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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Spatial references and audio-tactile interaction in cross-modal dynamic capture.
Multisens Res
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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In audiotactile dynamic capture, judgment of the direction of an apparent motion stream (such as auditory motion) was impeded (hence 'captured') by the presentation of a concurrent, but directionally opposite apparent motion stream (such as tactile motion) from a distractor modality, leading to a cross-modal dynamic capture (CDC) effect. That is to say, the percentage of correct reporting of the direction of the target motion was reduced. Previous studies have revealed the effect of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and the potential spatial remapping (by adopting a cross-hands posture) in CDC. However, further exploration of the dynamic capture process under different postures was not available due to the fact that only two levels of time asynchronies were employed (either synchronous or with an SOA of 500 ms). This study introduced a broad range of SOAs (-400 ms to 400 ms, tactile stream preceded auditory stream or vice versa) to explore the time course of audio-tactile interaction in CDC with two spatial references--arms-uncrossed or arms-crossed postures. Participants judged the direction of auditory apparent motion with tactile distractors. The results showed that in the arms-uncrossed condition, the CDC effect was prominent when the auditory-tactile events were in the temporal integration window (0-60 ms). However, with a preceding tactile cueing effect of SOA equal to and above 150 ms, the CDC effect was reduced, and no CDC effect was observed with the arms-crossed posture. These results suggest CDC effect is modulated by both cross-modal interaction and the spatial reference (especially for the distractors). The magnitude of the CDC effects in audiotactile interaction may be accounted for by reliability of tactile spatial-temporal information.
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A methyltransferase initiates terpene cyclization in teleocidin B biosynthesis.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Teleocidin B is an indole terpenoid isolated from Streptomyces. Due to its unique chemical structure and ability to activate protein kinase C, it has attracted interest in the areas of organic chemistry and cell biology. Here, we report the identification of genes encoding enzymes for teleocidin B biosynthesis, including nonribosomal peptide synthetase (tleA), P-450 monooxygenase (tleB), prenyltransferase (tleC), and methyltransferase (tleD). The tleD gene, which is located outside of the tleABC cluster on the chromosome, was identified by transcriptional analysis and heterologous expression. Remarkably, TleD not only installs a methyl group on the geranyl moiety of the precursor but also facilitates the nucleophilic attack from the electron-rich indole to the resultant cation, to form the indole-fused six-membered ring. This is the first demonstration of a cation, generated from methylation, triggering successive terpenoid ring closure.
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New example of hemiporphycene formation from the corrole ring expansion.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The reaction of 5,10,15-tris(4-tert-butylphenyl)corrole with 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)-5,6-dicyanopyrazine provides a new example of corrole ring expansion to a hemiporphycene derivative. The ring expansion is regioselective, with insertion of the pyrazine derivative at the 5-position of the corrole ring, affording the corresponding 5-hemiporphycene. Different macrocyclic products accompany formation of the 5-hemiporphycene, depending on the reaction experimental conditions. Br-substitued 5-hemiporphycenes and the 2-Br substituted corrole were obtained in 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, while in refluxing toluene traces of an inner core substituted corrole were observed together with a significant amount of the unreacted corrole. These results provide an important indication of the reaction pathway. The coordination behavior of the 5-hemiporphycene, together with detailed electrochemical characterization of the free-base and some metal complexes, provides evidence for the reactivity of the peripheral pyrazino group.
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[Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition.
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Leptin signaling is required for augmented therapeutic properties of mesenchymal stem cells conferred by hypoxia preconditioning.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Hypoxia preconditioning enhances the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced augmentation of the protective effect of MSCs on myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly understood. We show that hypoxia-enhanced survival, mobility, and protection of cocultured cardiomyocytes were paralleled by increased expression of leptin and cell surface receptor CXCR4. The enhanced activities were abolished by either knockdown of leptin with a selective shRNA or by genetic deficiency of leptin or its receptor in MSCs derived, respectively, from ob/ob or db/db mice. To characterize the role of leptin in the regulation of MSC functions by hypoxia and its possible contribution to enhanced therapeutic efficacy, cell therapy using MSCs derived from wild-type, ob/ob, or db/db mice was implemented in mouse models of acute MI. Augmented protection by hypoxia pretreatment was only seen with MSCs from wild-type mice. Parameters that were differentially affected by hypoxia pretreatment included MSC engraftment, c-Kit(+) cell recruitment to the infarct, vascular density, infarct size, and long-term contractile function. These data show that leptin signaling is an early and essential step for the enhanced survival, chemotaxis, and therapeutic properties of MSCs conferred by preculture under hypoxia. Leptin may play a physiological role in priming MSCs resident in the bone marrow endosteum for optimal response to systemic signaling molecules and subsequent tissue repair.
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Nano-topology guided neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells is mediated by miRNAs.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are master regulators of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The present study investigated the involvement of miRNAs in topological guidance of neurite outgrowth in an NGF treated PC12 cell model cultured on nano-patterned polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates fabricated with interference lithography. The expressions of 38 neuronal miRNAs were measured and 3 were found to be differentially regulated during topological guidance of neurite outgrowth. Altering the intracellular levels of these miRNAs disrupted the orderly growth of neurite along nano-patterned substrate. Our results showed miRNAs to be versatile regulators and their involvement should be thoroughly investigated for better understanding of biological processes.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of AntE, a crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase from Streptomyces sp. NRRL 2288.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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AntE from Streptomyces sp. NRRL 2288 is a crotonyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase that catalyzes the reductive carboxylation of various ?,?-unsaturated acyl-CoAs to provide the building block at the C7 position for antimycin A biosynthesis. Recombinant AntE expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I222 or I2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=76.4, b=96.7, c=129.6?Å, ?=?=?=90.0°. A diffraction data set was collected at the KEK Photon Factory to 2.29?Å resolution.
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Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree and its effect on anthocyanins and color.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Raw whole strawberries, if contaminated with pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, must be pasteurized prior to consumption. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the thermal inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 in strawberry puree (SP), and evaluate the changes in anthocyanins and color, and the survival of yeasts and molds (YM) after thermal processing. Inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail, fresh SP, with or without added sugar (20 and 40 °Brix), was heated at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, 60, and 62.5 °C to determine the thermal resistance of E. coli O157:H7. In raw SP, the average D-values of E. coli O157:H7 were 909.1, 454.6, 212.8, 46.1, and 20.2 s at 50, 52, 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively, with a z-value of 5.9 °C. While linearly decreasing with temperature, the log D-values of E. coli O157:H7 increased slightly with sugar concentration. The log degradation rates of anthocyanins increased linearly with temperature, but decreased slightly with sugar concentrations. These results suggest that sugar may provide some protection to both E. coli O157: H7 and anthocyanins in SP. The browning index was not affected by heating at 50 and 52 °C at low sugar concentrations, but increased by an average of 1.28%, 2.21%, and 10.1% per min when SP was exposed to heating at 54, 57.5, and 60 °C, respectively. YM was also inactivated by heating. This study demonstrated that properly designed thermal processes can effectively inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and YM in contaminated SP, while minimizing the changes in anthocyanins and color.
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Predictive modeling for growth of non- and cold-adapted Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe at different storage temperatures.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes, with and without cold-adaption, on fresh-cut cantaloupe under different storage temperatures. Fresh-cut samples, spot inoculated with a 4-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (?3.2 log CFU/g), were exposed to constant storage temperatures held at 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 °C. All growth curves of L. monocytogenes were fitted to the Baranyi, modified Gompertz, and Huang models. Regardless of conditions under which cells grew, the time needed to reach 5 log CFU/g decreased with the elevated storage temperature. Experimental results showed that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the maximum growth rate k (log CFU/g h(-1) ) and lag phase duration ? (h) between the cultures of L. monocytogenes with or without previous cold-adaption treatments. No distinct difference was observed in the growth pattern among 3 primary models at various storage temperatures. The growth curves of secondary modeling were fitted on an Arrhenius-type model for describing the relationship between k and temperature of the L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupe from 10 to 30 °C. The root mean square error values of secondary models for non- and cold-adapted cells were 0.018, 0.021, and 0.024, and 0.039, 0.026, and 0.017 at the modified Gompertz, Baranyi, and Huang model, respectively, indicating that these 3 models presented the good statistical fit. This study may provide valuable information to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cantaloupes at different storage conditions.
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Transplantation of SIRT1-engineered aged mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction model.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that biological aging has a negative influence on the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapy. Using a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model, we tested the hypothesis that silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) may ameliorate the phenotype and improve the function of aged MSCs and thus enhance the efficacy of aged MSCs-based therapy.
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Nonspecific interactions of chromatin with immunoglobulin G and protein A, and their impact on purification performance.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Chromatin released from dead host cells during in vitro production of IgG monoclonal antibodies exists mostly in complex hetero-aggregates consisting of nucleosomal arrays (DNA+histone proteins), non-histone proteins, and aberrant forms of IgG. They bind immobilized protein A more aggressively than IgG, through their nucleosomal histone components, and hinder access of IgG to Fc-specific binding sites, thereby reducing dynamic binding capacity. The majority of host cell contaminants in eluted IgG are leachates from chromatin hetero-aggregates that remain bound to protein A. Formation of turbidity in eluted IgG during pH titration is caused by neutral-pH insolubility of chromatin hetero-aggregates. NaOH is required at 500 mM to remove accumulated chromatin. A chromatin-directed clarification method removed 99% of histones, 90% of non-histone proteins, achieved a 6 log reduction of DNA, 4 log reduction of lipid-enveloped virus, and 5 log reduction of non-enveloped retrovirus, while conserving 98% of the native IgG. This suspended most of performance compromises imposed on protein A. IgG binding capacity increased ~20%. Host protein contamination was reduced about 100-fold compared to protein A loaded with harvest clarified by centrifugation and microfiltration. Aggregates were reduced to less than 0.05%. Turbidity of eluted IgG upon pH neutralization was nearly eliminated. Column cleaning was facilitated by minimizing the accumulation of chromatin.
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Effect of high pressure treatment on the survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in strawberry puree.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Most fresh produce, such as strawberries, receives minimal processing and is often eaten raw. Contamination of produce with pathogenic bacteria may occur during growth, harvest, processing, transportation, and storage (abuse temperature) and presents a serious public health risk. Strawberries have been implicated in an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection that sickened 15 people, including one death. Strawberries may also be contaminated by other serogroups of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), including O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145, which have become known as the "Big Six" or "Top Six" non-O157 STECs. The objective of this research was to explore the potential application of high pressure processing (HPP) treatment to reduce or eliminate STECs in fresh strawberry puree (FSP). FSP, inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of the "Big Six" non-O157 STEC strains or a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 in vacuum-sealed packages, were pressure-treated at 150, 250, 350, 450, 550, and 650 MPa (1 MPa = 10(6) N/m(2)) for 5, 15, and 30 min. HPP treatment, at 350 MPa for ?5 min, significantly reduced STECs in FSP by about 6-log CFU/g from the initial cell population of ca. 8-log CFU/g. Cell rupture, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), demonstrated that the HPP treatments can be potentially used to control both non-O157 and O157:H7 STECs in heat sensitive products.
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Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.
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Expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule associated with elevated ductular reactions in hepatocellar carcinoma.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic significance of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression in HCC, the relationship between EpCAM with ductular reactions and other clinical features.
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Increased leptin by hypoxic-preconditioning promotes autophagy of mesenchymal stem cells and protects them from apoptosis.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Autophagy is the basic catabolic progress involved in cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components. It has been proven that autophagy could be utilized for cell survival under stresses. Hypoxic-preconditioning (HPC) could reduce apoptosis induced by ischemia and hypoxia/serum deprivation (H/SD) in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Previous studies have shown that both leptin signaling and autophagy activation were involved in the protection against apoptosis induced by various stress, including ischemia-reperfusion. However, it has never been fully understood how leptin was involved in the protective effects conferred by autophagy. In the present study, we demonstrated that HPC can induce autophagy in BMSCs by increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, similar effects were also observed when BMSCs were pretreated with rapamycin. The beneficial effects offered by HPC were absent when BMSCs were incubated with autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA). In addition, down-regulated leptin expression by leptin-shRNA also attenuated HPC-induced autophagy in BMSCs, which in turn was associated with increased apoptosis after exposed to sustained H/SD. Furthermore, increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and decreased mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation that were observed in HPC-treated BMSCs can also be attenuated by down-regulation of leptin expression. Our data suggests that leptin has impact on HPC-induced autophagy in BMSCs which confers protection against apoptosis under H/SD, possibly through modulating both AMPK and mTOR pathway.
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Overexpression of microRNAs enhances recombinant protein production in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Biotechnol J
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs that can negatively regulate expression of multiple genes at post-transcriptional levels. Using miRNAs to target multiple genes and pathways is a promising cell-engineering strategy to increase recombinant protein production in mammalian cells. Here, we identified miRs-17, -19b, -20a, and -92a to be differentially expressed between high- and low- monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clones using next-generation sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. These miRNAs were stably overexpressed individually and in combination in a high-producing clone to assess their effects on CHO cell growth, recombinant protein productivity and product quality. Stably transfected pools demonstrated 24-34% increases in specific productivity (qP) and 21-31% increases in titer relative to the parental clone, without significant alterations in proliferation rates. The highest protein-producing clones isolated from these pools exhibited 130-140% increases in qP and titer compared to the parental clone, without major changes in product aggregation and N-glycosylation profile. From our clonal data, correlations between enhanced qP/titer and increased levels of miRs-17, -19b, and -92a were observed. Our results demonstrate the potential of miRs-17, -19b, and -92a as cell-engineering targets to increase recombinant protein production in mammalian cells.
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Delayed protein shut down and cytopathic changes lead to high yields of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus cultured in Asian Grouper cells.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Inactivated whole virus vaccines represent the majority of commercial preparations used to prevent infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in salmonids today. The production of these vaccines requires high virus concentrations that are resource-demanding. In this study, we describe the cultivation of high yields of IPN virus in Asian Grouper strain K (AGK) cells. The mechanism by which this is achieved was investigated by comparison with commonly used salmonid cell lines (RTG-2 and CHSE-214 cells). The cells were counted before and sequentially after infection. Thereafter, protein shut down, virus yields and apoptosis were assessed. The effects of poly(I:C) pre-treatment and Mx expression on IPNV concentrations were examined and the results show that high virus yields were associated with high cell numbers per unit volume, delayed cell death and apoptosis inAGKcells while the opposite was observed in RTG-2 cells. Poly(I:C) treatment and Mx expression resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of virus multiplication. The production capacity of AGK and CHSE-214 cells were compared and higher split ratio and shorter split interval of AGK cells documents dramatic differences in virus antigen production capacity. Collectively, the results suggest that high cell numbers and prolonged survival of AGK cells are responsible for the superior virus yields over RTG-2 and higher split ratio/shorter split interval makes AGK superior over CHSE cells.
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Augmentation of the Antibody Response of Atlantic Salmon by Oral Administration of Alginate-Encapsulated IPNV Antigens.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of alginate-encapsulated infectious pancreatic necrosis virus antigens in inducing the immune response of Atlantic salmon as booster vaccines. One year after intraperitoneal injection with an oil-adjuvanted vaccine, post-smolts were orally boosted either by 1) alginate-encapsulated IPNV antigens (ENCAP); 2) soluble antigens (UNENCAP) or 3) untreated feed (control). This was done twice, seven weeks apart. Sampling was done twice, firstly at 7 weeks post 1st oral boost and the 2nd, at 4 weeks after the 2nd oral boost. Samples included serum, head kidney, spleen and hindgut. Serum antibodies were analyzed by ELISA while tissues were used to assess the expression of IgM, IgT, CD4, GATA3, FOXP3, TGF-? and IL-10 genes by quantitative PCR. Compared to controls, fish fed with ENCAP had a significant increase (p<0.04) in serum antibodies following the 1st boost but not after the 2nd boost. This coincided with significant up-regulation of CD4 and GATA3 genes. In contrast, serum antibodies in the UNENCAP group decreased both after the 1st and 2nd oral boosts. This was associated with significant up-regulation of FOXP3, TGF-? and IL-10 genes. The expression of IgT was not induced in the hindgut after the 1st oral boost but was significantly up-regulated following the 2nd one. CD4 and GATA3 mRNA expressions exhibited a similar pattern to IgT in the hindgut. IgM mRNA expression on the other hand was not differentially regulated at any of the times examined. Our findings suggest that 1) Parenteral prime with oil-adjuvanted vaccines followed by oral boost with ENCAP results in augmentation of the systemic immune response; 2) Symmetrical prime and boost (mucosal) with ENCAP results in augmentation of mucosal immune response and 3) Symmetrical priming and boosting (mucosal) with soluble antigens results in the induction of systemic immune tolerance.
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SIRT1 ameliorates age-related senescence of mesenchymal stem cells via modulating telomere shelterin.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) senescence is an age-related process that impairs the capacity for tissue repair and compromises the clinical use of autologous MSCs for tissue regeneration. Here, we describe the effects of SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, on age-related MSCs senescence. Knockdown of SIRT1 in young MSCs induced cellular senescence and inhibited cell proliferation whereas overexpression of SIRT1 in aged MSCs reversed the senescence phenotype and stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that SIRT1 plays a key role in modulating age-induced MSCs senescence. Aging-related proteins, P16 and P21 may be downstream effectors of the SIRT1-mediated anti-aging effects. SIRT1 protected MSCs from age-related DNA damage, induced telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression and enhanced telomerase activity but did not affect telomere length. SIRT1 positively regulated the expression of tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1), a component of the shelterin pathway that protects chromosome ends from DNA damage. Together, the results demonstrate that SIRT1 quenches age-related MSCs senescence by mechanisms that include enhanced TPP1 expression, increased telomerase activity and reduced DNA damage.
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Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning.
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Temporal characteristics of overt attentional behavior during category learning.
Atten Percept Psychophys
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Many theories of category learning incorporate mechanisms for selective attention, typically implemented as attention weights that change on a trial-by-trial basis. This is because there is relatively little data on within-trial changes in attention. We used eye tracking and mouse tracking as fine-grained measures of attention in three complex visual categorization tasks to investigate temporal patterns in overt attentional behavior within individual categorization decisions. In Experiments 1 and 2, we recorded participants eye movements while they performed three different categorization tasks. We extended previous research by demonstrating that not only are participants less likely to fixate irrelevant features, but also, when they do, these fixations are shorter than fixations to relevant features. We also found that participants fixation patterns show increasingly consistent temporal patterns. Participants were faster, although no more accurate, when their fixation sequences followed a consistent temporal structure. In Experiment 3, we replicated these findings in a task where participants used mouse movements to uncover features. Overall, we showed that there are important temporal regularities in information sampling during category learning that cannot be accounted for by existing models. These can be used to supplement extant models for richer predictions of how information is attended to during the buildup to a categorization decision.
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Lack of an association between interleukin-6 -174G/C polymorphism and circulating interleukin-6 levels in normal population: a meta-analysis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling may play a causal role in the development of coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between IL-6 genotypes and plasma levels of IL-6 appears to be complex. To help clarify the inconsistent findings, we conducted a meta-analysis of the published genetic association studies of the -174 G/C polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene and the circulating IL-6 levels in a normal population. In this meta-analysis, no significant association of IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and circulating IL-6 levels in a normal population was observed. However, when compared among GG, GC, and CC genotypes, heterogeneity existed among the studies. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, the independent study by Shen et al. influenced the heterogeneity in the homozygous and heterozygous comparison. Although Shen et al.s study was excluded, no significant association was observed between IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and circulating IL-6 levels in a normal population [homozygous comparison (GG vs. CC): the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) was -0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.1-0.08; heterozygous comparison (GC vs. GG or CC): the pooled SMD (GG vs. GC) was -0.05, 95%CI: -0.11-0.01, and the pooled SMD (CC vs. GC) was 0.03, 95%CI: -0.03-0.1]. Under the dominant model, the pooled SMD was -0.05, 95%CI: -0.11-0.01). The meta-analysis provides evidence that the -174G/C polymorphism in the IL-6 gene is not significantly associated with circulating IL-6 levels in a normal population.
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The role of spatiotemporal and spectral cues in segregating short sound events: evidence from auditory Ternus display.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Previous studies using auditory sequences with rapid repetition of tones revealed that spatiotemporal cues and spectral cues are important cues used to fuse or segregate sound streams. However, the perceptual grouping was partially driven by the cognitive processing of the periodicity cues of the long sequence. Here, we investigate whether perceptual groupings (spatiotemporal grouping vs. frequency grouping) could also be applicable to short auditory sequences, where auditory perceptual organization is mainly subserved by lower levels of perceptual processing. To find the answer to that question, we conducted two experiments using an auditory Ternus display. The display was composed of three speakers (A, B and C), with each speaker consecutively emitting one sound consisting of two frames (AB and BC). Experiment 1 manipulated both spatial and temporal factors. We implemented three within-frame intervals (WFIs, or intervals between A and B, and between B and C), seven inter-frame intervals (IFIs, or intervals between AB and BC) and two different speaker layouts (inter-distance of speakers: near or far). Experiment 2 manipulated the differentiations of frequencies between two auditory frames, in addition to the spatiotemporal cues as in Experiment 1. Listeners were required to make two alternative forced choices (2AFC) to report the perception of a given Ternus display: element motion (auditory apparent motion from sound A to B to C) or group motion (auditory apparent motion from sound AB to BC). The results indicate that the perceptual grouping of short auditory sequences (materialized by the perceptual decisions of the auditory Ternus display) was modulated by temporal and spectral cues, with the latter contributing more to segregating auditory events. Spatial layout plays a less role in perceptual organization. These results could be accounted for by the peripheral channeling theory.
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Multiplexing of combinatorial chemistry in antimycin biosynthesis: expansion of molecular diversity and utility.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Diversity-oriented biosynthesis of a library of antimycin-like compounds (380 altogether) was accomplished by using multiplex combinatorial biosynthesis. The core strategy depends on the use of combinatorial chemistry at different biosynthetic stages. This approach is applicable for the diversification of polyketides, nonribosomal peptides, and the hybrids that share a similar biosynthetic logic.
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Identification of MET genomic amplification, protein expression and alternative splice isoforms in neuroblastomas.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Crizotinib, a dual anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is currently being evaluated for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Its effects are thought to be mediated mainly via its activity against ALK. Although MET genomic/protein expression status might conceivably affect crizotinib efficacy, this issue has hitherto not received attention in neuroblastomas.
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IPMP 2013 - A comprehensive data analysis tool for predictive microbiology.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Predictive microbiology is an area of applied research in food science that uses mathematical models to predict the changes in the population of pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms in foods exposed to complex environmental changes during processing, transportation, distribution, and storage. It finds applications in shelf-life prediction and risk assessments of foods. The objective of this research was to describe the performance of a new user-friendly comprehensive data analysis tool, the Integrated Pathogen Modeling Model (IPMP 2013), recently developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service. This tool allows users, without detailed programming knowledge, to analyze experimental kinetic data and fit the data to known mathematical models commonly used in predictive microbiology. Data curves previously published in literature were used to test the models in IPMP 2013. The accuracies of the data analysis and models derived from IPMP 2013 were compared in parallel to commercial or open-source statistical packages, such as SAS® or R. Several models were analyzed and compared, including a three-parameter logistic model for growth curves without lag phases, reduced Huang and Baranyi models for growth curves without stationary phases, growth models for complete growth curves (Huang, Baranyi, and re-parameterized Gompertz models), survival models (linear, re-parameterized Gompertz, and Weibull models), and secondary models (Ratkowsky square-root, Huang square-root, Cardinal, and Arrhenius-type models). The comparative analysis suggests that the results from IPMP 2013 were equivalent to those obtained from SAS® or R. This work suggested that the IPMP 2013 could be used as a free alternative to SAS®, R, or other more sophisticated statistical packages for model development in predictive microbiology.
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Influence of geography and climate on patterns of cell size and body size in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.
Integr Zool
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Geographic patterns in body size are often associated with latitude, elevation, or environmental and climatic variables. This study investigated patterns of body size and cell size of the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis, and potential associations with geography or climatic variables. Lizards were sampled from 19 populations across the native range, and body size, red blood cell size and size and number of muscle cells were measured. Climatic data from local weather stations and latitude and longitude were entered into model selection with Akaikes information criterion to explain patterns in cell and body sizes. Climatic variables did not drive any major patterns in cell size or body size; rather, latitude and longitude were the best predictors of cell and body size. In general, smaller body and cell sizes in Florida anoles drove geographic patterns in A. carolinensis. Small size in Florida may be attributable to the geological history of the peninsular state or the unique ecological factors in this area, including a recently introduced congener. In contrast to previous studies, we found that A. carolinensis does not follow Bergmanns rule when the influence of Florida is excluded. Rather, the opposite pattern of larger lizards in southern populations is evident in the absence of Florida populations, and mirrors the general pattern in squamates. Muscle cell size was negatively related to latitude and red blood cell size showed no latitudinal trend outside of Florida. Different patterns in the sizes of the 2 cell types confirm the importance of examining multiple cell types when studying geographic variation in cell size.
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Mutual influences of intermodal visual/tactile apparent motion and auditory motion with uncrossed and crossed arms.
Multisens Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Intra-modal apparent motion has been shown to be affected or captured by information from another, task-irrelevant modality, as shown in cross-modal dynamic capture effect. Here we created inter-modal apparent motion between visual and tactile stimuli and investigated whether there are mutual influences between auditory apparent motion and inter-modal visual/tactile apparent motion. Moreover, we examined whether and how the spatial remapping between somatotopic and external reference frames of tactile events affect the cross-modal capture between auditory apparent motion and inter-modal visual/tactile apparent motion, by introducing two arm postures: arms-uncrossed and arms-crossed. In Experiment 1, we used auditory stimuli (auditory apparent motion) as distractors and inter-modal visual/tactile stimuli (inter-modal apparent motion) as targets while in Experiment 2 we reversed the distractors and targets. In Experiment 1, we found a general detrimental influence of arms-crossed posture in the task of discrimination of direction in visual/tactile stream, but in Experiment 2, the influence of arms-uncrossed posture played a significant role in modulating the inter-modal visual/tactile stimuli capturing over auditory apparent motion. In both Experiments, the synchronously presented motion streams led to noticeable directional congruency effect in judging the target motion. Among the different modality combinations, tactile to tactile apparent motion (TT) and visual to visual apparent motion (VV) are two signatures revealing the asymmetric congruency effects. When the auditory stimuli were targets, the congruency effect was largest with VV distractors, lowest with TT distractors; the pattern was reversed when the auditory stimuli were distractors. In addition, across both experiments the congruency effect in visual to tactile (VT) and tactile to visual (TV) apparent motion was intermediate between the effect-sizes in VV and TT. We replicated the above findings with a block-wise design (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, we introduced static distractor events (visual or tactile stimulus), and found the modulation of spatial remapping of distractors upon AA motion is reduced. These findings suggest that there are mutual but a robust asymmetric influence between intra-modal auditory apparent motion and intermodal visual/tactile apparent motion. We proposed that relative reliabilities in directional information between distractor and target streams, summed over a remapping process between two spatial reference frames, determined this asymmetric influence.
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Intersensory binding across space and time: a tutorial review.
Atten Percept Psychophys
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Spatial ventriloquism refers to the phenomenon that a visual stimulus such as a flash can attract the perceived location of a spatially discordant but temporally synchronous sound. An analogous example of mutual attraction between audition and vision has been found in the temporal domain, where temporal aspects of a visual event, such as its onset, frequency, or duration, can be biased by a slightly asynchronous sound. In this review, we examine various manifestations of spatial and temporal attraction between the senses (both direct effects and aftereffects), and we discuss important constraints on the occurrence of these effects. Factors that potentially modulate ventriloquism-such as attention, synesthetic correspondence, and other cognitive factors-are described. We trace theories and models of spatial and temporal ventriloquism, from the traditional unity assumption and modality appropriateness hypothesis to more recent Bayesian and neural network approaches. Finally, we summarize recent evidence probing the underlying neural mechanisms of spatial and temporal ventriloquism.
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c-Jun N-terminal kinase in synergistic neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells mediated through P90RSK.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Synergistic multi-ligand treatments that can induce neuronal differentiation offer valuable strategies to regulate and modulate neurite outgrowth. Whereas the signaling pathways mediating single ligand-induced neurite outgrowth, such as Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38), have been extensively studied, the mechanisms underlying multi-ligand synergistic neurite outgrowth are poorly understood. In an attempt to gain insight into synergistic neurite outgrowth, PC12 cells were treated with one of three combinations: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) with epidermal growth factor (EP), basic fibroblast growth factor (FP), or nerve growth factor (NP) and then challenged with the appropriate kinase inhibitors to assess the signaling pathways involved in the process.
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GDNF family ligand dependent STAT3 activation is mediated by specific alternatively spliced isoforms of GFR?2 and RET.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Neurturin (NRTN), a member of the GDNF family of ligands (GFL), is currently investigated in a series of clinical trials for Parkinsons disease. NRTN signals through its cognate receptor GFR?2 and co-receptor RET to induce neurite outgrowth, but the underlying mechanism remains to be better understood. STAT3 was previously shown to be activated by oncogenic RET, independent of ligand and GFR?. In this study, we demonstrated that NRTN induced serine(727) but not tyrosine(705) phosphorylation of STAT3 in primary cortical neuron and neuronal cell lines. Remarkably, STAT3 phosphorylation was found to be mediated specifically by GFR?2c and RET9 isoforms. Furthermore, serine but not tyrosine dominant negative mutant of STAT3 impaired NRTN induced neurite outgrowth, indicative of the role of STAT3 as a downstream mediator of NRTN function. Similar to NGF, the NRTN induced P-Ser-STAT3 was localized to the mitochondria but not to the nucleus. Mitochondrial STAT3 was further found to be intimately involved in NRTN induced neurite outgrowth. Collectively, these findings demonstrated the hitherto unrecognized and novel role of specific GFR?2 and RET isoforms in mediating NRTN activation of STAT3 and the transcription independent mechanism whereby the mitochondria localized P-Ser-STAT3 mediated NRTN induced neurite outgrowth.
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FK506 maturation involves a cytochrome p450 protein-catalyzed four-electron C-9 oxidation in parallel with a C-31 O-methylation.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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FK506, structurally similar to FK520 and rapamycin, is an ?-keto amide bonding-containing, macrolide natural product that exhibits potent immunosuppressive activity and moderate antifungal activity. FK506 biosynthesis requires a hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS)-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) system to construct the skeleton of the macrolide. The mechanism for tailoring this macrolide to furnish FK506 remains poorly understood. In this study, we report a maturation paradigm common for FK506, FK520, and rapamycin, by characterizing two conserved regiospecific, post-PKS-NRPS modifications in an FK506-producing Streptomyces tsukubaensis strain. A cytochrome P450 protein, FkbD, catalyzes a less common, four-electron oxidation at C-9 to give a rarely found ?-keto amide group, whereas a methyltransferase, FkbM, is responsible for O-methylation at C-31 to afford a methoxy group. Both FkbD and FkbM are highly tolerant in their substrate choice; therefore, the order of FkbD- and FkbM-catalyzed reactions is interchangeable in the FK506 biosynthetic pathway. Inactivation of fkbD produced a new intermediate, 9-deoxo-FK506, which displayed antifungal activity lower than that of FK506. Taking previously reported bioassay results regarding the intermediates 9-deoxo-31-O-demethyl-FK506 and 31-O-demethyl-FK506 into account, it is clear that the modifications catalyzed by FkbD and FkbM are of importance to reach the full biological activity of FK506 by forming a key structure motif that is necessary for interaction of the molecule with the receptor and, subsequently, the downstream intracellular responses.
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Gene expression profiling of a nisin-sensitive Listeria monocytogenes Scott A ctsR deletion mutant.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of significant threat to public health. Nisin is the only bacteriocin that can be used as a food preservative. Due to its antimicrobial activity, it can be used to control L. monocytogenes in food; however, the antimicrobial mechanism of nisin activity against L. monocytogenes is not fully understood. The CtsR (class III stress gene repressor) protein negatively regulates the expression of class III heat shock genes. A spontaneous pressure-tolerant ctsR deletion mutant that showed increased sensitivity to nisin has been identified. Microarray technology was used to monitor the gene expression profiles of the ctsR mutant under treatments with nisin. Compared to the nisin-treated wild type, 113 genes were up-regulated (>2-fold increase) in the ctsR deletion mutant whereas four genes were down-regulated (<-2-fold decrease). The up-regulated genes included genes that encode for ribosomal proteins, membrane proteins, cold-shock domain proteins, translation initiation and elongation factors, cell division, an ATP-dependent ClpC protease, a putative accessory gene regulator protein D, transport and binding proteins, a beta-glucoside-specific phosphotransferase system IIABC component, as well as hypothetical proteins. The down-regulated genes consisted of genes that encode for virulence, a transcriptional regulator, a stress protein, and a hypothetical protein. The gene expression changes determined by microarray assays were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Moreover, an in-frame deletion mutant for one of the induced genes (LMOf2365_1877) was constructed in the wild-type L. monocytogenes F2365 background. ?LMOf2365_1877 had increased nisin sensitivity compared to the wild-type strain. This study enhances our understanding of how nisin interacts with the ctsR gene product in L. monocytogenes and may contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanisms of nisin.
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Variations in matrix metalloproteinase-1, -3, and -9 genes and the risk of acute coronary syndrome and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of endopeptidases involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and MMP gene polymorphisms may contribute toward the risk of coronary heart disease. Within this context, our aim was to examine whether MMP1, MMP3, and MMP9 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Human endometrial stem cells confer enhanced myocardial salvage and regeneration by paracrine mechanisms.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Human endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) have the potential to be off the shelf clinical reagents for the treatment of heart failure. Here, using an immunocompetent rat model of myocardial infarction (MI), we provide evidence that the functional benefits of EnSC transplantation are principally and possibly exclusively through a paracrine effect. Human EnSCs were delivered by intramyocardial injection into rats 30 min. after coronary ligation. EnSC therapy significantly preserved viable myocardium in the infarct zone and improved cardiac function at 28 days. Despite increased viable myocardium and vascular density, there was scant evidence of differentiation of EnSCs into any cardiovascular cell type. Cultured human EnSCs expressed a distinctive profile of cytokines that enhanced the survival, proliferation and function of endothelial cells in vitro. When injected into the peri-infarct zone, human EnSCs activated AKT, ERK1/2 and STAT3 and inhibited the p38 signalling pathway. EnSC therapy decreased apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation and c-kit+ cell recruitment in vivo. Myocardial protection and enhanced post-infarction regeneration by EnSCs is mediated primarily by paracrine effects conferred by secreted cytokines that activate survival pathways and recruit endogenous progenitor stem cells. Menstrual blood provides a potentially limitless source of biologically competent off the shelf EnSCs for allogeneic myocardial regenerative medicine.
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Association of the CCR5?32 polymorphism and its ligand RANTES-403G/A polymorphism with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To explore the relationship between polymorphisms in the RANTES and CCR5 genes and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Preconditioning via Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor Activation Improves Therapeutic Efficacy of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Cardiac Repair.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The therapeutic efficiency of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) autologous transplantation for myocardial infarction (MI) remains low. Here we developed a novel strategy to improve cardiac repair by preconditioning BMMNCs via angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) stimulation.
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Video game telemetry as a critical tool in the study of complex skill learning.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cognitive science has long shown interest in expertise, in part because prediction and control of expert development would have immense practical value. Most studies in this area investigate expertise by comparing experts with novices. The reliance on contrastive samples in studies of human expertise only yields deep insight into development where differences are important throughout skill acquisition. This reliance may be pernicious where the predictive importance of variables is not constant across levels of expertise. Before the development of sophisticated machine learning tools for data mining larger samples, and indeed, before such samples were available, it was difficult to test the implicit assumption of static variable importance in expertise development. To investigate if this reliance may have imposed critical restrictions on the understanding of complex skill development, we adopted an alternative method, the online acquisition of telemetry data from a common daily activity for many: video gaming. Using measures of cognitive-motor, attentional, and perceptual processing extracted from game data from 3360 Real-Time Strategy players at 7 different levels of expertise, we identified 12 variables relevant to expertise. We show that the static variable importance assumption is false--the predictive importance of these variables shifted as the levels of expertise increased--and, at least in our dataset, that a contrastive approach would have been misleading. The finding that variable importance is not static across levels of expertise suggests that large, diverse datasets of sustained cognitive-motor performance are crucial for an understanding of expertise in real-world contexts. We also identify plausible cognitive markers of expertise.
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ALDH2 activator inhibits increased myocardial infarction injury by nitroglycerin tolerance.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Nitroglycerin, which treats impaired cardiac function through vasodilation as it is converted to nitric oxide, is used worldwide for patients with various ischemic and congestive cardiac diseases, including angina pectoris. Nevertheless, after continuous treatment, the benefits of nitroglycerin are limited by the development of tolerance to the drug. Nitroglycerin tolerance is a result of inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an enzyme essential for cardioprotection in animals subjected to myocardial infarction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the tolerance that develops as a result of sustained nitroglycerin treatment increases cardiac injury by subsequent myocardial infarction. In a rat model of myocardial infarction, 16 hours of prior, sustained nitroglycerin treatment resulted in infarcts that were twice as large as those in untreated control animals and in diminished cardiac function at 3 days and 2 weeks after the myocardial infarction. We also sought to identify a potential treatment to protect against this increased cardiac damage. Nitroglycerin inhibited ALDH2 activity in vitro, an effect that was blocked by Alda-1, an activator of ALDH2. Co-administration of Alda-1 with the nitroglycerin prevented the nitroglycerin-induced increase in cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction in rats, at least in part by enhancing metabolism of reactive aldehyde adducts that impair normal protein functions. If our animal studies showing that nitroglycerin tolerance increases cardiac injury upon ischemic insult are corroborated in humans, activators of ALDH2 such as Alda-1 may help to protect patients with myocardial infarction from this nitroglycerin-induced increase in cardiac injury while maintaining the cardiac benefits of the increased nitric oxide concentrations produced by nitroglycerin.
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Affinity analysis of DNA aptamer-peptide interactions using gold nanoparticles.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used as colorimetric probe and fluorescence quencher for affinity analysis of DNA aptamers toward their target mucin 1 (MUC1) peptide. Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer-coated AuNPs showed increased stability (i.e., more resistant to aggregation induced by NaCl) in the presence of their target peptide due to the increase in steric protection conferred by the ssDNA-peptide complexes formed on the AuNPs. Based on changes in the UV-vis extinction spectrum of AuNPs (a measure of AuNPs aggregation) and fluorescence restoration of CY5-ssDNA upon ssDNA-peptide complex formation, the formation of the complexes and ssDNA sequence-dependent dissociation constant (K(d)) were determined. Besides the UV-vis and fluorescence measurements, the hydrodynamic diameters, zeta potential measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of AuNPs after various coatings supported the assay principle. The methodology presented herein provides a rapid and sensitive alternative solution for the identification of high affinity binders from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX).
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Evaluating the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate--the Ratkowsky and a B?lehrádek-type models.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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The objective of this paper to conduct a parallel comparison of a new B?lehrádek-type growth rate (with an exponent of 1.5, or the Huang model), Ratkowsky square-root, and Ratkowsky square equations as secondary models for evaluating the effect of temperature on the growth of microorganisms. Growth rates of psychrotrophs and mesophiles were selected from the literature, and independently analyzed with the 3 models using nonlinear regression. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the means of growth rate (?), estimated minimum temperature (T(min) ), approximate standard errors (SE) of T(min) , model mean square errors (MSE), accuracy factor (A(f) ), bias factor (B(f) ), relative residual errors (?), Akaike information criterion (AICc), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Based on the estimated T(min) values, the Huang model distinctively classified the bacteria into 2 groups (psychrotrophs and mesophiles). No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed among the means of the ? values reported in the literature or estimated by the 3 models, suggesting that all 3 models were suitable for curve fitting. Nor was there any significant difference in MSE, SE, ?, A(f) , B(f) , AICc, and BIC. The T(min) values estimated by the Huang model were significantly higher than those estimated by the Ratkowsky models, but were in closer agreement with the biological minimum temperatures for both psychrotrophs and mesophiles. The T(min) values estimated by the Ratkowsky models systematically underestimated the minimum growth temperatures. In addition, statistical estimation showed that the mean exponent for the new B?lehrádek-type growth rate model may indeed be 1.5, further supporting the validity of the Huang model.
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Effect of temperature on microbial growth rate-mathematical analysis: the Arrhenius and Eyring-Polanyi connections.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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The objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model for evaluating the effect of temperature on the rate of microbial growth. The new mathematical model is derived by combination and modification of the Arrhenius equation and the Eyring-Polanyi transition theory. The new model, suitable for both suboptimal and the entire growth temperature ranges, was validated using a collection of 23 selected temperature-growth rate curves belonging to 5 groups of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli, from the published literature. The curve fitting is accomplished by nonlinear regression using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The resulting estimated growth rate (?) values are highly correlated to the data collected from the literature (R(2) = 0.985, slope = 1.0, intercept = 0.0). The bias factor (B(f) ) of the new model is very close to 1.0, while the accuracy factor (A(f) ) ranges from 1.0 to 1.22 for most data sets. The new model is compared favorably with the Ratkowsky square root model and the Eyring equation. Even with more parameters, the Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and mean square errors of the new model are not statistically different from the square root model and the Eyring equation, suggesting that the model can be used to describe the inherent relationship between temperature and microbial growth rates. The results of this work show that the new growth rate model is suitable for describing the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate. Practical Application:? Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in foods. This study attempts to develop and validate a mathematical model to describe the temperature dependence of microbial growth rate. The findings show that the new model is accurate and can be used to describe the effect of temperature on microbial growth rate in foods.
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Determination of physical processes influencing Chl a distribution using remotely sensed images.
Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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In management of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis culture, it is important to understand the phytoplankton bloom development in the coastal region of the Okhotsk Sea. Variations in food available to this benthic bivalve are a primary environmental factor affecting growth in nature. This paper determined the seasonal variability of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) at the scallop farming region in the Okhotsk Sea from 1998 to 2004 using satellite imageries. Satellite images were processed using default NASA coefficients and community-standard algorithms as implemented by Sea DAS. Spatial and temporal variation of Chl a was determined by EOF analysis. The Chl a concentration showed high seasonal and interannual variability. Peak of Chl a concentration occurred in spring followed by autumn and summer. This was evident in the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The spatial pattern of the first mode of EOF analysis of Chl a revealed intensified Chl a at the shelf and offshore areas in spring and autumn (51.8% of variance). The second mode explained 14.2% of the variance indicating enhancement of spring (April-May) Chl a pattern in the frontal area along the coast. Meanwhile, the third mode captured 9.0% of the variability demonstrating high Chl a extending seaward from the shelf area during late autumn. These seasonal variability of Chl a resulted from the variability in occurrences of physical processes associated with retreat of sea ice in spring, advection of Soya Warm Current in summer and intrusion of East Sakhalin Current in autumn.
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Capture of intermodal visual/tactile apparent motion by moving and static sound.
Seeing Perceiving
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Apparent motion can occur within a particular modality or between modalities, in which a visual or tactile stimulus at one location is perceived as moving towards the location of the subsequent tactile or visual stimulus. Intramodal apparent motion has been shown to be affected or captured by information from another, task-irrelevant modality, as in spatial or temporal ventriloquism. Here we investigate whether and how intermodal apparent motion is affected by motion direction cues or temporal interval information from a third modality. We demonstrated that both moving and asynchronous static sounds can capture intermodal (visual-tactile and tactile-visual) apparent motion; moreover, while the auditory direction cues have less impact upon the perception of intramodal visual apparent motion than upon the perception of intramodal tactile or intermodal visual/tactile apparent motion, the auditory temporal information has equivalent impacts upon both intramodal and intermodal apparent motion. These findings suggest intermodal apparent motion is susceptible to the influence of dynamic or static auditory information in similar ways as intramodal visual or tactile apparent motion.
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Naked-eye visible and fluorometric dual-signaling chemodosimeter for hypochlorous acid based on water-soluble p-methoxyphenol derivative.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The oxidation of a simple p-methoxyphenol derivative by HClO induces an intramolecular charge transfer from the end phenyl units to the middle benzoquinone, which leads to colorimetric and fluorescent changes. This detection can be run in aqueous solution with high selectivity over other reactive oxygen species.
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Bayesian robust principal component analysis.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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A hierarchical Bayesian model is considered for decomposing a matrix into low-rank and sparse components, assuming the observed matrix is a superposition of the two. The matrix is assumed noisy, with unknown and possibly non-stationary noise statistics. The Bayesian framework infers an approximate representation for the noise statistics while simultaneously inferring the low-rank and sparse-outlier contributions; the model is robust to a broad range of noise levels, without having to change model hyperparameter settings. In addition, the Bayesian framework allows exploitation of additional structure in the matrix. For example, in video applications each row (or column) corresponds to a video frame, and we introduce a Markov dependency between consecutive rows in the matrix (corresponding to consecutive frames in the video). The properties of this Markov process are also inferred based on the observed matrix, while simultaneously denoising and recovering the low-rank and sparse components. We compare the Bayesian model to a state-of-the-art optimization-based implementation of robust PCA; considering several examples, we demonstrate competitive performance of the proposed model.
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PEGylated anti-MUC1 aptamer-doxorubicin complex for targeted drug delivery to MCF7 breast cancer cells.
Macromol Biosci
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2011
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Targeted drug delivery is especially important in cancer treatment as many anti-cancer drugs are non-specific and highly toxic to both cancer and normal cells. The targeted drug delivery of DOX to the MUC1-expressing breast cancer cell line (MCF7) was obtained using APT as a carrier. Modification of the APT-DOX complex by PEG increases the survivability of the macrophage control (RAW 264.7) by about six-fold as compared to free DOX treatment without significantly affecting the cytotoxicity toward the target cell line. Thus, PEG-APT-DOX is potentially a new therapeutic agent for targeted drug delivery to MUC1-expressing cell lines.
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Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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A magneto-optic modulator with a magnetic fluid film inserted into an optical fiber Sagnac interferometer is proposed. The magnetic fluid exhibits variable birefringence and Faraday effect under external magnetic field that will lead to a phase difference and polarization state rotation in the Sagnac interferometer. As a result, the intensity of the output light is modulated under the external magnetic field. Moreover, the modulator has a high extinction ratio and can easily be integrated in a single-mode fiber system. The performance of the modulator is not affected by ambient temperature variation from room temperature to 40 °C.
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From ontology selection and semantic web to an integrated information system for food-borne diseases and food safety.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Several factors have hindered effective use of information and resources related to food safety due to inconsistency among semantically heterogeneous data resources, lack of knowledge on profiling of food-borne pathogens, and knowledge gaps among research communities, government risk assessors/managers, and end-users of the information. This paper discusses technical aspects in the establishment of a comprehensive food safety information system consisting of the following steps: (a) computational collection and compiling publicly available information, including published pathogen genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data; (b) development of ontology libraries on food-borne pathogens and design automatic algorithms with formal inference and fuzzy and probabilistic reasoning to address the consistency and accuracy of distributed information resources (e.g., PulseNet, FoodNet, OutbreakNet, PubMed, NCBI, EMBL, and other online genetic databases and information); (c) integration of collected pathogen profiling data, Foodrisk.org ( http://www.foodrisk.org ), PMP, Combase, and other relevant information into a user-friendly, searchable, "homogeneous" information system available to scientists in academia, the food industry, and government agencies; and (d) development of a computational model in semantic web for greater adaptability and robustness.
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Cyclic AMP signalling through PKA but not Epac is essential for neurturin-induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowths through GFR?2 isoforms.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Cyclic AMP (cAMP) and neurotrophic factors are known to interact closely to promote neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its family member neurturin (NTN) transduce signal through a multi-component receptor complex consisting of GDNF family receptor alpha 2 (GFR?2) and Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. Neurons from GFR?2-deficient mice do not promote axonal initiation when stimulated by NTN, consistent with the role of GFR?2 in neuronal outgrowth. Multiple alternatively spliced isoforms of GFR?2 are known to be expressed in the nervous system. GFR?2a and GFR?2c but not GFR?2b promoted neurite outgrowth. It is currently unknown if cAMP signalling is differentially regulated by these isoforms. In this study, NTN activation of GFR?2a and GFR?2c but not GFR?2b induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and phosphorylation of the major cAMP target CREB. Interestingly, inhibition of cAMP signalling significantly impaired GFR?2a and GFR?2c-mediated neurite outgrowth while cAMP agonists cooperated with GFR?2b to induce neurite outgrowth. Importantly, the specific cAMP effector PKA but not Epac was essential for NTN-induced neurite outgrowth, through transcription and translation-dependent activation of late phase ERK1/2. Taken together, these results not only demonstrated the essential role of cAMP-PKA signalling in NTN-induced biphasic ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowth, but also suggested cAMP-PKA signalling as a hitherto unrecognized underlying mechanism contributing to the differential neuritogenic activities of GFR?2 isoforms.
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Mitochondrial localized STAT3 is involved in NGF induced neurite outgrowth.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in neural development and is increasingly recognized as a major mediator of injury response in the nervous system. Cytokines and growth factors are known to phosphorylate STAT3 at tyrosine(705) with or without the concomitant phosphorylation at serine(727), resulting in the nuclear localization of STAT3 and subsequent transcriptional activation of genes. Recent evidence suggests that STAT3 may control cell function via alternative mechanisms independent of its transcriptional activity. Currently, the involvement of STAT3 mono-phosphorylated at residue serine(727) (P-Ser-STAT3) in neurite outgrowth and the underlying mechanism is largely unknown.
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Monolith-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography increases production efficiency for plasmid DNA purification.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Immobilized metal affinity monolith column as a new class of chromatographic support is shown to be superior to conventional particle-based column as plasmid DNA (pDNA) purification platform. By harnessing the affinity of endotoxin to copper ions in the solution, a majority of endotoxin (90%) was removed from the alkaline cell lysate using CuCl(2)-induced precipitation. RNA and remaining endotoxin were subsequently removed to below detection limit with minimal loss of pDNA using either monolith or particle-based column. Monolith column has the additional advantage of feed concentration and flowrate-independent dynamic binding capacity for RNA molecules, enabling purification process to be conducted at high feed RNA concentration and flowrate. The use of monolith column gives three fold increased productivity of pDNA as compared to particle-based column, providing a more rapid and economical platform for pDNA purification.
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Visual apparent motion can be modulated by task-irrelevant lexical information.
Atten Percept Psychophys
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Previous studies have repeatedly demonstrated the impact of Gestalt structural grouping principles upon the parsing of motion correspondence in ambiguous apparent motion. Here, by embedding Chinese characters in a visual Ternus display that comprised two stimulus frames, we showed that the perception of visual apparent motion can be modulated by activation of task-irrelevant lexical representations. Each frame had two disks, with the second disk of the first frame and the first disk of the second frame being presented at the same location. Observers could perceive either "element motion," in which the endmost disk is seen as moving back and forth while the middle disk at the central position remains stationary, or "group motion," in which both disks appear to move laterally as a whole. More reports of group motion, as opposed to element motion, were obtained when the embedded characters formed two-character compound words than when they formed nonwords, although this lexicality effect appeared to be attenuated by the use of the same characters at the overlapping position across the two frames. Thus, grouping of visual elements in a changing world can be guided by both structural principles and prior world knowledge, including lexical information.
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Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR.
BMC Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. coli. However, the choice of reliable reference genes has not been systematically validated. The objective of this study is to identify a set of reliable reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein over-expression studies in E. coli.
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Interaction of perceptual grouping and crossmodal temporal capture in tactile apparent-motion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Previous studies have shown that in tasks requiring participants to report the direction of apparent motion, task-irrelevant mono-beeps can "capture" visual motion perception when the beeps occur temporally close to the visual stimuli. However, the contributions of the relative timing of multimodal events and the event structure, modulating uni- and/or crossmodal perceptual grouping, remain unclear. To examine this question and extend the investigation to the tactile modality, the current experiments presented tactile two-tap apparent-motion streams, with an SOA of 400 ms between successive, left-/right-hand middle-finger taps, accompanied by task-irrelevant, non-spatial auditory stimuli. The streams were shown for 90 seconds, and participants task was to continuously report the perceived (left- or rightward) direction of tactile motion. In Experiment 1, each tactile stimulus was paired with an auditory beep, though odd-numbered taps were paired with an asynchronous beep, with audiotactile SOAs ranging from -75 ms to 75 ms. Perceived direction of tactile motion varied systematically with audiotactile SOA, indicative of a temporal-capture effect. In Experiment 2, two audiotactile SOAs--one short (75 ms), one long (325 ms)--were compared. The long-SOA condition preserved the crossmodal event structure (so the temporal-capture dynamics should have been similar to that in Experiment 1), but both beeps now occurred temporally close to the taps on one side (even-numbered taps). The two SOAs were found to produce opposite modulations of apparent motion, indicative of an influence of crossmodal grouping. In Experiment 3, only odd-numbered, but not even-numbered, taps were paired with auditory beeps. This abolished the temporal-capture effect and, instead, a dominant percept of apparent motion from the audiotactile side to the tactile-only side was observed independently of the SOA variation. These findings suggest that asymmetric crossmodal grouping leads to an attentional modulation of apparent motion, which inhibits crossmodal temporal-capture effects.
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Comprehensive approaches to molecular biomarker discovery for detection and identification of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) and Salmonella spp.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Cronobacter spp. (formerly Enterobacter sakazakii) and Salmonella spp. are increasingly implicated internationally as important microbiological contaminants in low-moisture food products, including powdered infant formula. Estimates indicate that 40 to 80% of infants infected with Cronobacter sakazakii and/or Salmonella in the United States may not survive the illness. A systematic approach, combining literature-based data mining, comparative genome analysis, and the direct sequencing of PCR products of specific biomarker genes, was used to construct an initial collection of genes to be targeted. These targeted genes, particularly genes encoding virulence factors and genes responsible for unique phenotypes, have the potential to function as biomarker genes for the identification and differentiation of Cronobacter spp. and Salmonella from other food-borne pathogens in low-moisture food products. In this paper, a total of 58 unique Salmonella gene clusters and 126 unique potential Cronobacter biomarkers and putative virulence factors were identified. A chitinase gene, a well-studied virulence factor in fungi, plants, and bacteria, was used to confirm this approach. We found that the chitinase gene has very low sequence variability and/or polymorphism among Cronobacter, Citrobacter, and Salmonella, while differing significantly in other food-borne pathogens, either by sequence blasting or experimental testing, including PCR amplification and direct sequencing. This computational analysis for Cronobacter and Salmonella biomarker identification and the preliminary laboratory studies are only a starting point; thus, PCR and array-based biomarker verification studies of these and other food-borne pathogens are currently being conducted.
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[Impact of distillage recycling on the glycolysis key enzymes, stress response metabolites and intracelluler components of the self-flocculating yeast].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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This research aimed to study the effect of distillage recycling on ethanol fermentation, the key glycolytic enzymes and cell composition of the self-flocculating yeast. With the self-flocculating yeast SPSC01 and medium composed of 220 g/L glucose, 8 g/L yeast extract and 6 g/L peptone, continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out at the dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1) with a 1.5 L tank bioreactor. Fermentation broth was collected every 3 days, and ethanol and other volatile byproducts were removed by distillation, but the stillage with high boiling byproducts was recycled to prepare the medium instead of fresh water. The system was run for 20 days, during which ethanol and biomass concentrations in the effluent decreased continuously, indicating the significant inhibition of the high boiling byproducts accumulated within the system. Thus, the activities of the key enzymes of the glycolytic pathway: hexokinase, 6-phosphofructose kinase, and pyruvate kinase were analyzed, and it was observed that all of them were inhibited. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of the stress response metabolites glycerol and trehalose was investigated, and it was found that glycerol production that can protect yeast cells against osmotic pressure stress was enhanced, but trehalose biosynthesis that can protect yeast cells against ethanol inhibition was not improved, correspondingly. And in the meantime, the biosynthesis of the major intracellular components proteins and hydrocarbons was adjusted, correspondingly.
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Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere package.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Recent studies showed that sodium acid sulfate (SAS) and levulinic acid (LA) in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was effective in inactivating human pathogens on Romaine lettuce. The present study investigated the effects of LA and SAS in combination with SDS (as compared with citric acid and chlorine) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and sensory quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce in modified atmosphere packages during storage at 4 °C. Results showed that LA (0.5% to 3%) and SAS (0.25% to 0.75%) with 0.05% SDS caused detrimental effects on visual quality and texture of lettuce. LA- and SAS-treated samples were sensorially unacceptable due to development of sogginess and softening after 7 and 14 d storage. It appears that the combined treatments caused an increase in the respiration rate of fresh-cut lettuce as indicated by higher CO(2) and lower O(2) in modified atmosphere packages. On the positive side, the acid treatments inhibited cut edge browning of lettuce pieces developed during storage. LA (0.5%), SAS (0.25%), and citric acid (approximately 0.25%) in combination with SDS reduced population of E. coli OH157:H7 by 0.41, 0.87, and 0.58 log CFU/g, respectively, while chlorine achieved a reduction of 0.94 log CFU/g without damage to the lettuce. Therefore, compared to chlorine, LA and SAS in combination with SDS have limited commercial value for fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce due to quality deterioration during storage.
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Identification and validation of reference genes for expression studies in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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Neuropathic pain is triggered by damage to or as a result of the dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system. Gene expression profiling using DNA microarray and real-time PCR have emerged as powerful tools for the elucidation of pain-specific pathways and identification of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Proper normalization of the gene expression data with stable reference genes is a prerequisite to obtaining accurate gene expression changes. We have evaluated the stability of six candidate reference genes which include three commonly used housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH and HMBS) and three ribosomal protein genes (RPL3, RPL19 and RPL29) using real-time PCR in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Unexpectedly, ACTB but not GAPDH was stably expressed. In addition, we have identified RPL29 and RPL3 as novel reference genes. Normalization of expression data using GAPDH or HMBS led to overestimation of transcriptional changes. Using RPL29/RPL3/ACTB as reference genes, a number of transcripts were found to be specifically and significantly regulated in injured dorsal root ganglia. These genes may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain pathology and may serve as candidate biomarkers for potential diagnosis.
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Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and cardiac diseases.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Numerous conditions promote oxidative stress, leading to the build-up of reactive aldehydes that cause cell damage and contribute to cardiac diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are important enzymes that eliminate toxic aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to non-reactive acids. The review will discuss evidence indicating a role for a specific ALDH enzyme, the mitochondrial ALDH2, in combating oxidative stress by reducing the cellular aldehydic load. Epidemiological studies in humans carrying an inactive ALDH2, genetic models in mice with altered ALDH2 levels, and small molecule activators of ALDH2 all highlight the role of ALDH2 in cardioprotection and suggest a promising new direction in cardiovascular research and the development of new treatments for cardiovascular diseases.
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Mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon is mediated by HSP90: a role in cardioprotection from ischaemia and reperfusion injury.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) is critical for cardiac protection from ischaemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. PKCepsilon substrates that mediate cytoprotection reside in the mitochondria. However, the mechanism enabling mitochondrial translocation and import of PKCepsilon to enable phosphorylation of these substrates is not known. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a cytoprotective protein chaperone that participates in mitochondrial import of a number of proteins. Here, we investigated the role of HSP90 in mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon.
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New automated microwave heating process for cooking and pasteurization of microwaveable foods containing raw meats.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (approximately 5 log(10) CFU/g) and packaged in a 12-oz CPET tray containing 150-mL de-ionized water. The new microwave heating system was equipped with an infrared sensor and a proportional feedback mechanism to allow temperature controlled microwave heating. A 2-stage heating strategy was adopted to cook the product. In the primary heating stage, the sample surface temperature was increased to an initial temperature set-point (ITSP, 65, 70, 75, or 80 degrees C). In the secondary heating stage, the heating was continued with a small fraction of microwave power. The effect of ITSP, hold time (0 to 3 min), and sample elevation (0, 0.03, and 0.07 m above turntable) on inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora was evaluated. It was observed that only a small number (approximately 1.3 logs) of E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora were inactivated in the primary heating stage. The elevation 0.07 m, which was in the proximity of the geometric center of the metal cavity, was more effective in inactivating both E. coli O157:H7 and background microflora. Substantially more bacteria were inactivated in the secondary heating stage. Complete inactivation of E. coli and background microflora was observed with heating at temperatures above 70 degrees C for more than 1 min. This study demonstrated a new approach for ensuring the safety of microwaveable products containing raw meats.
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Auditory temporal modulation of the visual Ternus effect: the influence of time interval.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Research on multisensory interactions has shown that the perceived timing of a visual event can be captured by a temporally proximal sound. This effect has been termed temporal ventriloquism effect. Using the Ternus display, we systematically investigated how auditory configurations modulate the visual apparent-motion percepts. The Ternus display involves a multielement stimulus that can induce either of two different percepts of apparent motion: element motion or group motion. We found that two sounds presented in temporal proximity to, or synchronously with, the two visual frames, respectively, can shift the transitional threshold for visual apparent motion (Experiments 1 and 3). However, such effects were not evident with single-sound configurations (Experiment 2). A further experiment (Experiment 4) provided evidence that time interval information is an important factor for crossmodal interaction of audiovisual Ternus effect. The auditory interval was perceived as longer than the same physical visual interval in the sub-second range. Furthermore, the perceived audiovisual interval could be predicted by optimal integration of the visual and auditory intervals.
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Dynamic model for predicting growth of Salmonella spp. in ground sterile pork.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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A predictive model for Salmonella spp. growth in ground pork was developed and validated using kinetic growth data. Salmonella spp. kinetic growth data in ground pork were collected at several isothermal conditions (between 10 and 45°C) and Baranyi model was fitted to describe the growth at each temperature, separately. The maximum growth rates (?(max)) estimated from the Baranyi model were modeled as a function of temperature using a modified Ratkowsky equation. To estimate bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions, the differential form of the Baranyi model, in combination with the modified Ratkowsky equation for rate constants, was solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic model was validated using five different dynamic temperature profiles (linear cooling, exponential cooling, linear heating, exponential heating, and sinusoidal). Performance measures, root mean squared error, accuracy factor, and bias factor were used to evaluate the model performance, and were observed to be satisfactory. The dynamic model can estimate the growth of Salmonella spp. in pork within a 0.5 log accuracy under both linear and exponential cooling profiles, although the model may overestimate or underestimate at some data points, which were generally<1 log. Under sinusoidal temperature profiles, the estimates from the dynamic model were also within 0.5 log of the observed values. However, underestimation could occur if the bacteria were exposed to temperatures below the minimum growth temperature of Salmonella spp., since low temperature conditions could alter the cell physiology. To obtain an accurate estimate of Salmonella spp. growth using the models reported in this work, it is suggested that the models be used at temperatures above 7°C, the minimum growth temperature for Salmonella spp. in pork.
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Multiple comparisons of repeatedly measured response: issues of validation testing in thorough QT/QTc clinical trials.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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In order to validate the results of a thorough QT/QTc clinical trial, ICH E14 recommended that a concurrent positive control treatment be included in the trial. Zhang (2008) recommended that the study results are validated if the positive control establishes assay sensitivity, i.e., has an effect on the mean QT/QTc interval of 5 ms or more. Zhang (2008) and Tsong et al. (2008) discussed the intersection-union test approach and an alternative global average test approach for testing assay sensitivity during the validation process. In this article, we further discuss the multiple comparison issues of the repeatedly measured QT difference between positive control treatment and placebo in the validation test. We describe and discuss several approaches for type I error rate adjustment that are applicable to the situation.
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Statistical characteristics of moxifloxacin-induced QTc effect.
J Biopharm Stat
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Moxifloxacin has been the most commonly used positive control in "thorough" QTc (TQT) studies. In a TQT study, the assay sensitivity is often considered to be established if the baseline corrected mean difference in QTc between moxifloxacin and placebo is greater than 5 ms in common practice at one or more prespecified time points and the observed moxifloxacin induced QTc effect over time follows the proper pharmacokinetics profile. To better understand the statistical characteristics of moxifloxacin-induced QTc prolongation and to provide guidance for future studies, 20 TQT studies that involved moxifloxacin have been evaluated. We study the QTc profile of the baseline adjusted mean difference in QTc between moxifloxacin and placebo over time. Zhang (2008) proposed that the moxifloxacin induced QTc effect can be evaluated between 1 and 4 h after a single dose (400 mg) administration near the time (T(max)) of peak concentration instead of all time points (typically 9-12 time points) at which QT was measured for the study drug evaluation. After evaluating 20 TQT studies, we confirm that the maximum moxifloxacin effect occurs in the time window between 1 and 4 h post dose. We also investigate the variability of the data as well as correlations between time points and between regimens. These findings and results can be used as a reference for future studies.
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Chromatographic biopanning for the selection of peptides with high specificity to Pb2+ from phage displayed peptide library.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Toxic heavy metal pollution is a global problem occurring in air, soil as well as water. There is a need for a more cost effective, renewable remediation technique, but most importantly, for a recovery method that is selective for one specific metal of concern. Phage display technology has been used as a powerful tool in the discovery of peptides capable of exhibiting specific affinity to various metals or metal ions. However, traditional phage display is mainly conducted in batch mode, resulting in only one equilibrium state hence low-efficiency selection. It is also unable to monitor the selection process in real time mode. In this study, phage display technique was incorporated with chromatography procedure with the use of a monolithic column, facilitating multiple phage-binding equilibrium states and online monitoring of the selection process in search of affinity peptides to Pb2+. In total, 17 candidate peptides were found and their specificity toward Pb2+ was further investigated with bead-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A highly specific Pb2+ binding peptide ThrAsnThrLeuSerAsnAsn (TNTLSNN) was obtained. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report on a new chromatographic biopanning method coupled with monolithic column for the selection of metal ion specific binding peptides. It is expected that this monolith-based chromatographic biopanning will provide a promising approach for a high throughput screening of affinity peptides cognitive of a wide range of target species.
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Predictive model for growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked uncured meat and poultry.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Comparison of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked uncured products during cooling for different meat species is presented. Cooked, uncured product was inoculated with C. perfringens spores and vacuum packaged. For the isothermal experiments, all samples were incubated in a water bath stabilized at selected temperatures between 10 and 51°C and sampled periodically. For dynamic experiments, the samples were cooled from 54.4 to 27°C and subsequently from 27 to 4°C for different time periods, designated as x and y hours, respectively. The growth models used were based on a model developed by Baranyi and Roberts (1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. Int. J. Food Micro. 23, 277-294), which incorporates a constant, referred to as the physiological state constant, q(0). The value of this constant captures the cells history before the cooling begins. To estimate specific growth rates, data from isothermal experiments were used, from which a secondary model was developed, based on a form of Ratkowskys 4-parameter equation. The estimated growth kinetics associated with pork and chicken were similar, but growth appeared to be slightly greater in beef; for beef, the maximum specific growth rates estimated from the Ratkowsky curve was about 2.7 log(10) cfu/h, while for the other two species, chicken and pork, the estimate was about 2.2 log(10) cfu/h. Physiological state constants were estimated by minimizing the mean square error of predictions of the log(10) of the relative increase versus the corresponding observed quantities for the dynamic experiments: for beef the estimate was 0.007, while those for pork and chicken the estimates were about 0.014 and 0.011, respectively. For a hypothetical 1.5h cooling from 54°C to 27° and 5h to 4°C, corresponding to USDA-FSIS cooling compliance guidelines, the predicted growth (log(10) of the relative increase) for each species was: 1.29 for beef; 1.07 for chicken and 0.95 log(10) for pork. However, it was noticed that for pork in particular, the model using the derived q(0) had a tendency to over-predict relative growth when the observed amount of relative growth was small, and under-predict the relative growth when the observed amount of relative growth was large. To provide more fail-safe estimate, rather than using the derived value of q(0), a value of 0.04 is recommended for pork.
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A new mechanistic growth model for simultaneous determination of lag phase duration and exponential growth rate and a new B?lehdrádek-type model for evaluating the effect of temperature on growth rate.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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A new mechanistic growth model was developed to describe microbial growth under isothermal conditions. The new mathematical model was derived from the basic observation of bacterial growth that may include lag, exponential, and stationary phases. With this model, the lag phase duration and exponential growth rate of a growth curve were simultaneously determined by nonlinear regression. The new model was validated using Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth or meat. Statistical results suggested that both bias factor (B(f)) and accuracy factor (A(f)) of the new model were very close to 1.0. A new B?lehdrádek-type rate model and the Ratkowsky square-root model were used to describe the temperature dependence of bacterial growth rate. It was observed that the maximum and minimum temperatures were more accurately estimated by a new B?lehdrádek-type rate model. Further, the inverse of square-roots of lag phases was found proportional to temperature, making it possible to estimate the lag phase duration from the growth temperature.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.