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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions involving aryl vinyl ketones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction of an aryl vinyl ketone with 1,3-dienylcarbamate has been developed. Cyclohexenes bearing vicinal amino and aroyl groups in a cis-configuration were prepared in excellent ee (>99%) and endo (single diastereomer) selectivity. The absolute configuration of one DA product was unambiguously confirmed using XRD analysis. The transition state structure was proposed on the basis of DFT calculations.
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False positive PET scan deserves attention.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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Pulmonary focal lesions are frequently identified incidentally. Furthermore, a final diagnosis is really a considerable problem for patients having risk factors for malignancy or particularly for a newly detected nodule during the postoperative period after any kind of lung surgery. For treatment decisions, the nature of the lesions needs to be clarified. Relatively recently positron emission tomography (PET) scan has been introduced as a non-invasive imaging method for the diagnosis of lesions on the basis of metabolic activity.
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Usefulness of renal length and volume by ultrasound in determining severity of chronic kidney disease.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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To determine the correlation of renal ultrasonic parameters and degree of kidney function among chronic kidney disease patients seen at the Nephrology unit of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) Ilorin, we studied 322 patients. The results were analyzed with specific reference to socio-demography and correlating renal length and volume with estimated glomerular filtration rate. The male to female ratio was 2:1, with an age range from 20 to 80 years and mean age of 45.06 (±13.0) years. The serum creatinine levels ranged from 201 to 1205 ?mol/L, with a mean of 388 ± 168 ?mol/L, while the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ranged from 3.77 to 44.32 mL/min, with a mean of 18.2 ± 7.19 mL/min. The right and left renal lengths ranged from 6.9 to 13.0 cm, with a mean of 9.11 ± 1.06, and 6.5-13.4 cm, with a mean of 9.23 ± 1.07 cm, respectively. The mean volumes of the right and left kidneys were 98.6 ± 41.9 cm 3 and 105 ± 46.2 cm 3 , respectively. The Pearson correlation of the right and left kidneys length to eGFR were -0.197 and -0.137 respectively, while that of the right and left kidney volume to eGFR were -0.122 and -0.043, respectively. Our study showed that there is a positive correlation between ultrasonic renal measurements and degree of kidney function.
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Socio-economic determinants of ownership and use of treated bed nets in Nigeria: results from a cross-sectional study in Cross River and Bauchi States in 2011.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Poor people bear a disproportionate burden of malaria and prevention measures may not reach them well. A study carried out to examine the socio-economic factors associated with ownership and use of treated bed nets in Cross River and Bauchi States of Nigeria took place soon after campaigns to distribute treated bed nets.
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BAG1 is Neuroprotective in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson's Disease.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG1) is a multifunctional protein comprising co-chaperone function, increasing Hsp70 foldase activity and chaperone-dependent protein degradation of misfolded substrates, with anti-apoptotic activity. It is neuroprotective in different models of neurological diseases, like cerebral ischemia and Huntington's disease. In the context of Parkinson's disease, it has recently been shown to restore DJ-1 function in an in vitro model of hereditary Parkinson's disease. Here, we demonstrate that BAG1 overexpression in SH-SY5Y cells reduces toxicity after transfection of disease-related ?-synuclein mutants. Furthermore, it protects from rotenone-induced cell death in vitro and ameliorates neuronal demise in an in vivo 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model for Parkinson's disease after adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated BAG1 gene transfer into the substantia nigra in mice but showed no protective effects in an in vitro 6-hydroxidopamine model. In conclusion, we present BAG1 as a potential therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease.
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Predictors of the gender gap in life expectancy across 54 nations.
Psychol Health Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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We studied the gender gap in life expectancy (GGLE), which currently favours women on average by 5?years. Individual data from 54 societies were extracted from the 1999-2004 wave of the World Values Survey. The GGLE was not predicted by the socio-economic factors of gross domestic product (GDP) or Gini coefficient, but was increased by national level of alcohol consumption, and decreased by gender differences in national levels of life satisfaction. Different national-level phenomena appear to be responsible for male and female contributions to the GGLE. National levels of male longevity were responsive to GDP, Gini coefficient, social engagement, tobacco use and life satisfaction, whereas female longevity rates were responsive only to GDP and alcohol consumption, underscoring the greater sensitivity of male longevity to contextual features of the nations where they live.
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Cardiac blood pool activity on postablation radioiodine imaging.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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There are reports on physiologic and pathologic mediastinal uptake on radioiodine imaging in patients with thyroid carcinoma. The most commonly reported physiologic causes of mediastinal uptake are esophageal retention of salivary secretion and uptake by hyperplastic or normal thymus gland. In this study, we evaluated physiologic cardiac blood pool (CBP) activity and its associated findings on radioiodine imaging.
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Thymic epithelial tumors: analysis of prognostic factors with emphasis on the role of adjuvant radiation therapy.
Oncol Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The prognostic impacts of histopathological classification, Masaoka staging system, extent of surgery, and adjuvant treatment approaches in thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) were investigated.
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Sequencing and characterization of the transcriptome of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a valuable fish for aquaculture in China. This fish exhibits sexual dimorphism, particularly different growth rates and body sizes between two genders. Thus, C. semilaevis is a good model that can be used to investigate mechanisms responsible for such dimorphism, this model can also be utilized to answer fundamental questions in evolution and applied fields of aquaculture. Hence, advances in second-generation sequencing technology, such as 454 pyrosequencing, could provide a robust tool to study the genome characteristics of non-model species.
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Molecular cloning, expression profiles and promoter analysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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We cloned and characterized cDNA sequence of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The 1493 bp full-length cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 780 bp, which encoded a protein of 259 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences included a putative signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues resulting in a mature protein of 231 amino acids. Twenty cysteine residues and two conserved IGFBPs motif (GCGCCXXC and CWCV) were found in the N- and C-terminal domain. In the over 13 kbp genomic sequence, four exons, three introns, and 5'-/3'-flanking sequences were identified. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that Japanese flounder IGFBP-4 was indeed the ortholog of the human IGFBP-4 gene and shared high identities with other teleost IGFBP-4 genes. The promoter region was also analyzed and several potential transcription factor (TF) binding sites were determined which may modulate the IGFBP-4 expression. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that IGFBP-4 mRNA was observed in various tissues, with intestine showing the highest expression. The maternal transcripts of IGFBP-4 gene existed in the early embryonic stages and then increased in the following stages until hatching, suggesting that IGFBP-4 may be involved in the fish early development. The expression level of IGFBP-4 mRNA was relatively higher at 3 days post hatching (dph) and 15 dph, and gradually decreased during the metamorphosis period. All these results indicated that IGFBP-4 plays a significant role in IGF regulating vertebrate growth and development.
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FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE RISKS TO NON-HUMAN BIOTA.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan.
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TRPM5.
Handb Exp Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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TRPM5 is a Ca(2+)-activated cation channel that mediates signaling in taste and other chemosensory cells. Within taste cells, TRPM5 is the final element in a signaling cascade that starts with the activation of G protein-coupled receptors by bitter, sweet, or umami taste molecules and that requires the enzyme PLC?2. PLC?2 breaks down PIP2 into DAG and IP3, and the ensuing release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores activates TRPM5. Since its initial discovery in the taste system, TRPM5 has been found to be distributed in sparse chemosensory cells located throughout the digestive track, in the respiratory system, and in the olfactory system. It is also found in pancreatic islets, where it contributes to insulin secretion. This review highlights recent work on the mechanisms of the activation of the TRPM5 channel and its regulation by voltage, phosphoinositides, temperature, and pH. The distribution of the channel in the body and its functional contribution to various sensory and nonsensory processes are discussed.
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Facile synthesis and enhanced near infrared luminescent properties of CaWO4:Ln3+/Na+ (Ln = Nd, Er, and Yb) core/shell microstructure.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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In this work, we reported the fabrication and characterization of CaWO4:Ln3+/Na+ (Ln = Nd, Er, and Yb) core/shell microspheres via a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of citric acid and PVP. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectra, and photoluminescence. It's found that citric acid could modulate the nucleation and growth of CaWO4 nanocrystals and enable the co-incorporation of Na+ and Ln3+ (Ln = Nd, Er, and Yb) into CaWO4 lattice. Meanwhile, PVP controlled the assembly of CaWO4 nanocrystals into a core/shell spherical structure. All CaWO4:Ln3+/Na+ (Ln = Nd, Er, and Yb) core/shell microspheres exhibited intense near-IR luminescence. In comparison with CaWO4:Ln3+/Na+ nanocrystals, the self-assembled core/shell nanoarchitechtures showed highly enhanced IR luminescent properties due to the depressing of surface energy-loss.
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Circulating endothelial microparticles in female migraineurs with aura.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are vesicles that are released from activated endothelial cells and serve as a surrogate for endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED may be involved in migraine pathophysiology and contribute to the increased risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in female migraineurs with aura (MA). We sought to determine whether EMPs are elevated in women with MA.
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Hemodialysis performance and outcomes among end stage renal disease patients from Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria.
Indian J Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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The cost of managing end stage renal disease (ESRD) is prohibitive in Nigeria and the burden is solely borne by patients and their relatives. Despite increasing number of dialysis centers in urban areas, actual utilization of such facilities is very low. It is unclear if the outcomes of these patients have improved in recent times. We evaluated pattern of hemodialysis (HD) performance and outcome among ESRD patients. A 5-year prospective cross-sectional study of all ESRD patients on HD was undertaken. The final outcomes included duration on maintenance dialysis, death from inability to sustain dialysis, absconded, confirmed deaths within or outside health facility or referral for kidney transplant. A total of 540 (54%) of 976 cases of ESRD commenced HD, out of which 7 (1.3%) eventually had live-related kidney transplant in India. The male to female ratio was 2:1 with male and female mean ages of 43 ± 17 and 36 ± 16 years respectively. There was a progressive annual increase in the number of ESRD patients. The commonest underlying renal disorder was chronic glomerulonephritis. The mean HD session duration was 8.11 ± 5.4 hours, while the mean duration of stay on HD was 8.72 ± 1.0 weeks. In conclusion, ESRD is common and is being increasingly recognized. Financial constraint and late presentation are major contributory factors to poor outcomes despite the widespread availability of HD facilities. Therefore, effort should be geared towards aggressive strategies for early detection and treatment. Government commitment in terms of funding and/or subsidy for patient with ESRD is advocated.
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The expression of epidermal growth factor receptors and their ligands (epidermal growth factor, neuregulin, amphiregulin) in the bitch uterus during the estrus cycle.
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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In order to study the possible role of EGFR receptors in the bitch reproductive process, we have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of EGFR receptors and some of their ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulin (NRG), amphiregulin (AREG), in the uterus during the estrus cycle using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining for receptors and ligands of EGFR/ligand system was confined to membrane and cytoplasm of the target cells. Variations were observed, not only at the different stages of the estrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. However, it was detected that the immunostainings for NRG and AREG in the different cells do not show important differences at stages of the estrus cycle. In the luminal epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB4/HER4 and EGF was found at estrus. In the glandular epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB4/HER4 was observed at diestrus, while strong immunostaining for EGF was detected in both of estrus and diestrus. ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity in the stromal cells was higher at diestrus and anestrus, while ErbB4/HER4 immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of immunoreactivity of ErbB2/HER2 were found at estrus, while ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity was higher at anestrus. EGF immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus compared to other stage of cycle. Altered EGFR/ligand system expression during the estrus cycle suggests this growth factor system is a potent regulator of proliferation and differentiation events during preparation for implantation of bitch uterus.
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Characterisation of kisspeptin system genes in an ovoviviparous teleost: Sebastes schlegeli.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Kisspeptins are neuropeptides that play important roles in the reproduction and the onset of puberty in vertebrate by activating their receptor, Kissr. In the present study, we first isolated kiss1 and kissr4 genes from an ovoviviparous fish, the black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) by homologue cloning. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the kiss and kissr of S.schlegeli belonged to kiss1 and kissr4 respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the kissr4 was expressed mainly in the brain and testis, while the kiss1 was expressed predominantly in the heart of both sexes. As for the different gonadal maturation stages the kiss1 showed different expression patterns in different tissues. During the early development stage, expression levels of the ligand and receptor genes showed similar increasing trends. The promoter region of kissr4 contained several putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites which may have the function of regulating kisspeptin system gene expression, providing potential targets for future in-depth investigation. These results together confirmed that the kisspeptin system in S.schlegeli may be involved in reproduction and other activities. Furthermore, our study laid the groundwork for further learning about the evolution and function of kisspeptin system in fish even vertebrate.
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Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism.
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Characterization of the Dmrt1 gene in the black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli revealed a remarkable sex-dimorphic expression.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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The Dmrt genes encode a large family of transcription factors with a conserved zinc finger-like DNA-binding DM domain. The function of Dmrt1, one of the family members, in sexual development has been well studied in invertebrates and vertebrates. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Dmrt1 was isolated from the testis of Sebastes schlegeli. The full-length cDNA of S. schlegeli Dmrt1 (SsDmrt1) was 1,587 bp and contained a 189-bp 5' UTR, a 489-bp 3' UTR and a 909-bp open reading frame, which encoded 302 amino acids with a conserved DM domain and an male-specific motif domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolutionary relationships of SsDmrt1 with other known Dmrt genes in fish and tetrapods. Several transcriptional factor-binding sites in the 5' promoter were identified that might regulate SsDmrt1 expression. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that SsDmrt1 was expressed in all of the inspected larval developmental stages from 1 to 35 days after birth and that the level of expression gradually decreased. The expression of SsDmrt1 in adult gonads was sexually dimorphic with extremely high expression in the testis, but very low expression in the ovary. No expression was detected in other tissues. Using in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that SsDmrt1 was specifically expressed in the germ cells of both the testis and the ovary. Thus, our results suggest that SsDmrt1 may have an important role in the differentiation of both the testis and the ovary of S. schlegeli.
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Peripheral coding of taste.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty, and sour (acid), are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near-universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types.
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CDK5 protects from caspase-induced Ataxin-3 cleavage and neurodegeneration.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is one of at least nine inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by an expansion of a polyglutamine tract within corresponding disease-specific proteins. In case of SCA3, mutation of Ataxin-3 results in aggregation of misfolded protein, formation of intranuclear as well as cytosolic inclusion bodies and cell death in distinct neuronal populations. Since cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on aggregate formation and cell death in various polyglutamine diseases, we tested its therapeutic potential for SCA3. Our data show increased caspase-dependent Ataxin-3 cleavage, aggregation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of sufficient CDK5 activity. This disease-propagating effect could be reversed by mutation of the caspase cleavage site in Ataxin-3. Moreover, reduction of CDK5 expression levels by RNAi in vivo enhances SCA3 toxicity as assayed in a Drosophila model for SCA3. In summary, we present CDK5 as a potent neuroprotectant, regulating cleavage and thereby toxicity of Ataxin-3 and other polyglutamine proteins. We propose that increased caspase-dependent cleavage of mutated Ataxin-3, because of missing CDK5 shielding, leads to aggregation and cell death. Moreover, reduction of CDK5 expression levels by RNAi in vivo enhances SCA3 toxicity as assayed in a Drosophila model for SCA3. We think that CDK5 functions as a shield against cleavage-induced toxification and thereby is an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in polyQ disease in general.
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Polymer brushes on planar TiO2 substrates.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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A facile and universal method is presented for the preparation of polymer brushes on amorphous TiO2 film. Homogeneous and stable poly(methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, poly(4-vinylpyridine), and poly(N-vinyl imidazole) (PNVI) brushes up to 550 nm are directly created onto TiO2 via UV-induced photopolymerization of corresponding monomers. Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. Characterization of the resulting polymer brushes by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicates an efficient UV-grafting reaction. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility in converting the PNVI brushes to poly(vinyl imidazolium bromide), i.e., poly(ionic liquid) brushes by polymer-analogous reactions.
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Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of dicapthon insecticide.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of dicapthon were investigated by using the bacterial reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix), and chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) tests in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Dicapthon was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide for all test systems. 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 ?g/plate doses of dicapthon were found to be weakly mutagenic on S. typhimurium TA 98 without S9 mix. The human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with four experimental concentrations of dicapthon (25, 50, 100, and 200 ?g/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Dicapthon increased the frequency of SCE only at the 100 ?g/mL concentration for the 24 and 48 h applications. Dicapthon also induced abnormal cell frequency, CA/cell ratio and frequency of MN dose dependently for 24 and 48 h. Dicapthon showed a statistically significant cytotoxic effect by decreasing the mitotic index in all concentrations and a cytostatic effect by decreasing nuclear division index in 100 and 200 ?g/mL concentrations for both treatment periods when compared with both untreated and solvent controls. These values decreased also in a dose dependent manner.
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Finding atrial fibrillation in stroke patients: Randomized evaluation of enhanced and prolonged Holter monitoring--Find-AF(RANDOMISED) --rationale and design.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Detecting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with ischemic strokes presenting in sinus rhythm is challenging because episodes are often short, occur randomly, and are frequently asymptomatic. If AF is detected, recurrent thromboembolism can be prevented efficiently by oral anticoagulation. Numerous uncontrolled studies using various electrocardiogram (ECG) devices have established that prolonged ECG monitoring increases the yield of AF detection, but most established procedures are time-consuming and costly. The few randomized trials are mostly limited to cryptogenic strokes. The optimal method, duration, and patient selection remain unclear. Repeated prolonged continuous Holter ECG monitoring to detect paroxysmal AF within an unspecific stroke population may prove to be a widely applicable, effective secondary prevention strategy.
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GhPSY, a phytoene synthase gene, is related to the red plant phenotype in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Carotenoids are important accessory pigments in plants that are essential for photosynthesis. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a rate-controlling enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, has been widely characterized in rice, maize, and sorghum, but at present there are no reports describing this enzyme in cotton. In this study, GhPSY was identified as a candidate gene for the red plant phenotype via a combined strategy using: (1) molecular marker data for loci closely linked to R1; (2) the whole-genome scaffold sequence from Gossypium raimondii; (3) gene expression patterns in cotton accessions expressing the red plant and green plant phenotypes; and (4) the significant correlation between a single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in GhPSY and leaf phenotypes of progeny in the (Sub16 × T586) F2 segregating population. GhPSY was relatively highly expressed in leaves, and the protein was localized to the plastid where it appeared to be mostly attached to the surface of thylakoid membranes. GhPSY mRNA was expressed at a significantly higher level in T586 and SL1-7-1 red plants than TM-1 and Hai7124 green plants. SNP analysis in the GhPSY locus showed co-segregation with the red and green plant phenotypes in the (Sub16 × T586) F2 segregating population. A phylogenetic analysis showed that GhPSY belongs to the PSY2 subfamily, which is related to photosynthesis in photosynthetic tissues. Using a reverse genetics approach based on Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing, we showed that the knockdown of GhPSY caused a highly uniform bleaching of the red color in newly-emerged leaves in both T586 and SL1-7-1 plants with a red plant phenotype. These findings indicate that GhPSY is important for engineering the carotenoid metabolic pathway in pigment production.
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Promotion of cardiac differentiation of brown adipose derived stem cells by chitosan hydrogel for repair after myocardial infarction.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The ability to restore heart function by replacement of diseased myocardium is one of the great challenges in biomaterials and regenerative medicine. Brown adipose derived stem cells (BADSCs) present a new source of cardiomyocytes to regenerate the myocardium after infarction. In this study, we explored an injectable tissue engineering strategy to repair damaged myocardium, in which chitosan hydrogels were investigated as a carrier for BADSCs. In vitro, the effect and mechanism of chitosan components on the cardiac differentiation of BADSCs were investigated. In vivo, BADSCs carrying double-fusion reporter gene (firefly luciferase and monomeric red fluorescent protein (fluc-mRFP)) were transplanted into infarcted rat hearts with or without chitosan hydrogel. Multi-techniques were used to assess the effects of treatments. We observed that chitosan components significantly enhanced cardiac differentiation of BADSCs, which was assessed by percentages of cTnT(+) cells and expression of cardiac-specific markers, including GATA-4, Nkx2.5, Myl7, Myh6, cTnI, and Cacna1a. Treatment with collagen synthesis inhibitors, cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline (CIS), significantly inhibited the chitosan-enhanced cardiac differentiation, indicating that the enhanced collagen synthesis by chitosan accounts for its promotive role in cardiac differentiation of BADSCs. Longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that chitosan enhanced the survival of engrafted BADSCs and significantly increased the differentiation rate of BADSCs into cardiomyocytes in vivo. Furthermore, BADSCs delivered by chitosan hydrogel prevented adverse matrix remodeling, increased angiogenesis, and preserved heart function. These results suggested that the injectable cardiac tissue engineering based on chitosan hydrogel and BADSCs is a useful strategy for myocardium regeneration.
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Exendin-4 pretreated adipose derived stem cells are resistant to oxidative stress and improve cardiac performance via enhanced adhesion in the infarcted heart.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were largely generated after myocardial ischemia, severely impaired the adhesion and survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether Exendin-4 pretreatment could improve the adhesion and therapeutic efficacy of transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in ischemic myocardium. In vitro, H2O2 was used to provide ROS environments, in which ADSCs pretreated with Exendin-4 were incubated. ADSCs without pretreatment were used as control. Then, cell adhesion and viability were analyzed with time. Compared with control ADSCs, Exendin-4 treatment significantly increased the adhesion of ADSCs in ROS environment, while reduced intracellular ROS and cell injury as determined by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining live/Dead staining, lactate dehydrogenase-release assay and MTT assay. Western Blotting demonstrated that ROS significantly decreased the expression of adhesion-related integrins and integrin-related focal adhesion proteins, which were significantly reversed by Exendin-4 pretreatment and followed by decreases in caspase-3, indicating that Exendin-4 may facilitate cell survival through enhanced adhesion. In vivo, myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by the left anterior descending artery ligation in SD rats. Autologous ADSCs with or without Exendin-4 pretreatment were injected into the border area of infarcted hearts, respectively. Multi-techniques were used to assess the beneficial effects after transplantation. Longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that Exendin-4 pretreatment enhanced the survival and differentiation of engrafted ADSCs in ischemic myocardium, accompanied with significant benefits in cardiac function, matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis compared with non-pretreated ADSCs 4 weeks post-transplantation. In conclusion, transplantation of Exendin-4 pretreated ADSCs significantly improved cardiac performance and can be an innovative approach in the clinical perspective.
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Thyroid-stimulating hormone, white matter hyperintensities, and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations are frequently altered in acute ischemic stroke patients. It is becoming increasingly apparent that various hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be associated with functional stroke outcome. We have previously shown that white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are strong indicators of functional outcome. It is unclear whether an association exists between WMH and TSH. We therefore sought to determine whether TSH levels, measured in acute ischemic stroke patients, are associated with WMH and functional outcome.
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Discharge status and in-hospital mortality in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
Acta Neurol. Scand.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a serious and increasingly recognized disorder, but data from observational studies on outcome and mortality in posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are scarce. We aimed to determine the frequency and associations of in-hospital death and discharge status in a large cohort of patients with PRES.
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Two-Dimensional GIWAXS Reveals a Transient Crystal Phase in Solution-Processed Thermally Converted Tetrabenzoporphyrin.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Thermally convertible organic materials are useful for the fabrication of multilayered thin film electronic devices such as solar cells. However, substantial changes in molecular ordering can occur during the conversion process that may lead to multiple polymorphs having differing electronic properties. In-situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering with 2-D detection (2-D GIWAXS) was used to study the changes in the thin film crystal structure, texture, and crystallite size of a convertible small-molecule electron donor, tetrabenzoporphyrin (BP), during thermal conversion from the precursor bicycloporphyrin (CP) and the resulting crystal-crystal phase transition from a metastable phase (phase I) to a stable phase (phase II). The annealing temperature and the presence of an underlying BP layer both affect the phase-transition behavior. Phase II has a much weaker degree of crystalline texture than phase I, attributed to changes in molecular packing to achieve a herringbone arrangement. The unit cell for phase I was determined by electron diffraction and GIWAXS, and the thin film structure of phase II matched the previously determined bulk structure. The texture of crystallites in phase II was characterized by the simulation of the GIWAXS pattern. Transmission electron microscopy revealed differences in the morphology, grain size, and film coverage of the two polymorphs. Peak shape analysis with corrections for geometric smearing and paracrystalline disorder showed an increase in crystallite size from phase I to phase II. These results demonstrate the utility of in-situ 2-D GIWAXS in revealing polymorphic phases during the structural transition of thermally convertible organic semiconductors, the presence of which may impact the performance of solar cells.
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Simple and economical management of a prolonged air leak.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Prolonged air leak has been described in many pulmonary diseases but remains one of the common complications of pulmonary resections. Although, the management of prolonged air leaks related to broncho-pleural or alveolo-pleural fistulae traditionally requires surgical repair. In recent years, bronchoscopic approaches have drawn attention because of their conservative nature. We report a case of prolonged air leak after a pulmonary wedge resection that was treated with a simple and economical endobronchial method.
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Prevalence of non-communicable diseases and its awareness among inhabitants of Sokoto metropolis: outcome of a screening program for hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus and overt proteinuria.
Arab J Nephrol Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Developing countries confront double jeopardy of prevalent infectious disease and increasing Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) with imminent projected epidemic proportions. Nigeria has witnessed tremendous socio-economic changes and rural to urban migration culminating in emergence of NCD. The impact of these diseases on the lives of people is enormous when measured in terms of outcomes. We initiated a screening program among inhabitants of Sokoto metropolis in an attempt to unravel the prevalence and pattern of NCD.
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Recurrent depressive illness or craniopharyngioma: a diagnostic dilemma.
West Afr J Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Brain tumors have been associated with various psychiatric and neurological manifestations. However in some patients with brain tumors psychiatric symptom might be the only clinical presentation for various lengths of time. As such they would be treated as straight forward psychiatric disorders.
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Plaque morphology detected with Duplex ultrasound before carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is not a predictor of Carotid artery in-stent restenosis, a case control study.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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In-stent restenosis (ISR) is an important factor endangering the long-term safety and efficacy of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting (CAS). It is plausible that soft vulnerable plaques are more likely to be injured during CAS procedure and are therefore more likely to initiate the cascade finally leading to ISR. The aim of this study was to investigate if plaque morphology detected by a simple applicable Duplex ultrasound score before CAS can be used as a predictor for ISR.
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Genotoxicity of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform) by using both Allium anaphase-telophase and comet tests.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Genotoxic effects of bromoform and chloroform, disinfection by-products of the chlorination of drinking water, were examined by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phase, chromosome aberrations (CAs) and comet assay on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75 and 100 ?g/mL) and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 ?g/mL) were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 ?g/mL) as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests by using one-way analysis of variance were employed and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant value. Exposure of both chemicals (except 25 ?g/mL applications of bromoform) significantly decreased MI. Bromoform and chloroform (except 25 ?g/mL applications) increased total CAs in Allium anaphase-telophase test. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of both bromoform and chloroform examined by comet assay. The damages were higher than that of positive control especially at 75-100 ?g/mL for bromoform and 100-200 ?g/mL for chloroform.
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Unexpected catalytic performance in silent tantalum oxide through nitridation and defect chemistry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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This work reports on the preparation of a noble-metal-free and highly active catalyst that proved to be an efficient and green reductant with renewable capacity. Nitridation of a silent Ta1.1O1.05 substrate led to the formation of a series of TaOxNy hollow nanocrystals that exhibited outstanding activity toward catalytic reduction of nitrobenzenes under ambient conditions. ESR and XPS results indicated that defective nitrogen species and oxygen vacancies at the surfaces of the TaOxNy nanocrystals may play synergetic roles in the reduction of nitrobenzenes. The underlying mechanism is completely different from those previously reported for metallic nanoparticles. This work may provide new possibilities for the development of novel defect-meditated catalytic systems and offer a strategy for tuning any catalysts from silent to highly reactive by carefully tailoring the chemical composition and surface defect chemistry.
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Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by Allium and Comet tests.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Genotoxic effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) were investigated on root cells of Allium cepa by employing both Allium and Comet assays. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) for 4 h. Exposure of ITO significantly increased mitotic index, and total chromosomal aberrations by the Allium test. While chromosome laggards, stickiness, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, c-metaphase and binuclear cells were observed in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of ITO by the Comet assay. These results indicate that ITO exhibits genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.
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Lung cancer with gastrointestinal metastasis - review of theories of metastasis with three rare case descriptions.
Cancer Microenviron
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Approximately 1 in 14 men and women during their lifetime will be diagnosed with lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. As of January 1, 2008, there were about 373,500 men and women living with lung cancer in the United States. Fewer than 60,000 of these are estimated to be alive by January 2013, reflecting a poor overall 5-year relative survival rate of under 16 %. With metastatic cancer, the overall 5-year survival is meager 4 %. On the other hand, the overall five-year survival is over 50 % when the cancer is still in the localized stage. However, unfortunately, more than half of cases of lung cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage Howlader et al. (2010). Cancer metastasis, the single most critical prognostic factor, is still poorly understood and a highly complex phenomenon. The most common sites of lung cancer metastasis are the lymph nodes, liver, adrenals, brain and bones. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an exceptionally rare site of metastasis; with only a handful of cases reported in the literature Centeno et al. (Lung Cancer, 18: 101-105, 1997); Hirasaki et al. (World J Gastroenterol, 14: 5481-5483, 2008); Carr and Boulos (Br J Surg, 83: 647, 1996); Otera et al. (Eur Respir Rev, 19: 248-252, 2010); Antler et al. (Cancer, 49: 170-172, 1982); Fujiwara et al. (Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 59: 748-752, 2011); Stinchcombe et al. (J Clin Oncol, 24: 4939-4940, 2006); John et al. (J Postgrad Med, 48: 199-200, 2002); Carroll and Rajesh (Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 19: 719-720, 2001); Brown et al. (Dis Colon Rectum, 23: 343-345, 1980). We report three cases of non-small cell (squamous cell) lung cancer with GI tract metastasis-two in the colon and one in the jejunum. Then we present a review of literature exploring various theories of metastasis, as an attempt to understand the reason of preferential tumor metastasis.
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Effect of Low-Dose Doxycycline on Serum Oxidative Status, Gingival Antioxidant Levels and Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis in Rats.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Background: The sub-antibiotic doses of doxycycline (low-dose doxycycline, LDD) have been widely used in periodontal treatment forenzymatic inhibition and related anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to verify the possible effects of low-dose doxycycline on oxidative stress in relation to periodontal attachment loss associated with ligature-induced experimental periodontal disease in rats. Methods: Thirty female Wistar albino rats were divided into three study groups as follows: control rats, rats with experimental periodontitis (PED), and rats with PED that were treated with doxycycline (PED+LDD). PED was induced by placing ligatures around the cervix of the second maxillary teeth for 21 days. The PED+LDD group was treated orally with doxycycline (6mg/kg) for 21 days after the ligature was placed. After 21 days, the rats were euthanized and samples of the right maxilla were defleshed and used for histological and morphometric analyses. The gingival tissue of the left maxilla was used for the analysis of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]). Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Results: Alveolar bone loss was significantly higher in the PED group in comparison to the PED+LDD and C groups (P <0.05). Doxycycline exhibited the most prominent inhibition on gingival tissue levels of MDA and antioxidant enzymes (P <0.05). Doxycycline also significantly reduced TOS and OSI levels (P <0.05), but increased TAS level. Conclusions: Doxycycline helps to prevent periodontal tissue destruction by inhibiting local and systemic oxidative stress.
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Metabonomics study on the hot syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine by rapid resolution liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The hot syndrome refers to any feverish conditions during a pathological development, a sub-health phenomenon, and is a potential risk for human health. The metabonomics study on the hot syndrome may provide insight into understanding of its pathology and play a role in the prevention and treatment of its related diseases. In this paper, the rats were dosed with the hot syndrome prescription, ginseng and water. The corresponding urine samples were identified by rapid resolution liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. More than 1,000 metabolic compounds from different urine samples could be further differentiated by principal component analysis. As a result, the rat body temperature and weight were recognized as the hot syndrome related factors. Some specific metabolites have been discovered as a pattern of the potential biomarkers for the hot syndrome. The results showed that ginseng cannot cause the hot syndrome in a reasonable dose, but the hot syndrome prescription can. It is suggested that ginseng cannot be used only as a tradition Chinese medicine but also as a nutrient. The work showed metabonomics method is a valuable tool in studying mechanism of the hot syndrome.
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Cost-effectiveness of 7-day-Holter monitoring alone or in combination with transthoracic echocardiography in patients with cerebral ischemia.
Clin Res Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Prolonged Holter monitoring of patients with cerebral ischemia increases the detection rate of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); this leads to improved antithrombotic regimens aimed at preventing recurrent ischemic strokes. The aim of this study was to compare a 7-day-Holter monitoring (7-d-Holter) alone or in combination with prior selection via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to a standard 24-h-Holter using a cost-utility analysis.
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Selection of reference genes for reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR normalization in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli).
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a technique widely used for quantification of mRNA transcription. Data normalization is an indispensable process for RT-qPCR and reference genes are most commonly used to normalize RT-qPCR and to reduce possible errors generated in the quantification of genes among several proposed methods. To date, RT-qPCR has been used in terms of gene expression studies in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) but the majority of published RT-qPCR studies still lack proper validation of the reference genes. In the present study, mRNA transcription profiles of eight putative reference genes (18S rRNA, ACTB, GAPDH, TUBA, RPL17, EF1A, HPRT, and B2M) were examined using RT-qPCR in different tissues and larvae developmental stages of black rockfish. Three common statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to assess expression stability and select the most stable genes for gene normalization. Two reference genes, RPL17 and EF1A showed high stability in black rockfish tissue analysis, while GAPDH was the least stable gene. During larvae developmental stages, EF1A, RPL17 and ACTB were identified as the optimal reference genes for data normalization, whereas B2M appeared unsuitable as the reference gene. In summary, our results could provide a useful guideline for reference gene selection and enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data in gene expression studies of black rockfish.
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung with Metastasis to the GI Tract Associated with EGFR Exon 19 Deletion.
Case Rep Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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We describe three confirmed cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung with metastasis to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with two having epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions in all available specimens. One of these patients received EGFR tyrosine kinase directed therapy for a brief period with some symptom relief. Consideration of EGFR exon 19 mutation testing in SCC of the lung, particularly for those with GI tract metastasis, may identify this potentially drug-targetable entity.
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Activin A inhibits activities of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via TLR4, not of TLR2.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Activin A, a member of TGF-? superfamily, is involved in either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. Our previous studies have reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can simulate activin A secretion from macrophage, and activin A can induce rest macrophage activation in mice, but inhibit the activities of the activated macrophages. However, the relationship of activin and LPS actions and their mechanism are not well characterized. In the present study, the results showed that both activin A and LPS promoted the phagocytic activities of mouse peritoneal macrophages in vivo and in vitro, but activin A inhibited the phagocytosis of LPS-activated macrophages. Simultaneously, the results revealed that activin A inhibited the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression on LPS-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vivo and in vitro, whereas there was no obvious change of TLR2 expression. Moreover, the results showed that activin A obviously reduced the TLR4 mRNA and protein expressions in LPS-activated macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells, and the inhibitory effect of activin A on the TLR4 expression was significantly attenuated in Smad3 knock-down RAW264.7 cells. Interestingly, LPS promoted the expression of activin type IIA receptor (ActRIIA) on mouse peritoneal macrophages in vivo, and also up-regulated ActRIIA and activin signal molecules Smad2, 3 mRNA expressions. These data suggest that activin A inhibits LPS action on macrophages in vivo via suppressing TLR4 expression, and LPS further augments the negative feedback action of activin A via up-regulating activin signaling transduction.
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Recombinant probes for visualizing endogenous synaptic proteins in living neurons.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The ability to visualize endogenous proteins in living neurons provides a powerful means to interrogate neuronal structure and function. Here we generate recombinant antibody-like proteins, termed Fibronectin intrabodies generated with mRNA display (FingRs), that bind endogenous neuronal proteins PSD-95 and Gephyrin with high affinity and that, when fused to GFP, allow excitatory and inhibitory synapses to be visualized in living neurons. Design of the FingR incorporates a transcriptional regulation system that ties FingR expression to the level of the target and reduces background fluorescence. In dissociated neurons and brain slices, FingRs generated against PSD-95 and Gephyrin did not affect the expression patterns of their endogenous target proteins or the number or strength of synapses. Together, our data indicate that PSD-95 and Gephyrin FingRs can report the localization and amount of endogenous synaptic proteins in living neurons and thus may be used to study changes in synaptic strength in vivo.
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Endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity and NOS-associated NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry in the domestic cat (Felis catus) testis.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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In this study, the cellular localization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and the endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) forms of nitric oxide (NO) synthase in the cat testis were studied using enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Stage-dependent nuclear and cytoplasmic eNOS/iNOS immunoreactivity and cytoplasmic NADPH-d reactivity were found in all germ cells, including spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes (preleptotene, zygotene, and pachytene spermatocytes), and round (Sa, Sb1) and elongating spermatids (Sb2, Sc) of the seminiferous epithelium. The pachytene spermatocytes exhibited strong positive reactions at all spermatogenic stage. Interestingly, in elongated spermatids (Sd1) at stages VI to VII, eNOS and iNOS immunostainings was observed only in the cytoplasm but not in the nuclei. eNOS and iNOS immunolabeling was observed in the acrosomal vesicle of some round spermatids (Sb1) at stages I, VII, and VIII, and in the acrosomal cap of elongating spermatids (Sb2) at stage II. Furthermore, eNOS, iNOS, and NADPH-d reactions in elongated spermatids (Sd2) just before spermiation at stage VIII were restricted only to the middle and principal pieces of the tail. Positive reactions were also observed in the Sertoli and Leydig cells as well as in other tissues including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and peritubular myoid cells. These results suggest that NO may play an important role in chromatin condensation, spermatid shaping, and the final release of sperm from the spermatogenic epithelium. Furthermore, NO may also be involved in spermiogenesis, steroidogenesis, and apoptotic cell death.
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Aspiration of a cigarette filter from a bronchodilator inhaler.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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The majority of foreign-body aspirations are seen in children. In adults, neurological dysfunction, trauma, alcohol abuse, or psychological disorders can lead to aspiration, but normal adults can also suffer foreign body aspiration. The symptoms include acute asphyxiation, with or without complete airway obstruction, cough, dyspnea, choking, and fever, which also occur in many other medical conditions. Bronchoscopic removal of the foreign body is necessary, and flexible bronchoscopy is effective in the diagnosis and removal. We saw a patient with COPD who aspirated a plastic cigarette filter while using his bronchodilator inhaler.
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Mucosal application of cationic poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles as carriers of DNA vaccine and adjuvants to protect chickens against infectious bursal disease.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens. The virus protein (VP) 2 induces neutralizing antibodies, which protect chickens against the disease. The aim of this study was to develop a cationic poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle (MP) based IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccine (MP-IBDV-DNA) for chickens to be delivered orally and by eye drop route. The tested IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccines were immunogenic for specific-pathogen-free chickens and induced an antibody response after intramuscular application. Co-inoculation with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) or CpG-ODN did not significantly improve protection against IBDV challenge. However, the application of a MP-IBDV-DNA vaccine alone or in combination with a delayed oral and eye drop application of cationic MP loaded with CpG-ODN or chIL-2 improved protection against challenge. The MP-IBDV-DNA-vaccinated chickens showed less pathological and histopathological bursal lesions, a reduced IBDV antigen load as well as T-cell influx into the bursa of Fabricius (BF) compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of chIL-2 loaded MP improved challenge virus clearance from the BF as demonstrated by lower neutralizing antibody titers and reduced IL-4 and IFN-? mRNA expression in the bursa at 7 days postchallenge compared to the other challenged groups. Overall, the efficacy of the IBDV-DNA vaccine was improved by adsorption of the DNA vaccine onto cationic PLGA-MP, which also allowed mucosal application of the DNA vaccine.
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Evaluation of accuracy of the Finnish elbow dysplasia screening protocol in Labrador retrievers.
J Small Anim Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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To determine whether the current Finnish screening method using a single flexed mediolateral view as scored by osteophyte is sufficient to diagnose mild elbow dysplasia in Labrador retrievers and to determine if an additional craniocaudal oblique projection would result in improvement in the screening protocol.
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Structural and functional analysis of the U3 snoRNA binding protein Rrp9.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The U3 snoRNA is required for 18S rRNA processing and small subunit ribosome formation in eukaryotes. Different from other box C/D snoRNAs, U3 contains an extra 5 domain that pairs with pre-rRNA and a unique B/C motif essential for recruitment of the U3-specific Rrp9 protein. Here, we analyze the structure and function of Rrp9 with crystallographic, biochemical, and cellular approaches. Rrp9 is composed of a WD repeat domain and an N-terminal region. The crystal structures of the WD domain of yeast Rrp9 and its human ortholog U3-55K were determined, revealing a typical seven-bladed propeller fold. Several conserved surface patches on the WD domain were identified, and their function in RNP assembly and yeast growth were analyzed by mutagenesis. Prior association of Snu13 with the B/C motif was found to enhance the specific binding of the WD domain. We show that a conserved 7bc loop is crucial for specific recognition of U3, nucleolar localization of Rrp9, and yeast growth. In addition, we show that the N-terminal region of Rrp9 contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal that is dispensable for nucleolar localization. Our results provide insight into the functional sites of Rrp9.
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Agency and facial emotion judgment in context.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Past research showed that East Asians belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on ones face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.
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Phase-reversal emulsion catalysis with CNT-TiO2 nanohybrids for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Mix it up: Carbon nanotube (CNT)-TiO2 nanohybrids with the potential to control the phase of an emulsion were successfully developed with a simple yet efficient method. When ruthenium was deposited on these CNT-TiO2 nanohybrid supports, they demonstrated catalytic potential for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The relationship between the emulsion properties and the catalytic mechanism is also discussed.
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Age-dependent yield of screening for undetected atrial fibrillation in stroke patients: the Find-AF study.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Diagnosis of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in stroke patients is challenging, but highly clinically relevant. The percentage of stroke patients with permanent AF increases with age, but limited data are available for the age-dependent yield of paroxysmal AF by Holter monitoring. Patients with acute cerebral ischemia were included into the prospective observational Find-AF study. Patients free from AF at presentation received 7 day Holter monitoring. We calculated the percentage of otherwise undetected paroxysmal AF and the number needed to screen for age groups under 60 years, and in 5 year clusters from the age of 60 up to 85 and older. 272 patients were included, 43 (15.8 %) had AF at admission, 33 patients with paroxysmal AF were identified by 7 day Holter (n = 29) or medical history (n = 4).The yield of 7 day Holter ECG clearly increased with older age (p = 0.004): <60 years: 5 %, 60-64 years: 5 %, 65-69 years: 7 %, 70-74 years: 11 %, 75-79 years: 13 %, 80-84 years: 25 %, ? 85 years: 39 %. The number needed to screen (NNS) to find one patient with paroxysmal AF decreased with age: ? 60 years: 18, 60-64 years: 20, 65-69 years: 14, 70-74 years: 9, 75-79 years: 8, 80-84 years: 4, ? 85 years: 3, respectively. In patients <65 years, all AF cases were detected by Holter ECG. The percentage of paroxysmal AF in stroke patients increases with age. The 7 day Holter ECG is most efficient in elderly patients.
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Is a small-bore catheter efficient for most pleural pathologies?
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Chest tubes are used for drainage of the pleural cavity. Traditionally, large-bore catheters are inserted for all indications, but there has been a recent tendency to use small-bore catheters. We share the results of our experience of using small-bore catheters for almost all indications routinely in our clinic.
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Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles by Allium and Comet assay.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles (BONPs) were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Allium and Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at five different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100ppm) for 4h. Exposure of BONPs significantly increased mitotic index (MI) except 12.5ppm, total chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in Allium test. While stickiness chromosome laggards, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, pro-metaphase and c-metaphase in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncans multiple range test was performed. These results indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.
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Value of autofluorescence in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in pleural diseases.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Autofluorescence (AF) examination in thoracoscopy has not been used frequently. Here, our aim was to determine whether AF examination contributes additional information to white-light (WL) examination when attempting to detect malignant pleural lesions. We also liked to know whether the effectiveness of WL and AF-mode combination would be different for various pathologies or lesions of the pleura.
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Sulfur dioxide upregulates the inhibited endogenous hydrogen sulfide pathway in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important pathophysiological process in the development of many diseases. However, the mechanism responsible for the development of PH remains unknown. The objective of the study was to explore the possible impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on the endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pathway in rats with PH induced by high pulmonary blood flow. Compared with sham group, the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) in the shunt group was significantly increased, along with the increased percentage of muscularized arteries and partially muscularized arteries of small pulmonary arteries. Compared with the shunt group, SPAP in the shunt+SO2 group was significantly decreased, and the percentage of muscularized pulmonary arteries was also decreased. Additionally, rats that developed PH had significantly lower levels of SO2 concentration, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) activity, protein and mRNA expressions of AAT2 in pulmonary tissues. Administration of an SO2 donor could alleviate the elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and decrease the muscularization of pulmonary arteries. At the same time, it increased the H2S production, protein expression of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), mRNA expression of CSE, mercaptopyruvate transsulphurase (MPST) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) in the pulmonary tissue of the rats. The results suggested that endogenous SO2/AAT2 pathway and the endogenous H2S production were downregulated in rats with PH induced by high pulmonary blood flow. However, SO2 could reduce pulmonary arterial pressure and improve the pulmonary vascular pathological changes in association with upregulating endogenous H2S pathway.
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Impaired thymic function and CD4+ T lymphopenia, but not mannose-binding lectin deficiency, are risk factors for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) incidence is increasing in kidney transplant recipients (KTR), but risk factors remain poorly defined. CD4+ T lymphopenia and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency are common immunodeficiencies in KTR. Here, we investigated whether CD4+ T lymphopenia and/or MBL deficiency would be risk factors for PCP in KTR. Furthermore, the role of thymic function in CD4+ T lymphopenia and outcome was studied by assessing CD45RA+CD31+CD4+ T cell numbers (RTE, recent thymus emigrants). In 321 de novo KTR serial determinations of peripheral T lymphocyte subsets (n=281, mean 4.2 times between days 0-365) and/or MBL levels (n=112, mean 1.8 times between days 30-180) were performed. 22/321 patients developed a PCP episode on average at day 199 (107-398) post-Tx. Age correlated inversely with RTE, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts until day 180 post-Tx. RTE correlated with CD4+ T-cell counts at all time-points pre- and post-Tx. PCP patients had more CMV infections (p=0.045) within the first 3 months compared to controls. Importantly, PCP patients were older (p=0.008), and had lower RTE (p=0.046) pretransplant, and lower CD4+ T-cell counts pretransplant (p=0.017), at day 60 (p=0.032) and for the average of all post-Tx values (p=0.027) compared to controls. Though treatment with T-cell depleting antibodies was associated with consecutive CD4+ T lymphopenia in the whole cohort, the number of patients who received T-cell depleting antibodies was comparable between PCP and control patients (p=0.754). A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model identified only pretransplant CD4+ T-cell counts (OR 0.011, p=0.010) and acute rejection (OR 4.66, p=0.023) as predictors of PCP. In contrast, MBL levels and incidence of MBL deficiency (<500 ng/ml) at days 30, 90 and 180 post-Tx were not different between PCP patients and controls. In conclusion, PCP risk was associated with higher age and related to both thymic functional impairment and long-lasting CD4+ T-lymphopenia that started already before transplantation. Despite frequent occurrences in KTR, low levels of serum MBL were not associated with increased risk for PCP. CD4+ T-cell counts and function should be addressed in prospective studies for more individualized approaches to PCP prophylaxis.
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Characterization of malignant thrombus in an invasive thymoma with intravascular growth.
J Radiol Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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We report an unusual case of an invasive thymoma with a thrombus in the right atrium and describe the radiological findings consistent with the malignant nature of the thrombus. The thrombus showed significant enhancement on computerized tomography images similar to the tumoral mass. On magnetic resonance imaging, both the tumor and the thrombus have heterogeneously high signal intensities on T2-weighted images. On diffusion-weighted images they both exhibit high signal intensity and low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values which support the malignant nature of the thrombus and the mass.
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The process of apoptosis in a holocrine gland as shown by the avian uropygial gland.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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This study was designed to elucidate the presence of apoptosis and the localization of apoptosis-related Bax and survivin proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) within the chicken uropygial gland, a specialized holocrine secretory gland. In day-old chicks, survivin and Bax immunoreactivities were observed in the cell cytoplasm of the germinative and secretory layers of the luminal epithelium and tubules. During this period, the TUNEL reaction, an indication of apoptosis, was only sporadically positive in the tubules. From the 7th day to the 150th day of posthatching, survivin was detected in the cytoplasm of cells in the germinative layer and in the nuclei of some cells in the secretory layers of the gland. The germinative layer cells showed weak homogeneous cytoplasmic staining for Bax, whereas the cells of the secretory and intermediate layers of luminal epithelium and tubules exhibited granular cytoplasmic staining. After day 7, TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the secretory and degenerative layers of the luminal epithelium and central tubules. After day 12, some TUNEL-positive cells were also seen in the peripheral tubules. At all posthatch ages, the cytoplasm and nucleus of the germinative layers of luminal epithelium and tubules reacted with PCNA, whereas only a small number of cell nuclei in the secretory layers were immunopositive. These results support the theory that specific PCNA/Bax/survivin expression patterns could reflect particular cell differentiation states in the uropygial gland and that holocrine secretion in the gland is realized mainly by way of apoptosis.
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Immunolocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor, its receptors (flt1/fms, flk1/KDR, flt4) and vascular endothelial growth inhibitor in the bitch uterus during the sexual cycle.
Anim. Reprod. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Angiogenesis is regulated by proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a prime proangiogenic regulator, whereas vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI) is a specific antiangiogenic cytokine. To clarify temporal changes in the localization of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in the uterus of normal bitches during the proestrus, estrus, diestrus and anestrus phases of the estrous cycle, the expressions of VEGF and its receptors (flt1/fms, flk1/KDR and flt4) and their correlation with VEGI were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Uteruses were collected after ovariohysterectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was evaluated semi-quantitatively by an immunohistochemical total score consisting of the sum of the intensity and proportional scores. The results in the bitch uterus demonstrated that positive immunohistochemical staining was found exclusively in the cytoplasm and apical membrane of luminal and glandular epithelial, stromal and smooth muscle cells and nuclear staining was observed in the flt1/fms, flk4 and VEGI during proestrous and estrous. Semi-quantitative analyses revealed that the total score for VEGF in the glandular epithelial cells was significantly higher than that of luminal, endometrial stromal and myometrial smooth muscle cells during proestrous (p<0.05). The total score for flk1/KDR and flt4 in the glandular epithelium was also significantly higher than that of endometrial stromal cells during proestrous, whilst the total score for flt1/fms in the glandular epithelium was significantly higher than that of endometrial stromal cells during anestrus (p<0.05). We conclude that, in the bitch uterus, cyclic changes may be precisely regulated by the combined functions of VEGF family members, angiogenic VEGF and VEGF receptors, and the angiogenesis inhibitor VEGI.
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Dropped head sign induced by transdermal application of the dopamine agonist rotigotine in parkinsonian syndrome: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Dropped head sign relates to a severe disproportionate antecollis in parkinsonism. We present the first report of a rotigotine-induced dropped head sign in a patient with suspected idiopathic Parkinsons disease, which was later defined as multiple system atrophy. The dropped head sign is considered a rare symptom of unknown etiology in parkinsonian disorders, though a disproportionate antecollis is frequently observed in multiple system atrophy. It has also been described as a side effect of dopamine agonist medication with cabergoline and pramipexole. Rotigotine is a transdermally applied, non-ergot dopamine agonist, resulting in a continuous stimulation of dopamine receptors, which is widely used in the treatment of patients with Parkinsons disease.
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A laterally acquired galactose oxidase-like gene is required for aerial development during osmotic stress in Streptomyces coelicolor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that most Actinobacterial orthologs of S. coelicolor SCO2837, encoding a metal-dependent galactose oxidase-like protein, are found within Streptomyces and were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer from fungi. Disruption of SCO2837 (glxA) caused a conditional bld phenotype that could not be reversed by extracellular complementation. Studies aimed at characterising the regulation of expression of glxA showed that it is not a target for other bld genes. We provide evidence that glxA is required for osmotic adaptation, although independently from the known osmotic stress response element SigB. glxA has been predicted to be part of an operon with the transcription unit comprising the upstream cslA gene and glxA. However, both phenotypic and expression studies indicate that it is also expressed from an independent promoter region internal to cslA. GlxA displays an in situ localisation pattern similar to that one observed for CslA at hyphal tips, but localisation of the former is independent of the latter. The functional role of GlxA in relation to CslA is discussed.
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Disseminated Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report and review of the literature.
Ann Afr Med
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by the presence of large mononucleated cells associated with inflammatory cells. We describe the clinical presentation, histopathology and some immunohistochemistry findings, in an eight-year-old female patient.
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Fabrication and photoluminescent properties of ZnO/mesoporous silica composites templated by a chelating surfactant.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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A novel anionic surfactant-templated synthesis of ZnO/mesoporous silica nanocomposites has been carried out by using N-hexadecylethylenediamine triacetate (HED3A), a triprotic surfactant, as the structure-directing agent. The chelating template can capture zinc ions in solution and then direct the mesophase formation, enabling an amount of zinc oxide to be embedded in the porous silica matrix during calcination. With variation of the molar ratio of Zn(2+) to HED3A in the template, a series of composites with different doping amounts were obtained after the removal of organic components. The variation of the zinc ion concentration in the initial template solution induces an evolution of the silica mesophase, presumably due to the change in electronegativity of the HED3A headgroup caused by the chelating effect. Spectroscopic studies show a strong host-guest interaction between the silica pore walls and ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles. The photoluminescence properties of the resulting composites exhibit a size-dependent light emission and quantum-confinement effect of ZnO, accompanied by an infrequent violet emission originating from the ZnO-SiO(2) interface.
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Endogenous generation of sulfur dioxide in rat tissues.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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While sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) has been previously known for its toxicological effects, it is now known to be produced endogenously in mammals from sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine. L-cysteine is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) to L-cysteinesulfinate, which converts to ?-sulfinylpyruvate through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), and finally spontaneously decomposes to pyruvate and SO(2). The present study explored endogenous SO(2) production, and AAT and CDO distribution in different rat tissue. SO(2) content was highest in stomach, followed by tissues in the right ventricle, left ventricle, cerebral gray matter, pancreas, lung, cerebral white matter, renal medulla, spleen, renal cortex and liver. AAT activity and AAT1 mRNA expression were highest in the left ventricle, while AAT1 protein expression was highest in the right ventricle. AAT2 and CDO mRNA expressions were both highest in liver tissue. AAT2 protein expression was highest in the renal medulla, but CDO protein expression was highest in liver tissue. In all tissues, AAT1 and AAT2 were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus. These observed differences among tissues endogenously generating SO(2) and associated enzymes are important in implicating the discovery of SO(2) as a novel endogenous signaling molecule.
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Angiosarcoma of the small intestine.
Ann Afr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Primary gastrointestinal angiosarcomas are very rare and those of the small bowel even more rare. We report a case which is the first in the literature from this part of the world. It presented in a 25-year-old woman with multiple dissemination and rapid fatality. Diagnosis was based on histological morphology using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stains, plus reticulin special stain to outline the vascular nature.
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Mannose-binding lectin deficiency is not associated with increased risk for polyomavirus nephropathy.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Polyomavirus associated nephropathy (PVAN) affects up to 10% of kidney transplant recipients and is a major risk factor for graft loss. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important recognition molecule of the innate immune system, and its deficiency has been associated with susceptibility to various infections. In transplantation, on the other hand, high MBL levels have been associated with increased tissue damage in ischemia-reperfusion models and poorer graft and patient survival in solid organ transplant patients. To investigate the relation between MBL and BK virus infection, post-transplant (post-Tx) MBL levels were determined in a cohort of de novo kidney transplant patients with and without BK viremia.
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Impact of low mini-mental status on health outcome up to 5 years after stroke: the Erlangen Stroke Project.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Cognitive deficits are frequent stroke sequelae. Data from population-based stroke cohorts on the impact of cognitive deficits on long-term outcome are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of low mini-mental status on health outcome up to 5 years after first-ever stroke. Data were collected from the Erlangen Stroke Project, a population-based stroke registry covering a source population of 103,000 inhabitants. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to assess global cognitive function. Health outcome included limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, Frenchay Activities Index), low independence in activities of daily living (ADL, Barthel Index), depressive symptoms (Zung Self Rating Depression Scale), and institutionalization. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, association of an education-adjusted MMSE score ? 24 with these health outcomes was investigated within distinct models at 12, 36, and 60 months after stroke as well as predictors at 3 months for low IADL. A total of 705 patients with first-ever stroke were included. Institutionalization, low levels of ADL and IADL (p < 0.001) are associated with a MMSE score ? 24 over 5 years after stroke. Predictors at 3 months for low IADL are low mini-mental status up to 3 years after stroke (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) as well as older age (p < 0.001), and stroke severity (p < 0.001) up to 5 years. A low mini-mental status has an independent impact on long-term health outcome after stroke. Our results emphasize the importance of cognitive status screening to identify stroke survivors at risk and manage and treat these patients more efficiently.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.