of the donor and acceptor phases, the sample temperature, and the sonication conditions. Our proposed method provided relative standard deviations of 3.1-6.2%, coefficients of determination (r(2)) of 0.9989-0.9998, and limits of detection of 0.03-0.2 ng mL(-1) for the analytes under the optimized conditions. When we applied this method to analyses of river and tap water samples, our results confirmed that this microextraction technique allows reliable monitoring of alkylphenols in water samples.
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The estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles and its effect on bisphenol A studies.
J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 ?g/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans.
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Lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma masquerading as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most common cause of proptosis in adult female, especially those with positive thyroid antibody. Sometimes, other diagnoses should be considered. A 45-year-old female presented with progressive right proptosis and mild diplopia for 2 years. One year earlier, she had been diagnosed with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy because of abnormal thyroid autoantibody. Computed tomography scan showed a 2.4- × 1.9- × 1.6-mm heterogeneous soft-tissue density lying above the left eye. Excisional biopsy of this mass revealed the histopathologic diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma. This case highlights the need for including other diagnoses such as pleomorphic adenoma in the differential diagnosis of patients with proptosis, diplopia and abnormal thyroid antibody.
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Comparison of the effect of reduced-fluence photodynamic therapy with intravitreal bevacizumab and standard-fluence alone for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has previously been reported to be effective in treating polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), with satisfactory polyp regression. However, the optimum treatment protocol remains controversial. This study compared the effect of reduced-fluence PDT combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (rPDT/IVB) and standard-fluence PDT (sPDT) alone for treating symptomatic PCV in Chinese patients.
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The role of 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in staging prostate cancer.
ANZ J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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To review the role of 1.5T (standard) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting pathological T stage of prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.
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SIMPLE: A new regulator of endosomal trafficking and signaling in health and disease.
Commun Integr Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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SIMPLE, also known as LITAF, EET1 and PIG7, was originally identified based on its transcriptional upregulation by estrogen, p53, lipopolysaccharide or a microbial cell-wall component. Missense mutations in SIMPLE cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), and altered SIMPLE expression is associated with cancer, obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases. Despite increasing evidence linking SIMPLE to human diseases, the biological function of SIMPLE is unknown and the pathogenic mechanism of SIMPLE mutations remains elusive. Our recent study reveals that SIMPLE is a functional partner of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery in the regulation of endosome-to-lysosome trafficking and intracellular signaling. Our results indicate that CMT-linked SIMPLE mutants are loss-of-function mutants which act dominantly to impair endosomal trafficking and signaling attenuation. We propose that endosomal trafficking and signaling dysregulation is a key pathogenic mechanism in CMT and other diseases that involve SIMPLE dysfunction.
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A Negative Confirmatory Biopsy Among Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer Does Not Protect Them from Histologic Grade Progression.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Many men (21-52%) are reported to have no cancer on the second, also known as the confirmatory, biopsy (B2) for prostate cancer active surveillance (AS). If these men had a reduced risk of pathologic progression, particularly grade related, the intensity of their follow-up could be decreased.
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Complications associated with instrumented lumbar surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis: a matched cohort analysis.
Spine J
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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There is no information in the English literature on the outcome of liver cirrhotic patients who have undergone instrumented lumbar surgery.
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High pulse energy 2 µm femtosecond fiber laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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In the paper, a 2 µm high energy fs fiber laser and amplification system is presented based on Tm doped fibers. The seed laser was designed to generate pulse train at 2024 nm at a repetition rate of 2.5 MHz. An AOM was used as a pulse picker to further lower the repetition rate down to 100 kHz. Two-stage fiber pre-amplifiers and a high energy large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifier were used to boost pulse energy up to 54 µJ before pulse compressor with chirped pulse amplification technique. After compressor, pulse energy of 36.7µJ and pulse duration of 910 fs and were obtained.
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Induced pluripotent stem cells mediate the release of interferon gamma-induced protein 10 and alleviate bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Chronic lung diseases cause serious morbidity and mortality, and effective treatments are limited. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) lacking the reprogramming factor c-Myc (3-gene iPSCs) can be used as ideal tools for cell-based therapy because of their low level of tumorigenicity. In this study, we investigated whether 3-gene iPSC transplantation could rescue bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. After the induction of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis via intratracheal delivery of bleomycin sulfate, mice were i.v. injected with 3-gene iPSCs or conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) at 24 h after bleomycin treatment. Administration of either 3-gene iPSCs or iPSC-CM significantly attenuated collagen content and myeloperoxidase activity, diminished neutrophil accumulation, and rescued pulmonary function and recipient survival after bleomycin treatment. Notably, both treatments reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-?, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 yet increased the production of the antifibrotic chemokine interferon-?-induced protein 10 (IP-10) in bleomycin-injured lungs. Furthermore, IP-10 neutralization via treatment with IP-10-neutralizing antibodies ameliorated the reparative effect of either 3-gene iPSCs or iPSC-CM on collagen content, neutrophil and monocyte accumulation, pulmonary fibrosis, and recipient survival. Intravenous delivery of 3-gene iPSCs/iPSC-CM alleviated the severity of histopathologic and physiologic impairment in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The protective mechanism was partially mediated by the early moderation of inflammation, reduced levels of cytokines and chemokines that mediate inflammation and fibrosis, and an increased production of antifibrotic IP-10 in the injured lungs.
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The novel structure of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has implications for allergenicity and exposure assessment.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Sensitization to cockroach allergens is a major risk factor for asthma. The cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has multiple repeats of approximately 100 amino acids, but the fold of the protein and its biological function are unknown.
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Exhaled breath condensate: a comprehensive update.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Since the late 1990s, a surge in interest in the analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) resulted in the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) organising a Task Force in 2001 to develop guidelines on EBC collection and measurement of biomarkers. This Task Force published their guidelines in 2005 based on literature and expert opinions at that time, and multiple shortcomings and knowledge deficits were also identified. The clinical application of EBC collection and its biomarkers are currently still limited by several of these knowledge gaps, hence further guidelines for standardisation are required to ensure external validity. Using related articles produced since the publication of the ATS/ERS Task Force report, this paper attempts to provide a comprehensive update to the original guideline and review the methodological shortcomings identified. This review can hopefully serve as a yardstick for future studies involving this emerging clinical tool.
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Motor and sensory neuropathy due to myelin infolding and paranodal damage in a transgenic mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C) is a dominantly inherited motor and sensory neuropathy. Despite human genetic evidence linking missense mutations in SIMPLE to CMT1C, the in vivo role of CMT1C-linked SIMPLE mutations remains undetermined. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying CMT1C pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or CMT1C-linked W116G human SIMPLE. Mice expressing mutant, but not wild type, SIMPLE develop a late-onset motor and sensory neuropathy that recapitulates key clinical features of CMT1C disease. SIMPLE mutant mice exhibit motor and sensory behavioral impairments accompanied by decreased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude. This neuropathy phenotype is associated with focally infolded myelin loops that protrude into the axons at paranodal regions and near Schmidt-Lanterman incisures of peripheral nerves. We find that myelin infolding is often linked to constricted axons with signs of impaired axonal transport and to paranodal defects and abnormal organization of the node of Ranvier. Our findings support that SIMPLE mutation disrupts myelin homeostasis and causes peripheral neuropathy via a combination of toxic gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms. The results from this study suggest that myelin infolding and paranodal damage may represent pathogenic precursors preceding demyelination and axonal degeneration in CMT1C patients.
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Trace element, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation levels in brain cortex of gerbils after cerebral ischemic injury.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Proper trace element level and antioxidant enzyme activity are crucial for the brain in maintaining normal neurological functions. To our knowledge, alteration of lipid peroxidation status, trace element level, and antioxidant activity in the homogenates of brain cortex after cerebral ischemia in gerbil, however, has not been investigated so far. Male Mongolian gerbils were divided into control and ischemic subjects. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery and right common carotid artery for 1 h. Experimental results showed that a significant increase (P < 0.01) of the malondialdehyde level was found in the ischemic brain as compared with the control group. Trace element analysis indicated that a remarkable elevation (P < 0.01) of the level of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and a statistical decrease of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) (P < 0.05) concentration were observed in the ischemic brain as compared with the control subject. No significant change (P > 0.05) of the copper (Cu) level was found in both experimental groups. Additionally, antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (P < 0.01) and catalase (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in the ischemic brain as compared with the control subject. Taking all results together, it is conceivable to manifest the experimental findings that cerebral ischemia not only may result in an enhanced oxidative stress but also may lead to further oxidative injury. Moreover, disturbance of trace element level combined with declined antioxidant activity seems to play a significant role in responsible for the etiology of cerebral ischemia.
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Short-term external buckling with pneumatic retinopexy for retinal detachment with inferior retinal breaks.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To introduce a new approach for short-term external scleral buckling with pneumatic retinopexy for the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with inferior retinal breaks.
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Characterization of four new mouse cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP2J subfamily.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The cytochrome P450 superfamily encompasses a diverse group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various substrates. The mouse CYP2J subfamily includes members that have wide tissue distribution and are active in the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), linoleic acid (LA), and other lipids and xenobiotics. The mouse Cyp2j locus contains seven genes and three pseudogenes located in a contiguous 0.62 megabase cluster on chromosome 4. We describe four new mouse CYP2J isoforms (designated CYP2J8, CYP2J11, CYP2J12, and CYP2J13). The four cDNAs contain open reading frames that encode polypeptides with 62-84% identity with the three previously identified mouse CYP2Js. All four new CYP2J proteins were expressed in Sf21 insect cells. Each recombinant protein metabolized AA and LA to epoxides and hydroxy derivatives. Specific antibodies, mRNA probes, and polymerase chain reaction primer sets were developed for each mouse CYP2J to examine their tissue distribution. CYP2J8 transcripts were found in the kidney, liver, and brain, and protein expression was confirmed in the kidney and brain (neuropil). CYP2J11 transcripts were most abundant in the kidney and heart, with protein detected primarily in the kidney (proximal convoluted tubules), liver, and heart (cardiomyocytes). CYP2J12 transcripts were prominently present in the brain, and CYP2J13 transcripts were detected in multiple tissues, with the highest expression in the kidney. CYP2J12 and CYP2J13 protein expression could not be determined because the antibodies developed were not immunospecific. We conclude that the four new CYP2J isoforms might be involved in the metabolism of AA and LA to bioactive lipids in mouse hepatic and extrahepatic tissues.
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Cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids and vascular dysfunction in coronary artery disease patients.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Accumulating preclinical and epidemiologic evidence has emerged to suggest that modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated eicosanoid metabolism may be a viable vascular protective therapeutic strategy for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). The functional relationship between CYP-derived eicosanoid metabolite levels and vascular dysfunction in humans with established CAD, however, has not been evaluated. Therefore, we characterized the relationship between inter-individual variation in soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and CYP ?-hydroxylase metabolism and established vascular function phenotypes predictive of prognosis in a cohort of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
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Transplantation of embryonic stem cells improves the regeneration of periodontal furcation defects in a porcine model.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Stem cell-based therapy promises to regenerate lost tissue. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent and may provide a virtually unlimited source for transplantation. We investigated whether ES cell transplantation improved the regeneration of furcation defects in a porcine model.
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Coarctation-induced degenerative abdominal aortic aneurysm in a porcine model.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Hemodynamic stress participates in the initiation and progression of aneurysmal degeneration. Coarctation increases flow-mediated stress on the aortic wall. We tested the hypothesis that prolonged coarctation of an infrarenal abdominal aorta (AA) segment leads to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation in mini pigs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.