It is increasingly recognized that chimeric RNAs may exert a novel layer of cellular complexity that contributes to oncogenesis and cancer progression, and could be utilized as molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. To date yet no fusion chimeric RNAs have been identified in esophageal cancer, the 6th most frequent cause of cancer death in the world. While analyzing the expression of 32 recurrent cancer chimeric RNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) from patients and cancer cell lines, we identified GOLM1-MAK10, as a highly cancer-enriched chimeric RNA in ESCC. In situ hybridization revealed that the expression of the chimera is largely restricted to cancer cells in patient tumors, and nearly undetectable in non-neoplastic esophageal tissue from normal subjects. The aberrant chimera closely correlated with histologic differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that chimera GOLM1-MAK10 encodes a secreted fusion protein. Mechanistic studies reveal that GOLM1-MAK10 is likely derived from transcription read-through/splicing rather than being generated from a fusion gene. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism involved in ESCC and provide a novel potential target for future therapies. The secreted fusion protein translated from GOLM1-MAK10 could also serve as a unique protein signature detectable by standard non-invasive assays. These observations are critical as there is no clinically useful molecular signature available for detecting this deadly disease or monitoring the treatment response.
The effects of culture depth (2-10 cm) and cell density on the growth rate and biomass productivity of Chlorella sp. XQ-200419 were investigated through the use of a selfdesigned open circular pond photobioreactor-imitation system. With increases in culture depths from 2 to 10 cm, the growth rate decreased significantly from 1.08 /d to 0.39 /d. However, the biomass productivity only increased slightly from 8.41 to 11.22 g/m2/d. The biomass productivity (11.08 g/m2/d) achieved in 4 cm culture with an initial OD540 of 0.95 was similar to that achieved in 10 cm culture with an initial OD540 of 0.5. In addition, the duration of maximal areal productivity at a 4 cm depth was prolonged from 1 to 4 days, a finding that was also similar to that of the culture at a 10 cm depth. In both cases, the initial areal biomass densities were identical. Based on these results and previous studies, it can be concluded that the influence of culture depth and cell density on areal biomass productivity is actually due to different areal biomass densities. Under suitable conditions, there are a range of optimal biomass densities, and areal biomass productivity reaches its maximum when the biomass density is within these optimal ranges. Otherwise, biomass productivity will decrease. Therefore, a key factor for high biomass productivity is to maintain an optimal biomass density.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa fimbrial structures encoded by the cup gene clusters (cupB and cupC) contribute to its attachment to abiotic surfaces and biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa pvcABCD gene cluster encodes enzymes that synthesize a novel isonitrile functionalized cumarin, paerucumarin. Paerucumarin has already been characterized chemically, but this is the first report elucidating its role in bacterial biology. We examined the relationship between the pvc operon and the cup gene clusters in the P. aeruginosa strain MPAO1. Mutations within the pvc genes compromised biofilm development and significantly reduced the expression of cupB1-6 and cupC1-3, as well as different genes of the cupB/cupC two-component regulatory systems, roc1/roc2. Adjacent to pvc is the transcriptional regulator ptxR. A ptxR mutation in MPAO1 significantly reduced the expression of the pvc genes, the cupB/cupC genes, and the roc1/roc2 genes. Overexpression of the intact chromosomally-encoded pvc operon by a ptxR plasmid significantly enhanced cupB2, cupC2, rocS1, and rocS2 expression and biofilm development. Exogenously added paerucumarin significantly increased the expression of cupB2, cupC2, rocS1 and rocS2 in the pvcA mutant. Our results suggest that pvc influences P. aeruginosa biofilm development through the cup gene clusters in a pathway that involves paerucumarin, PtxR, and different cup regulators.
Rhodanese-domain proteins (RDPs) are widespread in plants and other organisms, but their biological roles are mostly unknown. Here we report on a novel RDP from Chlamydomonas that has a single rhodanese domain, and a predicted chloroplast transit peptide. The protein was produced in Escherichia coli with a His-tag, but lacking most of the N-terminal transit peptide, and after purification was found to have rhodanese activity in vitro. It was also used to elicit antibodies for western blot analysis, which showed that the native Chlamydomonas protein migrated slower on SDS gels (apparent M(r) =34 kDa) than its predicted size (27 kDa), and co-fractionated with chloroplasts. To assess function in vivo, the tandem-RNAi approach was used to generate Chlamydomonas strains that had reductions of 30-70% for the mRNA and ~20-40% for the 34-kDa protein. These strains showed reduced growth under all trophic conditions, and were sensitive to even moderate light; properties reminiscent of chloroplast translation mutants. Pulse-labeling in the presence of cycloheximide indicated that chloroplast protein synthesis was broadly reduced in the RNAi strains, and transcript analysis (by RT-PCR and northern blotting) indicated the effect was mainly translational. These results identify a novel rhodanese-like protein that we have named CRLT, because it is required to maintain chloroplast translation.
In previous work, three suppressors of defective group I introns (7151, 71N1, 7120) were isolated from a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that had a splicing-deficient chloroplast large subunit (LSU) rRNA intron. Genetic analysis indicated that the 7151 and 71N1 suppressor mutations each involved single nuclear loci, and that the 7151 mutation was dominant. Here we present genetic evidence that the 7120 suppressor also involves a single nuclear locus and that the mutation is dominant in vegetative diploids. Moreover, we have employed crosses with the S1D2 strain and molecular markers to map the 7120 and 71N1 suppressors. Based on an analysis of 800 progeny from 7120 × S1D2, the 7120 suppressor is located in a region of ~400 kb on chromosome III that is devoid of recombination. The ~400-kb region contains at least 72 genes, about one-third of which (i.e., 22) are predicted to be organelle targeted. Similar analysis of 71N1 × S1D2 using 400 progeny also pointed to the recombination-deficient region of chromosome III, raising the possibility that these mutations could affect the same gene. These efforts lay the foundation for identifying the css (chloroplast splicing suppressor) gene(s), which promotes splicing of multiple chloroplast group I introns.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.