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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Glycyrrhetinic acid triggers a protective autophagy by activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), one of the main constituents of the famous Chinese medicinal herb and food additive licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch), has been indicated with potential anti-cancer effects and widely utilized in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) targeted drug delivery systems (TDDS) due to the highly expressed target binding sites of GA on HCC cells. Herein, we found that GA reduced the cell viability, increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase, and enhanced the expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3-II in HCC cells. The GA-triggered autophagy has been further confirmed by monodansylcadaverine staining as well as transmission electron microscopy analysis. The cell viability was obviously decreased while the expression of cleaved caspases was signi?cantly increased when inhibition of autophagy by choloroquine or bafilomycin A1, suggesting that GA triggered a protective autophagy. Extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) was activated after treatment with GA in HepG2 cells, and pretreatment with U0126 or PD98059, the MEK inhibitors, reversed GA-triggered autophagy evidenced by decreased expression of LC3-II and formation of autophagosomes, respectively. Furthermore, GA-induced cell death and apoptosis were enhanced after pretreatment with PD98059. As far as we know, this is the first report that GA triggers a protective autophagy in HCC cells via activation of ERK, which might attenuate the anti-cancer effects of GA or chemotherapeutic drugs loaded GA-modified TDDS.
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[Current status and associated risk factors of child abuse on children aged 7-12 in rural areas of Ningxia].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To describe the current status and associated risk factors on child abuse in children aged 7-12 in rural areas of Ningxia.
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[Efficacy observation of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To observe the impacts on the recovery of swallowing function in patients of dysphagia after acute stroke treated with acupuncture and functional electric stimulation.
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Clinical significance and therapeutic value of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Aims: We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of GPx3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to characterize its tumor suppressive role. Methods: HCC patients (113) who underwent hepatectomy were recruited to examine the clinical relevance of GPx3. The tumor suppressive role of GPx3 was studied by administration of recombinant GPx3 (rGPx3) or over-expression of GPx3 in HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic value of GPx3 for HCC was further investigated using human induced pluripotent stem cell derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) as its delivery vehicle. Results: Down-regulation of GPx3 significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.024), venous infiltration (P = 0.043) and poor overall survival (P = 0.007) after hepatectomy. Lower plasma GPx3 in HCC patients was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.011), more tumor nodules (P = 0.032) and higher recurrence (P = 0.016). Over-expression of GPx3 or administration of rGPx3 significantly inhibited proliferation and invasiveness of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Tumor suppressive activity of GPx3 was mediated through Erk-NF?B-SIP1 pathway. GPx3 could be delivered by hiPSC-MSCs into the tumor and exhibited tumor suppressive activity in vivo. Conclusions: GPx3 is a tumor suppressor gene in HCC and may possess prognostic and therapeutic value for HCC patients.
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[Comparative study of prenatal diagnosis with single nucleotide polymorphism array and karyotype analysis].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To compare the roles of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and karyotype analysis in high-risk pregnant women prenatal diagnosis.
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Independently analyzing different surface plasmon polariton modes on silver nanowire.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In this paper, surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes on silver nanowire (AgNW), with different field symmetric, are studied by different near field methods, respectively. In the experiment, the excitation and detection of SPPs are performed by two probes of near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) simultaneously, which realizes the study of SPPs in complete near field. By controlling the experimental conditions, two of the fundamental SPP modes are detected separately and their intensity distributions on AgNW are given by the NSOM images. In the discussion, creeping wave (CW) is introduced to analyze the experimental results, which improves the coincidence of the experimental results and the theoretical calculations. A detailed characterization of SPPs modes in near field, which gives a further insight into optical properties of AgNW, will benefit integrated optical circuits.
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Interpretation of illness in patients with chronic diseases from Shanghai and their associations with life satisfaction, escape from illness, and ability to reflect the implications of illness.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The aim of this study is to analyze how patients with chronic diseases from Shanghai interpret their disease, and how these interpretations influence patients' life satisfaction, intention to escape from their illness and their ability to reflect on the implications of their illness.
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The Process of Adapting a Universal Dating Abuse Prevention Program to Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.
J Interpers Violence
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.
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Strongly coupled magnons and cavity microwave photons.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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We realize a cavity magnon-microwave photon system in which a magnetic dipole interaction mediates strong coupling between the collective motion of a large number of spins in a ferrimagnet and the microwave field in a three-dimensional cavity. By scaling down the cavity size and increasing the number of spins, an ultrastrong coupling regime is achieved with a cooperativity reaching 12?600. Interesting dynamic features including classical Rabi-like oscillation, magnetically induced transparency, and the Purcell effect are demonstrated in this highly versatile platform, highlighting its great potential for coherent information processing.
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Significant renoprotective effect of telbivudine during preemptive antiviral therapy in advanced liver cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a case-control study.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Abstract Objective. Cisplatin is a known nephrotoxic agent requiring vigorous hydration before use. However, aggressive hydration could be life-threatening. Therefore, in cirrhotic patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the risk of nephrotoxicity increased. Because previous studies showed that long-term telbivudine treatment improved renal function in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate the clinical outcome of telbivudine preemptive therapy in HBV-related advanced HCC patients treated by combination chemotherapy comprising 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cisplatin (FMP). Material and methods. From June 2007 to March 2012, 60 patients with HBV-related advanced HCC, all receiving the same FMP chemotherapy protocol, were enrolled. Of them, 20 did not receive any antiviral therapy, whereas the remaining 40 patients (sex and age matched) received telbivudine preemptive therapy. Results. Progressive decrease of aminotransferase levels (p < 0.05) and progressive increase of viral clearance rates (p < 0.001) were found in telbivudine-treated group. No drug resistance developed during the course of treatment. When compared with non-antiviral-treated patients, a significantly higher post-therapeutic estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was found in the telbivudine-treated group (p < 0.001). In patients with initial eGFR >100 ml/min (n = 34), the median overall survival was significantly longer in the telbivudine-treated group (12.1 vs. 4.9 months; p = 0.042). Conclusion. Preemptive use of telbivudine significantly prevented eGFR deterioration caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy in HBV-related advanced HCC. In patients with initially sufficient eGFR level, telbivudine treatment was associated with a longer overall survival.
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Tunable electrofluorochromic device from electrochemically controlled complementary fluorescent conjugated polymer films.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The fluorescent behavior of the electrofluorochromic devices (Type I) of greenish-yellow emitting P1 and blue emitting P2 can be reversibly switched between the nonfluorescent (oxidized) state and the fluorescent (neutral) state with a superb on/off ratio of 23.8 and 21.9, respectively. Moreover, a tunable electrofluorochromic device (Type II) based on two P1 and P2 polymeric layers that are coated individually on two independent ITO electrodes shows switchable blue-white-(greenish-yellow) multifluorescence states.
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[Function of CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells in Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis in children].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To investigate the levels and functions of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells and specific transcription factor Foxp3 and Th17 cells related cytokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and renal tissues, and explore their roles in pathogenesis of Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephropathy (HSPN) in children.
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A Chemoenzymatic and Fully Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of the Antibacterial Natural Product (-)-Platencin.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The natural product (-)-platencin is a potent antibacterial agent that exerts its effects through a novel mode of action. As such, it is an important lead in the development of next-generation antibacterials that are urgently needed because of the rapidly developing resistance to current therapies. The work reported here concerns the development of a convergent and chemoenzymatic total synthesis of (-)-platencin by methods that should provide access to a range of biologically relevant analogues. The key step involves a thermally promoted and facially selective intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cycloaddition reaction to give an adduct that embodies the tricarbocyclic core of (-)-platencin. This adduct was elaborated over thirteen steps to the natural product. The substrate for the IMDA reaction was prepared by Stille cross-coupling of a Z-configured alkenylstannane with an iodinated diene obtained in an enantiomerically pure form through the whole-cell biotransformation of iodobenzene.
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DNA combing on low-pressure oxygen plasma modified polysilsesquioxane substrates for single-molecule studies.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Molecular combing and flow-induced stretching are the most commonly used methods to immobilize and stretch DNA molecules. While both approaches require functionalization steps for the substrate surface and the molecules, conventionally the former does not take advantage of, as the latter, the versatility of microfluidics regarding robustness, buffer exchange capability, and molecule manipulation using external forces for single molecule studies. Here, we demonstrate a simple one-step combing process involving only low-pressure oxygen (O2) plasma modified polysilsesquioxane (PSQ) polymer layer to facilitate both room temperature microfluidic device bonding and immobilization of stretched single DNA molecules without molecular functionalization step. Atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments revealed a significant increase in surface roughness and surface potential on low-pressure O2 plasma treated PSQ, in contrast to that with high-pressure O2 plasma treatment, which are proposed to be responsible for enabling effective DNA immobilization. We further demonstrate the use of our platform to observe DNA-RNA polymerase complexes and cancer drug cisplatin induced DNA condensation using wide-field fluorescence imaging.
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Hepatitis B flares in chronic hepatitis B: Pathogenesis, natural course, and management.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Hepatitis B flare, defined as an event with abrupt rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to >5times the upper limit of normal during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, is considered to be the result of a human leukocyte antigen-I restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated immune response against HBV and its downstream mechanisms. It may occur spontaneously, during or after antiviral therapy and in the setting of immunosuppression and/or chemotherapy. The clinical spectrum of hepatitis B flares varies from asymptomatic to symptomatic and typical overt acute hepatitis, even with hepatic decompensation or failure. Flares may also occur in viraemic patients with cirrhosis with higher incidence of decompensation/mortality, hence requiring immediate antiviral therapy. An upsurge of serum HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen levels usually precedes the abrupt rise of ALT levels. Rising or stable and high HBV DNA during flares represent ineffective immune clearance and further hepatocytolysis, even hepatic decompensation, may occur. Such patients require immediate antiviral therapy. In contrast, bridging hepatic necrosis and/or alpha-fetoprotein levels >100ng/ml or decreasing HBV DNA during flares represent a more effective immune clearance and frequently leads to seroclearance of HBV DNA and/or hepatitis B e antigen with remission. If patients are non-cirrhotic and there is no concern of developing decompensation, patients may be observed for 3-6months before deciding on the need of antiviral therapy. Severe and repeated flares are prone to develop into decompensation or lead to the development of cirrhosis, thus a timely treatment to prevent the hepatitis B flare is better than to cope with the flare. Screening, monitoring and prophylactic or pre-emptive antiviral therapy is mandatory for patients who are going to receive immunosuppressants or chemotherapy.
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Indicators of perceived useful dementia care assistive technology: Caregivers' perspectives.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The study aims to investigate the caregivers' context-specific perceived usefulness of available assistive technology (AT) devices and the professionals' perspectives on the usefulness indicators of AT devices for home-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia.
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Recovery from developmental nonylphenol exposure is possible for female rats.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical that has been detected in human cord blood and milk. Developmental exposure to NP is unavoidable and can lead to hyperadrenalism, a syndrome that resembles Cushing's disease and has a life-long impact on the affected individual. In this study, we investigated the recovery of female rats from developmental exposure to NP and the effects of such exposure on future generations. Female rats were time-mated, and rats in the experimental group (NP group) were administered NP in drinking water (2?g/mL) throughout gestation and lactation. Pregnant females in the control group were given water only (Veh group). The resulting litters were recognized as the first-generation F1 offspring. The F1 females were time-mated with non-sibling F1 males within the same treatment group. NP was not administered after the F0 generation. The treatment procedures for F3 offspring were identical to those for the F2 generation. The experimental results showed that the observed characteristics of the F3 NP generation had reverted to normal and resembled those of the F3 Veh generation. Thus, our study indicated that developmental exposure to NP resulted in a life-long impact on the exposed individual, but that recovery to the "normal" state was possible if further NP exposure was prevented.
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Three advantages of using traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat tumor.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, has evolved over thousands of years with its own unique system of theories, diagnostics and therapies. TCM has been increasingly used in the last decades and become well known for its significant role in preventing and treating cancer. We believe that TCM possesses advantages over Western medicine in specific aspects at a certain stage of cancer treatment. Here we summarize the advantages of TCM from three aspects: preventing tumorigenesis; attenuating toxicity and enhancing the treatment effect; and reducing tumor recurrence and metastasis.
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Cotton-based Diagnostic Devices.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas.
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While PAI-1 is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, leptin and adiponectin vary between genders.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Alterations of adipocytokine levels and clinical parameters in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are crucial for the prognosis and complications of the diseases. However, the key adipocytokines independently associated with NAFLD have not been identified, and we aimed to investigate them.
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Simultaneous separation of five major ribonucleic acids by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in the presence of electroosmotic flow: application to the rapid screening of 5S rRNA from ovarian cancer cells.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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RNA integrity is important in RNA studies because poor RNA quality may impact downstream methodologies. This study proposes a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of RNA integrity based on CE-LIF in the presence of electroosmotic flow. The proposed method uses poly(ethylene) oxide (Mavg=4,000,000 Da) as a sieving matrix for total RNA separation. Ethidium bromide (?g mL(-1)) was dissolved in a polymer solution as an interchelating dye for on-column fluorescent labeling. The 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA from the total human RNA extracted from the cells were fully separated using the proposed method. The lowest detectable concentration of total RNA achieved was 100 pg ?L(-1) with a 6 min sample injection followed by on-column concentration. In addition, the temperature-induced degradation of total RNA was observed by CE-LIF. The electropherograms revealed more fragmentation of 28S and 18S rRNAs by temperature-induced hydrolysis compared with the 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA. Therefore, the results indicated that RNA degradation should be considered for long-term, high-temperature incubations in RNA-related experiments involving RNA hybridization. The proposed method is furthermore, applied to the determination of 5S rRNA overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells as compared to the cervical cancer cells. Overall, CE-LIF is highly promising for rapid screening of ovarian cancers without tedious pre-amplification steps.
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Direct and Indirect Effects of Neighborhood Characteristics on the Perpetration of Dating Violence Across Adolescence.
J Youth Adolesc
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50 % male, 41 % White, 50 % Black, and 9 % other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics.
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A water quality monitoring network design using fuzzy theory and multiple criteria analysis.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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A proper water quality monitoring design is required in a watershed, particularly in a water resource protected area. As numerous factors can influence the water quality monitoring design, this study applies multiple criteria analysis to evaluate the suitability of the water quality monitoring design in the Taipei Water Resource Domain (TWRD) in northern Taiwan. Seven criteria, which comprise percentage of farmland area, percentage of built-up area, amount of non-point source pollution, green cover ratio, landslide area ratio, ratio of over-utilization on hillsides, and density of water quality monitoring stations, are selected in the multiple criteria analysis. The criteria are normalized and weighted. The weighted method is applied to score the subbasins. The density of water quality stations needs to be increased in priority in the subbasins with a higher score. The fuzzy theory is utilized to prioritize the need for a higher density of water quality monitoring stations. The results show that the need for more water quality stations in subbasin 2 in the Bei-Shih Creek Basin is much higher than those in the other subbasins. Furthermore, the existing water quality station in subbasin 2 requires maintenance. It is recommended that new water quality stations be built in subbasin 2.
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trans-10,cis-12 Conjugated linoleic acid specifically increases tissue ?-tocopherol mediated by PPAR? inhibition in mice.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Abstract C57BL/6J mice were divided into control group (C), CLA, c9t11, or t10c12 groups. CLA and t10c12 significantly increased ?-tocopherol levels in the plasma and various tissues in experiment 1. The CLA and t10c12 groups also showed a significant increase in hepatic ?-tocopherol transfer protein (?-TTP) levels. In experiment 2, mice were divided into control, CLA, R (rosiglitazone, a PPAR? agonist), or CLA+R groups. Vitamin E levels in the liver, epididymal fat pad, kidney, and plasma were increased by CLA, and this effect was reduced in the CLA+R group. t10,c12-CLA is the most active isomer in the CLA mixture in the regulation of tissue vitamin E status and ?-TTP protein levels in mice. The increase in liver vitamin E status in CLA-fed mice is mainly due to the effect of PPAR? inhibition.
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High concentrations of glucose suppress etoposide-induced cell death of B-cell lymphoma through BCL-6.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Glucose is potentially a factor in the resistance to chemotherapy of B-cell lymphomas. In this study we investigated the expression of the glucose induced transcription factor Bcl-6 and the underlying mechanism by which it suppresses B-cell lymphoma cell death. Glucose was found to prevent etoposide-induced tumor cell death. BCL-6 expression was induced by glucose but down-regulated by etoposide. BCL-6 expression was regulated by the interaction of VDUP1 and p53. The molecular mechanism by which glucose prevented etoposide-induced tumor cell death was shown to involve the BCL-6 mediated caspase pathway. Our data suggest that glucose-induced BCL-6 overexpression could abrogate the etoposide chemotherapy effect on tumor cell death.
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Shared Longitudinal Predictors of Physical Peer and Dating Violence.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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Peers and dates are common targets of adolescent violence. Prevention programs typically address either peer violence (PV) or dating violence (DV) but not both. However, if PV and DV share predictors, prevention strategies could target both behaviors, yielding economic and time efficiencies. Longitudinal data were examined to determine the extent to which physical PV and DV shared predictors. Guided by social learning and social control theories, both risk and protective factors were examined at multiple levels of the social ecology.
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Regulatory B cells accelerate hepatocellular carcinoma progression via CD40/CD154 signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide with a poor prognosis of limited survival. The role of regulatory B cell (Breg), a new important B cell subset, in HCC progression remains unclear. We firstly found that the percentage of B cells at tumor margin was significantly higher than that in tumor and non-tumor regions. Especially, increased intrahepatic B cells at tumor margin were positively associated with tumor invasive features and more tumor recurrence. Besides, HCC patients had a significantly higher percentage of circulating Bregs than healthy people. Increased circulating Bregs were correlated with advanced tumor staging, tumor multiplicity and venous infiltration. Next, we firstly revealed that human Bregs promoted HCC tumor growth independent of Tregs in SCID mice. The migration of Bregs from blood into tumor was also confirmed in mice. Finally, we further explored the molecular mechanism of Bregs promoting proliferation and migration of HCC cells in vitro. Bregs promoted HCC growth and invasiveness by directly interacting with liver cancer cells through the CD40/CD154 signaling pathway.
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A novel oxygen carrier "YQ23" suppresses the liver tumor metastasis by decreasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells and regulatory T cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Surgical therapies are the first-line treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the high incidence of tumor metastasis after liver surgery remains a severe problem. We aim to investigate the roles and the underlying mechanism of YQ23, stabilized non-polymeric diaspirin cross-linked tetrameric hemoglobin, in liver tumor metastasis after major hepatectomy and partial hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury.
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Comparative thermal and thermodynamic study of DNA chemically modified with antitumor drug cisplatin and its inactive analog transplatin.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Antitumor activity of cisplatin is exerted by covalent binding to DNA. For comparison, studies of cisplatin-DNA complexes often employ the very similar but inactive transplatin. In this work, thermal and thermodynamic properties of DNA complexes with these compounds were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and computer modeling. DSC demonstrates that cisplatin decreases thermal stability (melting temperature, Tm) of long DNA, and transplatin increases it. At the same time, both compounds decrease the enthalpy and entropy of the helix-coil transition, and the impact of transplatin is much higher. From Pt/nucleotide molar ratio rb=0.001, both compounds destroy the fine structure of DSC profile and increase the temperature melting range (?T). For cisplatin and transplatin, the dependences ?Tm vs rb differ in sign, while ??T vs rb are positive for both compounds. The change in the parameter ??T vs rb demonstrates the GC specificity in the location of DNA distortions. Our experimental results and calculations show that 1) in contrast to [Pt(dien)Cl]Cl, monofunctional adducts formed by transplatin decrease the thermal stability of long DNA at [Na(+)]>30mM; 2) interstrand crosslinks of cisplatin and transplatin only slightly increase Tm; 3) the difference in thermal stability of DNA complexes with cisplatin vs DNA complexes with transplatin mainly arises from the different thermodynamic properties of their intrastrand crosslinks. This type of crosslink appears to be responsible for the antitumor activity of cisplatin. At any [Na(+)] from interval 10-210mM, cisplatin and transplatin intrastrand crosslinks give rise to destabilization and stabilization, respectively.
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The inhibition of aldose reductase attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through reducing inflammatory response.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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We aim to investigate the role of aldose reductase (AR) in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of normal and fatty livers and to explore the underlying mechanisms.
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Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel oxime ether strobilurin derivatives containing substituted benzofurans.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin analogues with broad spectrum and high activity, a series of novel oxime ether strobilurin derivatives containing substituted benzofurans in the side chain were synthesised and bioassayed.
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[How reproductive history of married women influencing the mortality rate of their children under 5 years in rural areas of Shaanxi province].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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To investigate the current status of reproductive history among married women and the mortality rate of children under 5 years. Influence of reproductive history among married women on mortality rate of their children under 5 years in rural areas in Shaanxi province was also studied.
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The roles of traditional Chinese medicine in gene therapy.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The field of gene therapy has been increasingly studied in the last four decades, and its clinical application has become a reality in the last 15 years. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, has evolved over thousands of years with its own unique system of theories, diagnostics and therapies. TCM is well-known for its various roles in preventing and treating infectious and chronic diseases, and its usage in other modern clinical practice. However, whether TCM can be applied alongside gene therapy is a topic that has not been systematically examined. Here we provide an overview of TCM theories in relation to gene therapy. We believe that TCM theories are congruent with some principles of gene therapy. TCM-derived drugs may also act as gene therapy vehicles, therapeutic genes, synergistic therapeutic treatments, and as co-administrated drugs to reduce side effects. We also discuss in this review some possible approaches to combine TCM and gene therapy.
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Identification of transmembrane protein 98 as a novel chemoresistance-conferring gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Chemoresistance is one of the major obstacles in systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. To identify novel chemoresistance-associated targets in hepatocellular carcinoma, chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were established. By comparing the global gene expression profiles between chemoresistant and chemosensitive cell lines, eight novel chemoresistance-associated genes were identified to be significantly associated with the commonly augmented chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. One upregulated candidate named transmembrane protein 98 (TMEM98) was found to be overexpressed in 80 of 118 (67.80%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. TMEM98 mRNA in tumor tissues was significantly higher than nontumor tissues of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (P < 0.0001). Upregulation of TMEM98 was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage (P = 0.048), high incidence of early tumor recurrence (P = 0.005), poor overall survival (P = 0.029), and poor disease-free survival (P = 0.011) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy. Importantly, upregulation of TMEM98 mRNA in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment was significantly higher than in patients without TACE treatment (P = 0.046). Moreover, patients with poor response to TACE treatment had higher degree of TMEM98 upregulation than the responsive patients. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that suppression of TMEM98 in chemoresistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells restored their chemosensitivity, while forced overexpression of TMEM98 enhanced their chemoresistance. The mechanism of TMEM98 in conferring chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma might be possibly through activation of the AKT pathway and deactivation of p53. In conclusion, we identified a panel of novel common chemoresistance-associated genes and demonstrated that TMEM98 is a chemoresistance-conferring gene in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Bullying as a longitudinal predictor of adolescent dating violence.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent.
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GALNT14 genotype, ?-fetoprotein and therapeutic side effects predict post-chemotherapy survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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In addition to targeted agents, chemotherapy is currently considered to be a treatment option for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, it is associated with severe side effects that may limit its clinical use. UDP-N-acetyl-?-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14) genotype was previously identified as a prognostic marker for HCC patients receiving 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cisplatin (FMP) combination chemotherapy. The present study aimed to assess clinical parameters and on-treatment side effects as effective predictors for favorable prognosis. A total of 118 patients with HCC receiving split-dose FMP were retrospectively enrolled. The clinical parameters, side effects and GALNT14 genotype were analyzed. The independent predictors for time-to-progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Following categorization, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival outcomes. Pretreatment ?-fetoprotein (AFP) ?2,800 ng/ml (median level), GALNT14 'TT' genotype, on-treatment leukopenia and absence of vomiting were identified as independent predictors of a favorable TTP (P=0.001, 0.035, 0.008 and 0.009, respectively) and OS (P=0.028, 0.006, 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). A total of 59 patients with AFP ?2,800 ng/ml exhibited longer median TTP and OS (3.11 vs. 1.75 months, P<0.001; and 8.14 vs. 3.79 months, P<0.001, respectively). A total of 30 patients with the GALNT14 'TT' genotype exhibited longer median TTP and OS (3.11 vs. 2.11 months, P=0.014; and 5.75 vs. 3.93 months, P=0.001, respectively). Finally, 9 patients (9/118; 7.6%) with all four favorable factors exhibited the longest median TTP and OS (10.64 vs. 2.07 months, P=0.002; and 25.50 vs. 4.50 months, P<0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the AFP level and the GALNT genotype may be considered as pre-therapeutic predictors of a favorable response. When combined with on-treatment leukopenia and absence of vomiting, a subgroup of patients with excellent outcome may be identified.
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Cytokinin as a mediator for regulating root system architecture in response to environmental cues.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Root system architecture (RSA) is developmentally controlled by genetic pathways and their interaction with various environmental cues, in particular soil conditions. One important player in shaping RSA is the hormone cytokinin, which acts as a negative regulator of root elongation and branching. The redundant roles of cytokinin metabolism and signaling genes of Arabidopsis thaliana in regulating early stages of lateral root formation has recently been shown and it has been proposed that this redundancy reflects a role in mediating different environmental cues. Here we report that the transcript levels of cytokinin genes in the root responds to changes in nutrient availability in distinct ways. IPT3, IPT5, CYP735A2, LOG5, and CKX4 are particularly responsive cytokinin metabolism genes, genes encoding different type-A response regulators and the transcriptions factor genes ARR10 and CRF6 are among the most responsive signaling genes. This finding supports the hypothesis that environmental cues operate through fine-tuned transcriptional regulation of cytokinin genes to modulate root development.
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Pristimerin enhances recombinant adeno-associated virus vector-mediated transgene expression in human cell lines in vitro and murine hepatocytes in vivo.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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In the present study, we systemically evaluated the ability of two bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicine, celastrol and pristimerin, to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype vector-mediated transgene expression both in human cell lines in vitro, and in murine hepatocytes in vivo.
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Investigation of synapse formation and function in a glutamatergic-GABAergic two-neuron microcircuit.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Neural circuits are composed of mainly glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, which communicate through synaptic connections. Many factors instruct the formation and function of these synapses; however, it is difficult to dissect the contribution of intrinsic cell programs from that of extrinsic environmental effects in an intact network. Here, we perform paired recordings from two-neuron microculture preparations of mouse hippocampal glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons to investigate how synaptic input and output of these two principal cells develop. In our reduced preparation, we found that glutamatergic neurons showed no change in synaptic output or input regardless of partner neuron cell type or neuronal activity level. In contrast, we found that glutamatergic input caused the GABAergic neuron to modify its output by way of an increase in synapse formation and a decrease in synaptic release efficiency. These findings are consistent with aspects of GABAergic synapse maturation observed in many brain regions. In addition, changes in GABAergic output are cell wide and not target-cell specific. We also found that glutamatergic neuronal activity determined the AMPA receptor properties of synapses on the partner GABAergic neuron. All modifications of GABAergic input and output required activity of the glutamatergic neuron. Because our system has reduced extrinsic factors, the changes we saw in the GABAergic neuron due to glutamatergic input may reflect initiation of maturation programs that underlie the formation and function of in vivo neural circuits.
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Internal loop photo-biodegradation reactor used for accelerated quinoline degradation and mineralization.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Biofilm biodegradation was coupled with ultra-violet photolysis using the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor for degradation of quinoline. Three protocols-photolysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation (P&B)-were used for degradation of quinoline in batch and continuous-flow experiments. For a 1,000 mg/L initial quinoline concentration, the volumetric removal rate for quinoline was 38 % higher with P&B than with B in batch experiments, and the P&B kinetics were the sum of kinetics from the P and B experiments. Continuous-flow experiments with an influent quinoline concentration of 1,000 mg/L also gave significantly greater quinoline removal in P&B, and the quinoline-removal kinetics for P&B were approximately equal to the sum of the removal kinetics for P and B. P&B similarly increased the rate and extent of quinoline mineralization, for which the kinetics for P&B were nearly equal to the sum of kinetics for P and B. These findings support that the rate-limiting step for mineralization was transformation of quinoline, which was accelerated by the simultaneous action of photolysis and biodegradation.
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Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction, A Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, for Intestinal Obstruction: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was aimed at determining the effects and safety of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) or DCQD combined with conservative therapy in patients with intestinal obstruction.
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Effect of swimming on the production of aldosterone in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been demonstrated that exercise is one of the stresses known to increase the aldosterone secretion. Both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are shown to be correlated with aldosterone production during exercise, but the mechanism is still unclear. In an in vivo study, male rats were catheterized via right jugular vein (RJV), and divided into four groups namely water immersion, swimming, lactate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) and pyruvate infusion (13 mg/kg/min) groups. Each group was treated for 10 min. Blood samples were collected at 0, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min from RJV after administration. In an in vitro study, rat zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were challenged by lactate (1-10 mM) in the presence or absence of Ang II (10-8 M) for 60 min. The levels of aldosterone in plasma and medium were measured by radioimmunoassay. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoblotting assay. After exercise and lactate infusion, plasma levels of aldosterone and lactate were significantly higher than those in the control group. Swimming for 10 min significantly increased the plasma Ang II levels in male rats. Administration of lactate plus Ang II significantly increased aldosterone production and enhanced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in ZG cells. These results demonstrated that acute exercise led to the increase of both aldosterone and Ang II secretion, which is associated with lactate action on ZG cells and might be dependent on the activity of renin-angiotensin system.
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Successful treatment of Kimura's disease with leflunomide and methylprednisolone: a case report.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Kimura's disease (KD) is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory disease characterized by tumor-like lesions in the soft tissue and lymph nodes and increased peripheral blood eosinophil counts and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). Prednisone is widely used to treat the disease. Here, we reported a 59-year-old KD patient failed to response to prednisone. Leflunomide combined with methylprednisolone (Medrol) were carried out to treat KD and encouraging outcome was obtained during the medication and 1 year follow up period.
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The efficacy of Yunnan Baiyao on haemostasis and antiulcer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Yunnan Baiyao (YNBY) is widely used to treat rhexis haemorrhage and ulcer in China. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of YNBY on local haemostasis and antiulcer. Randomized controlled trials were included on condition that assessing the effects of YNBY with/without routine drugs versus the same routine drugs on haemorrhage or ulcer after searching major databases. Data were validated, extracted and synthesized using relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data using random effects models. Fifty-five studies involving 5,150 patients were identified. (1) YNBY alone for haemorrhage (RR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.28) (2) YNBY alone for antiulcer (RR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.53). We found certain effects on ulcerative colitis (RR = 1.22) and skin ulcer (RR = 1.20) in subgroup analysis. (3) YNBY plus routine haemostatic drugs for haemorrhage (RR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.29) with a significant funnel plot asymmetry (Begg's test, p = 0). (4) YNBY plus routine antiulcer drugs for antiulcer (RR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.33). Treatment effect in the 2(nd) and 4(th) group was unstable when RCTs at high risk of bias were excluded. Great heterogeneities and possible publication bias were found among the trials which preclude certain conclusions. The existing data showed that YNBY alone was helpful in treating uterine haemorrhage, ulcerative colitis and skin ulcer. YNBY plus routine antiulcer drugs was more effective in treating ulcerative colitis versus antiulcer drugs alone.
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Prognosis of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of seven staging systems (TNM, Okuda, BCLC, CLIP, CUPI, JIS, CIS) in a Chinese cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many liver staging systems that include the tumor stage and the extent of liver function have been developed. However, prognosis assessment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. In this study, the performances of 7 staging systems were compared in a cohort of patients with HCC who underwent non-surgical treatment.
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Decrease of serum Angiotensin converting enzyme levels upon telbivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection and negative correlations between the enzyme levels and estimated glumerular filtration rates.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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During antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B, renal function impairment could be a critical concern when oral nucleot(s)ide analogues were used. Paradoxically, long-term telbivudine treatment was associated with an increase of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) through unknown mechanisms.
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UV Photolysis for Accelerating Pyridine Biodegradation.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Pyridine, a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, is slowly biodegradable, and coupling biodegradation with UV photolysis is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation and mineralization. The initial steps of pyridine biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. We employed an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor for pyridine biodegradation following three protocols: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis (P+B), and biodegradation with succinic acid added (B+S). Succinic acid was the main UV-photolysis product from pyridine, and its catabolic oxidation generates internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of pyridine biodegradation. Compared with direct biodegradation of pyridine (B), the removal rate for the same concentration of photolyzed pyridine (P+B) was higher by 15 to 43%, depending on the initial pyridine concentrations (increasing through the range of 130 to 310 mg/L). Adding succinic acid alone (B+S) gave results similar to P+B, which supports that succinic acid was the main agent for accelerating the pyridine biodegradation rate. In addition, protocols P+B and B+S were similar in terms of increasing pyridine mineralization over 10 h: 84% and 87%, respectively, which were higher than with protocol B (72%). The positive impact of succinic acid-whether added directly or produced via UV photolysis-confirms that its catabolism, which produced intracellular electron carriers, accelerated the initial steps of pyridine biotransformation.
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Two new furostanol saponins from the fibrous root of Ophiopogon japonicus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Two new furostanol saponins ophiopogonins J (1) and K (2) were isolated from the fibrous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus. The structures of 1 and 2 were established as (25R)-26-O-[(?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-d-glucopyranosyl)]-14-hydroxy-furost-5,20(22)-diene 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)]-?-d-glucopyranoside (1), and (25R)-26-O-[(?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-?-d-glucopyranosyl)]-furost-5,20(22)-diene 3-O-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)[(?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-d-glucopyranoside)] (2) on the basis of spectroscopic means including HRESIMS, 1D, and 2D NMR experiments.
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Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10-4???m3 and a high quality factor of 4.9×104 (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×107 (1.36×105). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.
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Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship of Novel Aniline Derivatives of Chlorothalonil.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Chlorothalonil with both low cost and low toxicity is a popularly used fungicide in the agrochemical field. The presence of nucleophilic groups on this compound allows further chemical modifications to obtain novel chlorothalonil derivatives. Fluazinam, another commercially available agent with a broad fungicidal spectrum, has a scaffold of diaryl amine structure. To mimic this backbone structure, a variety of (un)substituted phenyl amines was used as nucleophilic agents to react with chlorothalonil to obtain compounds with a diphenyl amine structure. Via an elegant design, two leads, 2,4,5-trichloro-6-(2,4-dichlorophenylamino)isophthalonitrile (7) and 2,4,5-trichloro-6-(2,4,6-trichlorophenylamino)isophthalonitrile (11), with potential fungicidal activity were discovered after a preliminary bioassay screen. These two leads were further modified to obtain final products by replacing the chlorine groups in the phenyl ring in phenyl amine with other functional groups. These functional groups with various electronic properties and spatial characteristics were considered to explore the relationship between structure and fungicidal activity. The results indicate that the electron-withdrawing group NO2 on the 4 position on the right phenyl ring plays a unique role on enhancing the fungicidal activity. The compounds were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and elemental analysis. Bioassays demonstrated that some of the title compounds exhibited excellent fungicidal activities against cucumber downy mildew at 25 mg/L. Compound 20 has been shown as the optimal structure with 85% control against cucumber downy mildew at 6.25 mg/L concentration. The relationship between structure and fungicidal activity is reported. The present work demonstrates that chlorothalonil derivatives can be used as possible lead compounds for developing novel fungicides.
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Colorimetric Determination of DNA Methylation Based on the Strength of the Hydrophobic Interactions between DNA and Gold Nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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A simple, novel colorimetric nanosensor for DNA methylation based on the strength of hydrophobic interaction between DNA and gold nanoparticles was proposed. The nanosensing of oligonucleotides with four nitrogen bases was first demonstrated by dividing the bases into two groups (A/T and C/G) using the representative colors that correspond to Watson-Crick base pairing. By treatment of the genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite followed by PCR amplification, the methylation level of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine for up to 5 days could be discriminated by naked eye observation. Furthermore, 12 cancer cell lines that demonstrate heterogeneity with respect to DNA methylation could also be distinguished using the nanosensor, even for amplicons as long as 342 bp. These results demonstrate that the proposed colorimetric nanosensor could potentially be useful in epigenetic studies.
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Comparison of registered and published primary outcomes in randomized controlled trials of gastroenterology and hepatology.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Abstract Objectives. The need for trial registration as well as the benefits it has brought for the transparency of medical research has been recognized for years. Trial registration has turned from an exception to a mandatory guideline in recent years. The present study aimed to examine the characteristics of registered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a sample of recently published gastroenterology RCTs, and to assess the consistency of registered and published primary outcome (PO) in RCTs. Methods. Articles published in the top five "general and internal journals" and top five "gastroenterology and hepatology journals" categories between 2009 and 2012 were searched in PubMed. Basic characteristics and the registration information were identified and extracted from the included RCTs. PO consistency analysis was conducted to compare between the registered and published format. Results. A total of 305 RCTs were included; among them 252 could be identified with a registration number. Nearly half of these RCTs were funded solely by industry (141/305, 46.3%). ClinicalTrials.gov was the most popular registry for these RCTs (214/252, 84.9%). A total of 155 RCTs were included in the PO consistency analysis. Among them, 22 (14.2%) RCTs had discrepancies between POs registered in the trial registry compared to the published article. Conclusions. Based on the results of the present study, selective outcome reporting of gastroenterology RCTs published in leading medical journals has been much improved over the past years. However, there might be a sampling bias to say that consistency of registered and published POs of gastroenterology RCTs has been better than before.
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Segregation of signaling proteins as prognostic predictors for local recurrence and distant metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is presented as local recurrence (LR) or extrahepatic metastasis (EHM). Recent studies indicated that EHM requires additional cellular alterations. This study aimed to examine the clinical and molecular prognostic predictors of these two events. HCC patients (289) [training cohort (n=160) and verification cohort (n=129)] receiving surgical resection of hepatomas were included. The expression levels of six signaling molecules were quantitatively assessed for prognostic analysis. Clustering analysis revealed similar expression profiles between cancer (T) and non-cancer (N) liver tissues in the same individuals. Univariate analysis showed that phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-T was associated with LR-free survival (P=0.002), whereas extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK2)-T (P=0.005), AKT-T (P=0.001) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-T/N ratio (P=0.008) were associated with EHM-free survival. When clinical predictors were added for multivariate analysis, only prolonged prothrombin time (P=0.003) and tumor number (P=0.031) was independently associated with LR-free survival, whereas age (P=0.019), creatinine levels (P=0.001) and AKT-T (P=0.004) were associated with EHM-free survival. These factors were further examined in the verification cohort. In conclusion, postoperative LR and EHM in HCC were associated with separable sets of clinical and molecular predictors.
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Zoledronic acid-induced cytotoxicity through endoplasmic reticulum stress triggered REDD1-mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Zoledronic acid (ZOL) used for the prevention/treatment of osteopathic complications has been reported to have antitumor effects in breast cancer treatment. However, little is known about the exact molecular mechanisms for antitumor actions of ZOL. In this study, two breast cancer cell lines were used to investigate the antitumor efficacy of ZOL and the underlying molecular mechanisms.
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Lateral root formation and growth of Arabidopsis is redundantly regulated by cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The plant root system is important for the uptake of water and nutrients and the anchoring of plants in the soil. Lateral roots (LRs) contribute considerably to root system architecture. Their post-embryonic formation is regulated by hormones and environmental cues. The hormone cytokinin influences LR formation and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana on different levels by disturbing cell division activity and pattern formation. This includes inhibition of the first formative cell division of pericycle founder cells and inhibition of the outgrowth of young LR primordia. Mutant analysis revealed that the cytokinin biosynthesis genes IPT3 and IPT5 and all three cytokinin receptor genes (AHK2, AHK3, and CRE1/AHK4) act redundantly during LR initiation. Mutation of AHK2 and AHK3 caused increased auxin sensitivity of LR formation, corroborating the functional relevance of auxin-cytokinin interaction during LR formation. In contrast, LR development of cytokinin receptor mutants in response to other hormones was mostly similar to that of the wild type, which is consistent with separate response pathways. A noticeable exception was an increased sensitivity of LR elongation to brassinolide in ahk2 ahk3 mutants indicating antagonistic action of cytokinin and brassinosteroid. It is proposed that the multilevel redundancy of the cytokinin system in modulating LR formation reflects its role in mediating environmental cues.
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Integrated polarization rotator/converter by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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We proposed a polarization rotator inspired by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage model from quantum optics, which is composed of a signal waveguide and an ancillary waveguide. The two orthogonal modes in signal waveguide and the oblique mode in ancillary waveguide form a ?-type three-level system. By controlling the width of signal waveguide and the gap between two waveguides, adiabatic conversion between two orthogonal modes can be realized in the signal waveguide. With such adiabatic passage, polarization conversion is completed within 150 ?m length, with the efficiencies over 99% for both conversions between horizontal polarization and vertical polarization. In addition, such a polarization rotator is quite robust against fabrication error, allowing a wide range of tolerances for the rotator geometric parameters. Our work is not only significative to photonic simulations of coherent quantum phenomena with engineered photonic waveguides, but also enlightens the practical applications of these phenomena in optical device designs.
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Quality assessment of clinical research on liver cancer treated by intra-arterial infusion of Chinese medicine.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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To assess the methodological quality of clinical research on Chinese medicine (CM) applied by intra-arterial infusion in treating primary liver cancer (PLC).
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[Anti-tumor effects of triptolide on osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo: an experimental research].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To observe in vitro and in vivo effects of triptolide on growth inhibition and apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, and to further explore its correlated molecular mechanisms.
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Optical Wavelength Filters Based on Photonic Confinement in Semiconductor Nanowire Homojunctions.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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An optical wavelength filter at the nanoscale can be fabricated with semiconductor nanowire homojunctions based on photonic confinement in the nanowire channels with different diameters. By assembling the nanowire homojunctions with short-pass functions, and crossed junctions with long-pass functions, multichannel wavelength filters are set up for dividing the UV and visible green light signals and route them into the designated output ports.
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A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of actinoside E in rat plasma and application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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A highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of actinoside E in rat plasma. The analytes were extracted by ethyl acetate and an analogue of actinoside F was used as the internal standard. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-water (50: 50, V/V) containing 0.1% formic acid was delivered at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min(-1) to a Zorbax SB-C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 ?m). The detection was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative multiple reaction monitoring mode with a chromatograph run time of 3.0 min. Calibration curves of actinoside E were linear in the range of 0.5-2 500 ng·mL(-1). In this range, intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 1.7% to 7.5% and 2.0% to 8.9%, respectively. The accuracy ranged from 95.7% to 108.6%, and extraction recovery from 83.2% to 85.5%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of actinoside E in rats after intravenous (5 mg·kg(-1)) and oral (100 mg·kg(-1)) administration, and the results showed that actinoside E was poorly absorbed with an absolute bioavailability being approximately 0.27%.
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A single nucleotide polymorphism on the GALNT14 gene as an effective predictor of response to chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Previously, a pilot genome-wide association study has identified candidate single nucleotide polymorphism predictors for the therapeutic response of 5-fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cisplatin (FMP) combination chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we conducted a prospective confirmatory study to examine the predictive value of rs9679162 (located on GALNT14 gene) for the therapeutic responses using a split-dose FMP protocol. One hundred and seven advanced HCC patients receiving split-dose FMP therapy were enrolled. All patients were in Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer Stage C with either main portal vein thrombosis and/or distant metastasis. Of them, 105 (98.1%) were Child-Pugh classification B. GALNT14 genotype was determined before therapy. Of the patients included, 28 were rs9679162 "TT" and 79 were "non-TT" ("GG" + "GT") genotype. The median overall survival, time-to-progression, response rate and disease control rate were ("TT" versus "non-TT") 6.8 versus 3.9 months (p < 0.001), 3.9 versus 2.1 months (p < 0.001), 28.6% versus 10.1% (p = 0.029) and 35.7% versus 15.2% (p = 0.030), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that rs9679162 genotype was an independent predictor for overall survival (p = 0.002). Categorical analysis showed that 17 patients with "TT" genotype, tumor size < 10 cm and neutrophils < 74% had a median overall survival of 25.5 months and a therapeutic response rate of 47.1%. In conclusion, this prospective study confirmed that GALN14 genotype (rs9679162) was an effective predictor for therapeutic outcome in advanced HCC patients treated by FMP chemotherapy. Combining GALNT14 genotype and clinical parameters, a subgroup of patients with excellent outcome was identified.
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Salvianolic acid A promotes the acceleration of neovascularization in the ischemic rat myocardium and the functions of endothelial progenitor cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM, also known as DanShen) is one of the well-known widely used Chinese herbal medicines in clinical, containing phenolic compounds and potent antioxidant properties. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is the most potent component of SM. A modern experimental strategy for treating myocardial ischemia is to induce neovascularization of the heart by the use of "angiogens", mediators that induce the formation of blood vessels, or angiogenesis. Studies demonstrated that coronary collateral vessels protect ischemic myocardium after coronary obstruction; therefore, we sought to examine whether SAA could stimulate myocardial angiogenesis.
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The Drosophila GOLPH3 homolog regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans by modulating the retrograde trafficking of exostosins.
Development
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The exostosin (EXT) genes encode glycosyltransferases required for glycosaminoglycan chain polymerization in the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Mutations in the tumor suppressor genes EXT1 and EXT2 disturb HSPG biosynthesis and cause multiple osteochondroma (MO). How EXT1 and EXT2 traffic within the Golgi complex is not clear. Here, we show that Rotini (Rti), the Drosophila GOLPH3, regulates the retrograde trafficking of EXTs. A reduction in Rti shifts the steady-state distribution of EXTs to the trans-Golgi. These accumulated EXTs tend to be degraded and their re-entrance towards the route for polymerizing GAG chains is disengaged. Conversely, EXTs are mislocalized towards the transitional endoplasmic reticulum/cis-Golgi when Rti is overexpressed. Both loss of function and overexpression of rti result in incomplete HSPGs and perturb Hedgehog signaling. Consistent with Drosophila, GOLPH3 modulates the dynamic retention and protein stability of EXT1/2 in mammalian species. Our data demonstrate that GOLPH3 modulates the activities of EXTs, thus implicating a putative role for GOLPH3 in the formation of MO.
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Comparing end-of-life care for hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in Taiwan.
J Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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When it comes to end-of-life care, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are often treated differently from lung cancer patients. However, few reports have compared end-of-life care between these two groups. We investigated the differences between patients with end-stage COPD and end-stage lung cancer based on end-of-life symptoms and clinical practice patterns using a retrospective study of COPD and lung cancer patients who died in an acute care hospital in Taiwan. End-stage COPD patients had more comorbidities and spent more days in the intensive care unit (ICU) than end-stage lung cancer patients. They were more likely to die in the ICU and less likely to receive hospice care. COPD patients also had more invasive procedures, were less likely to use narcotic and sedative drugs, and were less likely to have given do-not-resuscitate consent. Symptoms were similar between these two groups. Differences in treatment management suggest that COPD patients receive more care aimed at prolonging life than care aimed at relieving symptoms and providing end-of-life support. It may be more difficult to determine when COPD patients are at the end-of-life stage than it is to identify when lung cancer patients are at that stage. Our findings indicate that in Taiwan, more effort should be made to give end-stage COPD patients the same access to hospice care as end-stage lung cancer patients.
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Theory of free space coupling to high-Q whispering gallery modes.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Theoretical study of free space coupling to high-Q whispering gallery modes (WGMs) are presented in circular and deformed microcavities. Both analytical solutions and asymptotic formulas are derived for a circular cavity. The coupling efficiencies at different coupling regimes for cylindrical incoming wave are discussed, and the maximum efficiency is estimated for the practical Gaussian beam excitation. In the case of a deformed cavity, the coupling efficiency can be higher than the circular cavity if the excitation beam can match the intrinsic emission which can be tuned by adjusting the degree of deformation. Employing an abstract model of slightly deformed cavity, we find that the asymmetric and peak like line shapes instead of the Lorentz-shape dip are universal in transmission spectra due to multi-wave interference, and the coupling efficiency cannot be estimated from the absolute depth of the dip. Our results provide guidelines for free space coupling in experiments, suggesting that the high-Q asymmetric resonator cavities (ARCs) can be efficiently excited through free space which will stimulate further experiments and applications of WGMs based on free space coupling.
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A longitudinal examination of psychological, behavioral, academic, and relationship consequences of dating abuse victimization among a primarily rural sample of adolescents.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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It is widely held that being victimized by a dating partner during adolescence has negative consequences, yet few longitudinal studies have examined those consequences. This longitudinal study examined the effects of psychological and physical (including sexual) dating abuse victimization on internalizing symptoms, substance use, academic aspirations and grades, and relationships with friends and family.
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Psychosocial and spiritual needs of patients with chronic diseases: validation of the Chinese version of the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Even in secular societies, a small portion of patients find their spirituality to help cope with illness. But for the majority of patients, psychosocial and spiritual needs are neither addressed nor even considered a relevant factor by health care professionals. To measure such specific needs, the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ) was developed. The aim of this study was to validate the Chinese version of the SpNQ (SpNQ-Ch) and thus to measure psychosocial and spiritual needs of Chinese patients.
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Traditional herbal medicine in preventing recurrence after resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Disease recurrence is a main challenge in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is no generally accepted method for preventing recurrence of HCC after resection.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.