Regioselective Glucuronidation of Andrographolide and Its Major Derivatives: Metabolite Identification, Isozyme Contribution, and Species Differences.
Andrographolide (AND) and two of its derivatives, deoxyandrographolide (DEO) and dehydroandrographolide (DEH), are widely used in clinical practice as anti-inflammatory agents. However, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated phase II metabolism of these compounds is not fully understood. In this study, glucuronidation of AND, DEO, and DEH was characterized using liver microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes. We isolated six glucuronides and identified them using 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We also systematically analyzed various kinetic parameters (K m, V max, and CLint) for glucuronidation of AND, DEO, and DEH. Among 12 commercially available UGT enzymes, UGT1A3, 1A4, 2B4, and 2B7 exhibited metabolic activities toward AND, DEO, and DEH. Further, UGT2B7 made the greatest contribution to glucuronidation of all three anti-inflammatory agents. Regioselective glucuronidation showed considerable species differences. 19-O-Glucuronides were present in liver microsomes from all species except rats. 3-O-Glucuronides were produced by pig and cynomolgus monkey liver microsomes for all compounds, and 3-O-glucuronide of DEH was detected in mouse and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Variations in K m values were 48.6-fold (1.93-93.6 ?M) and 49.5-fold (2.01-99.1 ?M) for 19-O-glucuronide and 3-O-glucuronide formation, respectively. Total intrinsic clearances (CLint) for 3-O- and 19-O-glucuronidation varied 4.8-fold (22.7-110 ?L min(-1) mg(-1)), 10.6-fold (94.2-991 ?L min(-1) mg(-1)), and 8.3-fold (122-1,010 ?L min(-1) mg(-1)), for AND, DEH, and DEO, respectively. Our results indicate that UGT2B7 is the major UGT enzyme involved in the metabolism of AND, DEO, and DEH. Metabolic pathways in the glucuronidation of AND, DEO, and DEH showed considerable species differences.