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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Phase I Monotherapy Study of RG7212, a First-in-Class Monoclonal Antibody Targeting TWEAK Signaling in Patients With Advanced Cancers.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Purpose Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and fibroblast growth factor-inducible molecule 14 (Fn14) are a ligand-receptor pair frequently overexpressed in solid tumors. TWEAK:Fn14 signaling regulates multiple oncogenic processes through MAPK, AKT, and NF?B pathway activation. A phase I study of RG7212, a humanized anti-TWEAK IgG1? monoclonal antibody, was conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors expressing Fn14. Methods Dose escalations, over a 200- to 7200-mg range, were performed with patients enrolled in weekly (QW), bi-weekly (Q2W), or every-three-week (Q3W) schedules. Primary objectives included determination of dose and safety profile. Secondary endpoints included assessments related to inhibition of TWEAK:Fn14 signaling, tumor proliferation, tumor immune cell infiltration, and pharmacokinetics. Results In 192 treatment cycles administered to 54 patients, RG7212 was well-tolerated with no dose-limiting toxicities observed. More than 95% of related adverse events were limited to grade 1/2. Pharmacokinetics were dose proportional for all cohorts, with a t1/2 of 11-12 days. Pharmacodynamic changes included clearance of free and total TWEAK ligand and reductions in tumor Ki-67 and TRAF1. A patient with BRAF wild-type melanoma who received 36 weeks of RG7212 therapy had tumor regression and pharmacodynamic changes consistent with antitumor effects. Fifteen patients (28%) received 16 or more weeks of RG7212 treatment.
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A Phase I study of veliparib (ABT-888) in combination with low-dose fractionated whole abdominal radiation therapy in patients with advanced solid malignancies and peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Background: Combined low-dose radiation therapy with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition has been shown to enhance anti-tumor efficacy through potentiating DNA damage. We combined low-dose fractionated whole abdominal radiation (LDFWAR) with escalating doses of veliparib (ABT-888),a small molecule PARP inhibitor, in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from advanced solid tumors. Methods: Patients were treated with veliparib (80mg-320mg daily) for a total of 3 cycles. LDFWAR consisted of 21.6 Gy in 36 fractions, 0.6 Gy twice daily on days 1 and 5 for weeks 1-3 of each cycle. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were collected and evaluated for ?-H2AX. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Results: Twenty-two patients were treated. Treatment-related grade 3/4 toxicites included lymphopenia (68%), anemia (9%), thrombocytopenia (14%), neutropenia (4%), leukopenia (9%), ascites (4%), vomiting (4%) and dyspnea (4%). No objective responses were observed. Disease stabilization (?24 wks) was observed in 7 patients (33%). Median PFS was 4.47 months and mOS was 13.04 months. In the subset of 8 ovarian and fallopian cancers (OV), mPFS was 6.77 months and mOS was 17.54 months compared to mPFS 2.71 months and mOS 13.01 months in others. Patients with OV had better QoL over time than those with other cancers. An increased percentage of ?-H2AX-positive CTCs was observed in a subset of patients (3/6 with >2 CTCs at baseline). Conclusions: Combined veliparib and LDFWAR is a well-tolerated regimen that resulted in prolonged disease stability for some patients with advanced solid tumors and carcinomatosis, particularly in the OV subpopulation.
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Prioritising Targets for Precision Cancer Medicine.
Ann. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The implementation of cancer genomic testing into the clinical setting has brought major opportunities. However, as our understanding of cancer initiation, maintenance and progression improves through detailed cancer genomic studies, the challenges associated with driver identification and target classification in the clinical setting become clearer. Here we review recent insights into cancer genomic testing in the clinical setting, and suggest a target classification approach that considers the levels of evidence supporting the prioritisation of tumour drivers for therapeutic targeting in light of complex cancer clonal and subclonal structures and clinical successes and failures in the field. We argue that such classification approaches, together with transparent reporting of both positive and negative clinical data and continued research to identify the subclonal dynamics of driver events during the disease course, will facilitate inter-trial comparisons, optimise patient informed consent and provide a critically balanced evaluation of genomic testing in clinical practice.
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Early phase clinical trials to identify optimal dosing and safety.
Mol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The purpose of early stage clinical trials is to determine the recommended dose and toxicity profile of an investigational agent or multi-drug combination. Molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) and immunotherapies have distinct toxicities from chemotherapies that are often not dose dependent and can lead to chronic and sometimes unpredictable side effects. Therefore utilizing a dose escalation method that has toxicity based endpoints may not be as appropriate for determination of recommended dose, and alternative parameters such as pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic outcomes are potentially appealing options. Approaches to enhance safety and optimize dosing include improved preclinical models and assessment, innovative model based design and dose escalation strategies, patient selection, the use of expansion cohorts and extended toxicity assessments. Tailoring the design of phase I trials by adopting new strategies to address the different properties of MTAs is required to enhance the development of these agents. This review will focus on the limitations to safety and dose determination that have occurred in the development of MTAs and immunotherapies. In addition, strategies are proposed to overcome these challenges to develop phase I trials that can more accurately define the recommended dose and identify adverse events.
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Could the human papillomavirus vaccination be cost-effective in males for the prevention of oropharyngeal cancer?
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Could the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination be cost-effective in males for the prevention of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPC)? It could be under certain conditions. Research on HPV vaccine has focused mainly on females. However, within the next decade, it is predicted that OPC will surpass cervical cancer as the most common HPV-related cancer, and it is postulated that HPV vaccination may alter the incidence of OPC. The purpose of this editorial is to comment on the potential cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in males for OPC prevention by addressing three elements payers often consider when making a decision to fund an intervention and to provide an overview of recent findings regarding the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine in males.
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A multicenter phase 1 study of ? -secretase inhibitor RO4929097 in combination with capecitabine in refractory solid tumors.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Background RO4929097 is an oral inhibitor of ? -secretase that results in Notch signaling inhibition. Prior work has demonstrated that Notch signaling inhibition enhances chemotherapy sensitivity of cancer cells. This phase I study was conducted to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicities and efficacy of RO4929097 and capecitabine in advanced solid tumors. Methods Patients with refractory solid tumors received capecitabine at a fixed dose of 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily with escalating doses of RO4929097 on a 21-day cycle in a 3?+?3 design. Capecitabine was administered for 14 days and the RO49029097 once daily, 3 days per week, both for a 21 day cycle. Results Thirty patients were treated on six dose levels (20 to 150 mg). The maximally tolerated dose was not reached. One dose limiting toxicity was observed at each level 3 through 6 (hypophosphatemia, fatigue, and nausea/vomiting). Three confirmed partial responses were observed: two patients with fluoropyrimide-refractory colon cancer and one patient with cervical cancer. Autoinduction of RO4929097 was demonstrated with increasing dose levels and duration. Conclusions The recommended phase 2 dose is capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) orally twice daily on days 1 through 14 with RO4929097 20 mg orally once daily on days 1-3, 8-10 and 15-17 with a 21 day cycle. Clinical benefit was observed in cervical and colon cancer. Autoinduction of RO4929097 was seen both with increasing cycle number and increasing dose. Plasma concentrations of RO4929097 were above those needed for Notch inhibition.
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A phase I trial of pantoprazole in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced solid tumors: evaluation of pharmacokinetics of both drugs and tissue penetration of doxorubicin.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Background In preclinical models, the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole enhances the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic agents by improving drug distribution and by inhibiting autophagy. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors (n?=?24) received doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and escalating doses of pantoprazole (80, 160, 240 and 360 mg) administered intravenously prior to doxorubicin. Blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic studies. An optional biopsy was performed to evaluate doxorubicin concentration and pharmacodynamic markers of drug activity. Results Twenty-four patients participated in the study (17 in the dose escalation phase and 7 in the dose expansion). Three patients experienced a dose limiting toxicity (grade 3 fatigue in the three cases), one patient at dose level 3 (pantoprazole 240 mg) and two patients at dose level 4 (pantoprazole 360 mg). Dose level 4 was considered to exceed the maximum tolerated dose. The recommended phase II dose was pantoprazole 240 mg and doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2). The most commonly observed toxicities included fatigue, neutropenia and leukopenia. Two patients achieved a confirmed partial response. Median maximum serum concentration of pantoprazole was 84.3 ?M at 1-2 h after injection of pantoprazole 240 mg. No drug-drug interaction was observed. A single on-treatment tumor biopsy showed a sharply decreasing gradient in doxorubicin concentration and associated activity markers with increasing distance from tumor blood vessels. Conclusion Administration of high doses of pantoprazole in combination with doxorubicin is feasible. The recommended phase II dose of pantoprazole, 240 mg, will be evaluated in combination with docetaxel as first line in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
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Phase 1 trial design: is 3 + 3 the best?
Cancer Control
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Concerns have been recognized about the operating characteristics of the standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Various innovative phase 1 trial designs have been proposed to address the issues and new challenges posed by molecularly targeted agents. However, in spite of these proposals, the conventional design is still the most widely utilized.
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Promising SINEs for embargoing nuclear-cytoplasmic export as an anticancer strategy.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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In cancer cells, the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is frequently disrupted, resulting in mislocalization and loss of function for many key regulatory proteins. In this review, the mechanisms by which tumor cells co-opt the nuclear transport machinery to facilitate carcinogenesis, cell survival, drug resistance, and tumor progression will be elucidated, with a particular focus on the role of the nuclear-cytoplasmic export protein. The recent development of a new generation of selective inhibitors of nuclear export (XPO1 antagonists) and how these novel anticancer drugs may bring us closer to the implementation of this therapeutic strategy in the clinic will be discussed.
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Defining dose-limiting toxicity for phase 1 trials of molecularly targeted agents: results of a DLT-TARGETT international survey.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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It is increasingly clear that definitions of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) established for phase 1 trials of cytotoxic agents are not suitable for molecularly targeted agents because of specific toxicity profiles. An international survey collected expertise on the definition of DLT, as part of an initiative aimed at presenting new guidelines for phase 1 trials of targeted agents.
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Towards new methods for the determination of dose limiting toxicities and the assessment of the recommended dose for further studies of molecularly targeted agents--dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapie
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Traditional dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition, which uses grade (G) 3-4 toxicity data from cycle 1 (C1) only, may not be appropriate for molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) of prolonged administration, for which late or lower grade toxicities also deserve attention.
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A randomized phase II study of cediranib alone versus cediranib in combination with dasatinib in docetaxel resistant, castration resistant prostate cancer patients.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the oncogenic Src pathway has been implicated in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in preclinical models. Cediranib and dasatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting VEGFR and Src respectively. Phase II studies of cediranib and dasatinib in CRPC have shown single agent activity.
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Phase I dose-escalation and -expansion study of buparlisib (BKM120), an oral pan-Class I PI3K inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The pan-Class I PI3K inhibitor buparlisib (BKM120) has shown activity in a range of preclinical cancer models. This first-in-man study was initiated to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of buparlisib (100 mg/day) and to assess safety and preliminary efficacy.
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Genomic testing in cancer: patient knowledge, attitudes, and expectations.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Genomic testing in cancer (GTC) characterizes genes that play an important role in the development and growth of a patient's cancer. This form of DNA testing is currently being studied for its ability to guide cancer therapy. The objective of the current study was to describe patients' knowledge, attitudes, and expectations toward GTC.
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Phase 1 trial of the oral AKT inhibitor MK-2206 plus carboplatin/paclitaxel, docetaxel, or erlotinib in patients with advanced solid tumors.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Inhibition of AKT with MK-2206 has demonstrated synergism with anticancer agents. This phase 1 study assessed the MTD, DLTs, PK, and efficacy of MK-2206 in combination with cytotoxic and targeted therapies.
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Pre-clinical characterization of Dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, combined with ionizing radiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in nearly all cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), and is an important driver of disease progression. EGFR targeted therapies have demonstrated clinical benefit for SCCHN treatment. In this report, we investigated the pre-clinical efficacy of Dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, both alone and in combination with ionizing radiation (IR), a primary curative modality for SCCHN. One normal oral epithelial (NOE) and three SCCHN (FaDu, UT-SCC-8, UT-SCC-42a) cell lines were used to conduct cell viability, clonogenic survival, cell cycle, and immunoblotting assays in vitro, using increasing doses of Dacomitinib (10-500 nM), both with and without IR (2-4 Gy). The FaDu xenograft model was utilized for tumor growth delay assays in vivo, and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on extracted tumors. A dose-dependent reduction in cell viability and clonogenic survival after Dacomitinib treatment was observed in all three SCCHN models. Treatment led to a significant reduction in EGFR signalling, with a subsequent decrease in phosphorylation of downstream targets such as ERK, AKT, and mTOR. In vivo, Dacomitinib treatment delayed tumor growth, while decreasing phospho-EGFR and Ki-67 immunoexpression. These effects were further enhanced when combined with IR, both in vitro and in vivo. The preclinical data support the further evaluations of Dacomitinib combined with IR for the future management of patients with SCCHN.
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Evolution of clinical trial design in early drug development: systematic review of expansion cohort use in single-agent phase I cancer trials.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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To evaluate the use and objectives of expansion cohorts in phase I cancer trials and to explore trial characteristics associated with their use.
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Quality of life in patients with K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: The CO.20 Phase 3 Randomized Trial.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The CO.20 trial randomized patients with K-RAS wild-type, chemotherapy-refractory, metastatic colorectal cancer to receive cetuximab (CET) plus brivanib alaninate (BRIV) or CET plus placebo (CET/placebo).
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A phase Ib combination study of RO4929097, a gamma-secretase inhibitor, and temsirolimus in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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To determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and assess the safety, pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics of RO4929097in combination with temsirolimus.
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Selecting the best drugs for phase I clinical development and beyond.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Attrition rates of drugs from human entry to regulatory approval are far higher in anticancer drugs than those for nononcology indications. In the era of molecular therapeutics that results from a deeper understanding in cancer biology and advancing technologies, the number of compounds available for clinical testing is likely to continue to increase. Although the main objectives of phase I trials are to characterize toxicities of new agents and to determine the recommended dose for phase II development, most phase I studies are now designed to provide some early signal on preliminary efficacy as secondary objectives. The "go-no-go" decision to further develop a drug, or not, is now often pushed forward to the phase I setting. Thus, there is a need for investigators to be able to critically review the preclinical data available in order to determine which drugs should advance on the developmental path. This review highlights the intrinsic characteristics of a drug and the relevant data to be collected during its preclinical assessment, which may maximize the chances of success in clinical testing and eventual regulatory approval.
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Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled study of cetuximab plus brivanib alaninate versus cetuximab plus placebo in patients with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory, wild-type K-RAS colorectal carcinoma: the NCIC Clinical Trials Group and AGITG CO.20 Tr
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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The antiepidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab has improved survival in patients with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory, wild-type K-RAS colorectal cancer. The addition of brivanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor, to cetuximab has shown encouraging early clinical activity.
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Designing transformative clinical trials in the cancer genome era.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The incorporation of molecular profiling into routine clinical practice has already been adopted in some tumor types, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer and KRAS genotyping in colorectal cancer, providing a guide to treatment selection that is not afforded by histopathologic diagnosis alone. It is inevitable that over time, with rapid advances in scientific knowledge, bioinformatics, and technology to identify oncogenic drivers, molecular profiling will complement histopathologic data to influence management decisions. Emerging technologies such as multiplexed somatic mutation genotyping and massive parallel genomic sequencing have become increasingly feasible at point-of-care locations to classify cancers into molecular subsets. Because these molecular subsets may differ substantially between each other in terms of sensitivity or resistance to systemic agents, there is consensus that clinical trials should be more stratified for or be performed only in such molecularly defined subsets. This approach, however, poses challenges for clinical trial designs because smaller numbers of patients would be eligible for such trials, while the number of novel anticancer drugs warranting further clinical exploration is rapidly increasing. This article provides an overview of the emerging methodologic challenges in the cancer genome era and offers some potential solutions for transforming clinical trial designs so they can identify new active anticancer regimens in molecularly defined subgroups as efficiently as possible.
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Tumour heterogeneity in the clinic.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Recent therapeutic advances in oncology have been driven by the identification of tumour genotype variations between patients, called interpatient heterogeneity, that predict the response of patients to targeted treatments. Subpopulations of cancer cells with unique genomes in the same patient may exist across different geographical regions of a tumour or evolve over time, called intratumour heterogeneity. Sequencing technologies can be used to characterize intratumour heterogeneity at diagnosis, monitor clonal dynamics during treatment and identify the emergence of clinical resistance during disease progression. Genetic interpatient and intratumour heterogeneity can pose challenges for the design of clinical trials that use these data.
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Clinical genomics information management software linking cancer genome sequence and clinical decisions.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Using sequencing information to guide clinical decision-making requires coordination of a diverse set of people and activities. In clinical genomics, the process typically includes sample acquisition, template preparation, genome data generation, analysis to identify and confirm variant alleles, interpretation of clinical significance, and reporting to clinicians. We describe a software application developed within a clinical genomics study, to support this entire process. The software application tracks patients, samples, genomic results, decisions and reports across the cohort, monitors progress and sends reminders, and works alongside an electronic data capture system for the trials clinical and genomic data. It incorporates systems to read, store, analyze and consolidate sequencing results from multiple technologies, and provides a curated knowledge base of tumor mutation frequency (from the COSMIC database) annotated with clinical significance and drug sensitivity to generate reports for clinicians. By supporting the entire process, the application provides deep support for clinical decision making, enabling the generation of relevant guidance in reports for verification by an expert panel prior to forwarding to the treating physician.
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Testing personalized medicine: patient and physician expectations of next-generation genomic sequencing in late-stage cancer care.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Developments in genomics, including next-generation sequencing technologies, are expected to enable a more personalized approach to clinical care, with improved risk stratification and treatment selection. In oncology, personalized medicine is particularly advanced and increasingly used to identify oncogenic variants in tumor tissue that predict responsiveness to specific drugs. Yet, the translational research needed to validate these technologies will be conducted in patients with late-stage cancer and is expected to produce results of variable clinical significance and incidentally identify genetic risks. To explore the experiential context in which much of personalized cancer care will be developed and evaluated, we conducted a qualitative interview study alongside a pilot feasibility study of targeted DNA sequencing of metastatic tumor biopsies in adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. We recruited 29/73 patients and 14/17 physicians; transcripts from semi-structured interviews were analyzed for thematic patterns using an interpretive descriptive approach. Patient hopes of benefit from research participation were enhanced by the promise of novel and targeted treatment but challenged by non-findings or by limited access to relevant trials. Family obligations informed a willingness to receive genetic information, which was perceived as burdensome given disease stage or as inconsequential given faced challenges. Physicians were optimistic about long-term potential but conservative about immediate benefits and mindful of elevated patient expectations; consent and counseling processes were expected to mitigate challenges from incidental findings. These findings suggest the need for information and decision tools to support physicians in communicating realistic prospects of benefit, and for cautious approaches to the generation of incidental genetic information.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 July 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.158.
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A phase I study of the oral gamma secretase inhibitor R04929097 in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumors (PHL-078/CTEP 8575).
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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Purpose To establish the recommended phase II dose of the oral ?-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 (RO) in combination with gemcitabine; secondary objectives include the evaluation of safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of Notch signaling and preliminary anti-tumor activity. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in cohorts of escalating RO dose levels (DLs). Tested RO DLs were 20 mg, 30 mg, 45 mg and 90 mg. RO was administered orally, once daily on days 1-3, 8-10, 15-17, 22-24. Gemcitabine was administered at 1,000 mg/m(2) on d1, 8, and 15 in 28 d cycles. Dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) were assessed by CTCAE v4. Serial plasma was collected for RO (total and unbound) and gemcitabine pharmacokinetic analysis. Biomarkers of Notch signaling were assessed by immunohistochemistry in archival tissue. Antitumor activity was evaluated (RECIST 1.1). Results A total of 18 patients were enrolled to establish the recommended phase II dose. Of these, 3 patients received 20 mg RO, 7 patients received 30 mg RO, 6 patients received 45 mg RO and 2 patients received 90 mg RO. DLTs were grade 3 transaminitis (30 mg RO), grade 3 transaminitis and maculopapular rash (45 mg RO), and grade 3 transaminitis and failure to receive 75 % of planned RO doses secondary to prolonged neutropenia (90 mg); all were reversible. The maximum tolerated dose was exceeded at 90 mg RO. Pharmacokinetic analysis of both total and free RO confirmed the presence of autoinduction at 45 and 90 mg. Median levels of Notch3 staining were higher in individuals who received fewer than 4 cycles (p?=?0.029). Circulating angiogenic factor levels did not correlate with time to progression or ? grade 3 adverse events. Best response (RECIST 1.1) was partial response (nasopharyngeal cancer) and stable disease >?4 months was observed in 3 patients (pancreas, tracheal, and breast primary cancers). Conclusions RO and gemcitabine can be safely combined. The recommended phase II dose of RO was 30 mg in combination with gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2). Although RO exposure was limited by the presence of autoinduction, RO levels achieved exceeded the area under the concentration-time curve for 0-24 h (AUC0-24) predicted for efficacy in preclinical models using daily dosing. Evidence of clinical antitumor activity and prolonged stable disease were identified.
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Deintensification candidate subgroups in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer according to minimal risk of distant metastasis.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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To define human papillomavirus (HPV) -positive oropharyngeal cancers (OPC) suitable for treatment deintensification according to low risk of distant metastasis (DM).
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Significance of dysregulated metadherin and microRNA-375 in head and neck cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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Despite recent improvements in local control of head and neck cancers (HNC), distant metastasis remains a major cause of death. Hence, further understanding of HNC biology, and in particular, the genes/pathways driving metastasis is essential to improve outcome.
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Safety and pharmacokinetics of motesanib in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib for the treatment of solid tumors: a phase 1b study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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This phase 1b study assessed the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and pharmacokinetics of motesanib (a small-molecule antagonist of VEGF receptors 1, 2, and 3; platelet-derived growth factor receptor; and Kit) administered once daily (QD) or twice daily (BID) in combination with erlotinib and gemcitabine in patients with solid tumors.
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Early mortality and overall survival in oncology phase I trial participants: can we improve patient selection?
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2011
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Patient selection for phase I trials (PIT) in oncology is challenging. A typical inclusion criterion for PIT is life expectancy > 3 months, however the 90 day mortality (90DM) and overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced solid malignancies are difficult to predict.
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Brivanib alaninate for cancer.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Angiogenesis inhibition represents a rational therapeutic strategy in the management of solid tumors. Brivanib is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor with selectivity against VEFGR-2 and FGFR.
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Targeting the Hedgehog pathway in cancer: can the spines be smoothened?
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling has been suggested to play a role in the development of multiple solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. GDC-0449 is a novel first-in-human, first-in-class smoothened (SMO) inhibitor, which has completed its phase I evaluation and achieved proof of concept in tumors with Hh pathway mutations.
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The association between EGFR variant III, HPV, p16, c-MET, EGFR gene copy number and response to EGFR inhibitors in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2011
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We examine the potential prognostic and predictive roles of EGFR variant III mutation, EGFR gene copy number (GCN), human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, c-MET and p16INK4A protein expression in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN).
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Phase I study of decitabine in combination with vorinostat in patients with advanced solid tumors and non-Hodgkins lymphomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the combination of decitabine with vorinostat. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumors or non-Hodgkins lymphomas were eligible. Sequential and concurrent schedules were studied.
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Future directions in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors: consensus report of the National Cancer Institute Neuroendocrine Tumor clinical trials planning meeting.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from a variety of anatomic sites and share the capacity for production of hormones and vasoactive peptides. Because of their perceived rarity, NETs have not historically been a focus of rigorous clinical research. However, the diagnosed incidence of NETs has been increasing, and the estimated prevalence in the United States exceeds 100,000 individuals. The recent completion of several phase III studies, including those evaluating octreotide, sunitinib, and everolimus, has demonstrated that rigorous evaluation of novel agents in this disease is both feasible and can lead to practice-changing outcomes. The NET Task Force of the National Cancer Institute GI Steering Committee convened a clinical trials planning meeting to identify key unmet needs, develop appropriate study end points, standardize clinical trial inclusion criteria, and formulate priorities for future NET studies for the US cooperative group program. Emphasis was placed on the development of well-designed clinical trials with clearly defined efficacy criteria. Key recommendations include the evaluation of pancreatic NET separately from NETs of other sites and the exclusion of patients with poorly differentiated histologies from trials focused on low-grade histologies. Studies evaluating novel agents for the control of hormonal syndromes should avoid somatostatin analog washout periods when possible and should include quality-of-life end points. Because of the observed long survival after progression of many patients, progression-free survival is recommended as a feasible and relevant primary end point for both phase III studies and phase II studies where a delay in progression is expected in the absence of radiologic responses.
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Preclinical development of molecular-targeted agents for cancer.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2010
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Molecular-targeted agents are increasingly used for the treatment of cancer. However, the attrition rate for drugs that enter early clinical trials is higher than for other branches of internal medicine, suggesting that preclinical development has not been successful in identifying agents that can modify the outcome of human cancer. New preclinical strategies including genetically engineered mouse models and small-interfering RNAs are being used to evaluate novel agents, and have aided in the development of compounds, such as inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. In addition, these techniques have helped in the identification of promising combinations of targeted drugs. In this Review, we describe methods for the preclinical evaluation of novel agents, their limitations, and strategies for improvement.
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Factors contributing to the efficacy of concurrent-adjuvant chemotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: combined analyses of NPC-9901 and NPC-9902 Trials.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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The current standard treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was conventional-fractionation radiotherapy plus concurrent-adjuvant chemotherapy as recommended by the Intergroup-0099 Study. This combined analysis of the NPC-9901 and the NPC-9902 Trials aims to provide more comprehensive data to evaluate the efficacy of the Intergroup-0099 regimen and the contributing factors.
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Randomized trial of radiotherapy plus concurrent-adjuvant chemotherapy vs radiotherapy alone for regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Current practice of adding concurrent-adjuvant chemotherapy to radiotherapy (CRT) for treating advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is based on the Intergroup-0099 Study published in 1998. However, the outcome for the radiotherapy-alone (RT) group in that trial was substantially poorer than those in other trials, and there were no data on late toxicities. Verification of the long-term therapeutic index of this regimen is needed.
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Phase I dose finding studies of obatoclax (GX15-070), a small molecule pan-BCL-2 family antagonist, in patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Two phase I, single-agent studies were conducted to determine the dose and regimen of obatoclax, an antagonist of all BCL-2 antiapoptotic proteins, for evaluation in phase II trials. The two studies, GX001 and GX005, evaluated the safety and tolerability of weekly 1-hour and 3-hour infusions of obatoclax, respectively.
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Atypical clinical behavior of p16-confirmed HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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To report atypical clinical behavior observed in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with radiotherapy.
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the next challenges.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) differs from other head and neck cancers in its aetiology, epidemiology and potential therapeutic options. Despite cure for the majority of the patients, challenges still exist in the prevention of disease relapse, treatment of patients with refractory or metastatic NPC and the management of long-term toxicities. This article discusses the specific challenges in pushing the boundaries of NPC treatments further, with an emphasis on prognostic/predictive markers, molecularly targeted therapies, immunotherapies and the areas of interest with regard to long-term toxicities arising from therapeutic interventions.
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A dose-escalation phase I trial of nimotuzumab, an antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, in patients with advanced solid malignancies.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which inhibits the ligand-dependent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We conducted a phase I trial to assess the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of escalating doses of nimotuzumab administered alone in patients with advanced solid cancers patients.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor that its the highest rates in Southeast Asia. It is a locally aggressive neoplasm that has a propensity for developing regional neck adenopathy. The main treatment modality consists primarily of radiation therapy. Cross-sectional imaging is important in order to achieve an accurate delineation of tumor extent, thereby facilitating both staging and treatment. MRI is currently considered the best modality to assess for NPC. The aim of this review is to provide a pictorial MRI review of NPC according to the recently released 7th edition of the International Union Against Cancer staging system.
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Approaches to phase 1 clinical trial design focused on safety, efficiency, and selected patient populations: a report from the clinical trial design task force of the national cancer institute investigational drug steering committee.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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The goals and objectives of phase 1 clinical trials are changing to include further evaluation of endpoints such as molecular targeted effects, in addition to dose-toxicity profile of the investigational agent. Because of these changes in focus, the National Cancer Institute and Investigational Drug Steering Committees Task Force on Clinical Trial Design met to evaluate the most efficient ways to design and implement early clinical trials with novel therapeutics. Clinical approaches discussed included the conventional 3 + 3 cohort expansion phase 1 design, multi-institutional phase 1 studies, accelerated titration designs, continual reassessment methods, the study of specific target patient populations, and phase 0 studies. Each of these approaches uniquely contributes to some aspect of the phase 1 study, with all focused on dose and schedule determination, patient safety, and limited patient exposure to ineffective doses of investigational agent. The benefit of labor-intensive generation of preliminary biomarker evidence of target inhibition, as well as the value of molecular profiling of the study population, is considered. New drug development is expensive and the failure rate remains high. By identifying patient populations expected to respond to the study agent and tailoring the treatment with a novel drug, investigators will be one step closer to personalizing cancer treatment. The "fail early and fast" approach is acceptable if the appropriate patient population is evaluated in the phase 1 trial. The approaches outlined in this overview address the merits, advantages, disadvantages, and obstacles encountered during first in human studies.
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Phase I combination of sorafenib and erlotinib therapy in solid tumors: safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic evaluation from an expansion cohort.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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The aims of this study were to further define the safety of sorafenib and erlotinib, given at their full approved monotherapy doses, and to correlate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic markers with clinical outcome. In addition, a novel pharmacodynamic marker based on the real-time measurement of RAF signal transduction capacity (STC) is described. Sorafenib was administered alone for a 1-week run-in period, and then both drugs were given together continuously. RAF STC was assessed in peripheral blood monocytes prior to erlotinib initiation. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and K-RAS mutations were measured in archival tumor samples. Changes in pERK and CD31 were determined in fresh tumor biopsies obtained pretreatment, prior to erlotinib dosing, and during the administration of both drugs. In addition, positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans and pharmacokinetic assessments were done. Eleven patients received a total of 57 cycles (median, 5; range, 1-10). Only four patients received full doses of both drugs for the entire study course, with elevation of liver enzymes being the main reason for dose reductions and delays. Among 10 patients evaluable for response, 8 experienced tumor stabilization of >or=4 cycles. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed no significant interaction of erlotinib with sorafenib. Sorafenib-induced decrease in RAF-STC showed statistically significant correlation with time-to-progression in seven patients. Other pharmacodynamic markers did not correlate with clinical outcome. This drug combination resulted in promising clinical activity in solid tumor patients although significant toxicity warrants close monitoring. RAF-STC deserves further study as a predictive marker for sorafenib.
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Molecular targeted therapies in all histologies of head and neck cancers: an update.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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This article reviewed the recent developments in molecular targeted therapy in head and neck cancers. A brief summary of other pathways of interest is also enclosed.
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Cognitive functioning after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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To perform a comprehensive cognitive function (CF) assessment in patients who were relapse free after curative intent radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
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Choice of starting dose for molecularly targeted agents evaluated in first-in-human phase I cancer clinical trials.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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One tenth of the lethal dose to 10% of mice is one of the conventional parameters used to derive a safe starting dose in phase I trials of cytotoxic agents. There is no consensus on which preclinical models and parameters should define the starting dose for molecularly targeted agents.
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Comparative prognostic value of HPV16 E6 mRNA compared with in situ hybridization for human oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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A significant proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are associated with the human papilloma virus (HPV), particularly HPV16. The optimal method for HPV determination on archival materials however, remains unclear. We compared a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay for HPV16 mRNA to a DNA in situ hybridization (ISH) method, and evaluated their significance for overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival.
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Reporting of time-to-event end points and tracking of failures in randomized trials of radiotherapy with or without any concomitant anticancer agent for locally advanced head and neck cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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For multiple reasons, including complexities in anatomy and management, locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHNs) represent a challenging disease for the reporting of end points and the tracking of failures.
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Phase I study of decitabine in combination with vorinostat in patients with advanced solid tumors and non-Hodgkins lymphomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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PURPOSE: This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of the combination of decitabine with vorinostat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced solid tumors or non-Hodgkins lymphomas were eligible. Sequential and concurrent schedules were studied. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were studied in 9 different dose levels (6 sequential and 3 concurrent). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) on the sequential schedule was decitabine 10 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-5 and vorinostat 200 mg three times a day on days 6-12. The MTD on the concurrent schedule was decitabine 10 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-5 with vorinostat 200 mg twice a day on days 3-9. However, the sequential schedule of decitabine 10 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-5 and vorinostat 200 mg twice a day on days 6-12 was more deliverable than both MTDs with fewer delays on repeated dosing and it represents the recommended phase II (RP2D) dose of this combination. Dose-limiting toxicities during the first cycle consisted of myelosuppression, constitutional and gastrointestinal symptoms and occurred in 12/42 (29%) patients evaluable for toxicity. The most common ? grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (49% of patients), thrombocytopenia (16%), fatigue (16%), lymphopenia (14%), and febrile neutropenia (7%). Disease stabilization for ? 4 cycles was observed in 11/38 (29%) evaluable patients. CONCLUSION: The combination of decitabine with vorinostat is tolerable on both concurrent schedules in previously treated patients with advanced solid tumors or non-Hodgkins lymphomas. The sequential schedule was easier to deliver. The combination showed activity with prolonged disease stabilization in different tumor types.
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Dose escalation methods in phase I cancer clinical trials.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Phase I clinical trials are an essential step in the development of anticancer drugs. The main goal of these studies is to establish the recommended dose and/or schedule of new drugs or drug combinations for phase II trials. The guiding principle for dose escalation in phase I trials is to avoid exposing too many patients to subtherapeutic doses while preserving safety and maintaining rapid accrual. Here we review dose escalation methods for phase I trials, including the rule-based and model-based dose escalation methods that have been developed to evaluate new anticancer agents. Toxicity has traditionally been the primary endpoint for phase I trials involving cytotoxic agents. However, with the emergence of molecularly targeted anticancer agents, potential alternative endpoints to delineate optimal biological activity, such as plasma drug concentration and target inhibition in tumor or surrogate tissues, have been proposed along with new trial designs. We also describe specific methods for drug combinations as well as methods that use a time-to-event endpoint or both toxicity and efficacy as endpoints. Finally, we present the advantages and drawbacks of the various dose escalation methods and discuss specific applications of the methods in developmental oncotherapeutics.
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Phase I study of MG98, an oligonucleotide antisense inhibitor of human DNA methyltransferase 1, given as a 7-day infusion in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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To assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and early evidence of antitumor activity of escalating doses of MG98, an antisense oligonucleotide to DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which has been shown to reduce CpG island methylation and allow reexpression of tumor suppressor genes in vitro.
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Fluorescence in situ hybridization gene amplification analysis of EGFR and HER2 in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated with lapatinib.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Gene amplification status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) were analyzed and correlated with clinical outcome in patients with progressive malignant salivary glands tumors (MSGT) treated with the dual EGFR/Her2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib.
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Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as potential targeted anticancer agents.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are core components of the cell cycle machinery that govern the transition between phases during cell cycle progression. Genes involved in cell cycle are frequently mutated in human cancer and deregulated CDK activity represents a hallmark of malignancy. This knowledge provides a rationale for regarding CDKs and their associated molecules as potential targets for new drug development in anticancer research. The present article will review the most relevant CDK inhibitors with emphasis on the newer molecules in clinical development and the biological rationale of this therapeutic approach.
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Clinical development of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors for cancer treatment.
BMC Med
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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is commonly deregulated in cancer. In recent years, the results of the first phase I clinical trials with PI3K inhibitors have become available. In comparison to other targeted agents such v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitors in melanoma or crizotinib in anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) translocated tumors, the number of objective responses to PI3K inhibitors is less dramatic. In this review we propose possible strategies to optimize the clinical development of PI3K inhibitors: by exploring the potential role of PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors in improving the therapeutic index, molecular characterization as a basis for patient selection, and the relevance of performing serial tumor biopsies to understand the associated mechanisms of drug resistance. The main focus of this review will be on PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors by describing the functions of different PI3K isoforms, the preclinical activity of selective PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors and the early clinical data of these compounds.
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Feasibility of real time next generation sequencing of cancer genes linked to drug response: results from a clinical trial.
Int. J. Cancer
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The successes of targeted drugs with companion predictive biomarkers and the technological advances in gene sequencing have generated enthusiasm for evaluating personalized cancer medicine strategies using genomic profiling. We assessed the feasibility of incorporating real-time analysis of somatic mutations within exons of 19 genes into patient management. Blood, tumor biopsy and archived tumor samples were collected from 50 patients recruited from four cancer centers. Samples were analyzed using three technologies: targeted exon sequencing using Pacific Biosciences PacBio RS, multiplex somatic mutation genotyping using Sequenom MassARRAY and Sanger sequencing. An expert panel reviewed results prior to reporting to clinicians. A clinical laboratory verified actionable mutations. Fifty patients were recruited. Nineteen actionable mutations were identified in 16 (32%) patients. Across technologies, results were in agreement in 100% of biopsy specimens and 95% of archival specimens. Profiling results from paired archival/biopsy specimens were concordant in 30/34 (88%) patients. We demonstrated that the use of next generation sequencing for real-time genomic profiling in advanced cancer patients is feasible. Additionally, actionable mutations identified in this study were relatively stable between archival and biopsy samples, implying that cancer mutations that are good predictors of drug response may remain constant across clinical stages.
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Less than ideal: how oncologists practice with limited drug access.
J Oncol Pract
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To evaluate Canadian medical oncologists perspectives on how barriers to accessing new expensive cancer drugs have affected their practice and their opinions on the drug approval and funding processes.
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The utility of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition for cancer.
Oncologist
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The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in tumor initiation and metastasis across different malignancies. Major mechanisms by which the Hh pathway is aberrantly activated can be attributed to mutations of members of Hh pathway or excessive/inappropriate expression of Hh pathway ligands. The Hh signaling pathway also affects the regulation of cancer stem cells, leading to their capabilities in tumor formation, disease progression, and metastasis. Preliminary results of early phase clinical trials of Hh inhibitors administered as monotherapy demonstrated promising results in patients with basal cell carcinoma and medulloblastoma, but clinically meaningful anticancer efficacy across other tumor types seems to be lacking. Additionally, cases of resistance have been already observed. Mutations of SMO, activation of Hh pathway components downstream to SMO, and upregulation of alternative signaling pathways are possible mechanisms of resistance development. Determination of effective Hh inhibitor-based combination regimens and development of correlative biomarkers relevant to this pathway should remain as clear priorities for future research.
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Management of metabolic effects associated with anticancer agents targeting the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Agents inhibiting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (PAM) pathway are currently in various stages of clinical development in oncology, ranging from some in early-phase evaluations to others that have already received regulatory approval for treatment in advanced cancers. The administration of PAM pathway inhibitors has been associated with metabolic toxicities of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. The PAM Task Force of the National Cancer Institute Investigational Drug Steering Committee convened an interdisciplinary expert panel to review the pathophysiology of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia induced by PAM pathway inhibitors, summarize the incidence of these metabolic toxicities induced by such agents in the current literature, advise on clinical trial screening and monitoring criteria, and provide management guidance and therapeutic goals on occurrence of these toxicities. The overarching aim of this consensus report is to raise awareness of these metabolic adverse events to enable their early recognition, regular monitoring, and timely intervention in clinical trials. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are generally not acutely toxic and most often reversible with therapeutic intervention. Dose modifications or discontinuation of PAM pathway inhibitors should only be considered in situations of severe events or if progressive metabolic derangement persists after therapeutic interventions have been attempted for a sufficient duration. Specialty consultation should be sought to aid clinical trial planning and the management of these metabolic adverse events.
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Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.
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Safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic phase I dose-escalation trial of PF-00562271, an inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase, in advanced solid tumors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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PF-00562271 is a novel inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The objectives of this study were to identify the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and assess safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and antitumor activity of PF-00562271.
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Cancer genomics: technology, discovery, and translation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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In recent years, the increasing awareness that somatic mutations and other genetic aberrations drive human malignancies has led us within reach of personalized cancer medicine (PCM). The implementation of PCM is based on the following premises: genetic aberrations exist in human malignancies; a subset of these aberrations drive oncogenesis and tumor biology; these aberrations are actionable (defined as having the potential to affect management recommendations based on diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive implications); and there are highly specific anticancer agents available that effectively modulate these targets. This article highlights the technology underlying cancer genomics and examines the early results of genome sequencing and the challenges met in the discovery of new genetic aberrations. Finally, drawing from experiences gained in a feasibility study of somatic mutation genotyping and targeted exome sequencing led by Princess Margaret Hospital-University Health Network and the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, the processes, challenges, and issues involved in the translation of cancer genomics to the clinic are discussed.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.