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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Exceptional aggressiveness of cerebral cavernous malformation disease associated with PDCD10 mutations.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Purpose:The phenotypic manifestations of cerebral cavernous malformation disease caused by rare PDCD10 mutations have not been systematically examined, and a mechanistic link to Rho kinase-mediated hyperpermeability, a potential therapeutic target, has not been established.Methods:We analyzed PDCD10 small interfering RNA-treated endothelial cells for stress fibers, Rho kinase activity, and permeability. Rho kinase activity was assessed in cerebral cavernous malformation lesions. Brain permeability and cerebral cavernous malformation lesion burden were quantified, and clinical manifestations were assessed in prospectively enrolled subjects with PDCD10 mutations.Results:We determined that PDCD10 protein suppresses endothelial stress fibers, Rho kinase activity, and permeability in vitro. Pdcd10 heterozygous mice have greater lesion burden than other Ccm genotypes. We demonstrated robust Rho kinase activity in murine and human cerebral cavernous malformation vasculature and increased brain vascular permeability in humans with PDCD10 mutation. Clinical phenotype is exceptionally aggressive compared with the more common KRIT1 and CCM2 familial and sporadic cerebral cavernous malformation, with greater lesion burden and more frequent hemorrhages earlier in life. We first report other phenotypic features, including scoliosis, cognitive disability, and skin lesions, unrelated to lesion burden or bleeding.Conclusion:These findings define a unique cerebral cavernous malformation disease with exceptional aggressiveness, and they inform preclinical therapeutic testing, clinical counseling, and the design of trials.Genet Med advance online publication 14 August 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.97.
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Blood-Brain Barrier Permeable Gold Nanoparticles: An Efficient Delivery Platform for Enhanced Malignant Glioma Therapy and Imaging.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a formidable obstacle in medicine, preventing efficient penetration of chemotherapeutic and diagnostic agents to malignant gliomas. Here, a transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide-modified gold nanoparticle platform (TAT-Au NP) with a 5 nm core size is demonstrated to be capable of crossing the BBB efficiently and delivering cargoes such as the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and Gd(3+) contrast agents to brain tumor tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intracranial glioma xenografts with pH-sensitive Dox-conjugated TAT-Au NPs via a single intravenous administration leads to significant survival benefit when compared to the free Dox. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that TAT-Au NPs are capable of delivering Gd(3+) chelates for enhanced brain tumor imaging with a prolonged retention time of Gd(3+) when compared to the free Gd(3+) chelates. Collectively, these results show promising applications of the TAT-Au NPs for enhanced malignant brain tumor therapy and non-invasive imaging.
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Durable Therapeutic Efficacy Utilizing Combinatorial Blockade against IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 in Mice with Brain Tumors.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma in adults. Although protected by both the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers, GBMs are actively infiltrated by T cells. Previous work has shown that IDO, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 are dominant molecular participants in the suppression of GBM immunity. This includes IDO-mediated regulatory T-cell (Treg; CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) accumulation, the interaction of T-cell-expressed, CTLA-4, with dendritic cell-expressed, CD80, as well as the interaction of tumor- and/or macrophage-expressed, PD-L1, with T-cell-expressed, PD-1. The individual inhibition of each pathway has been shown to increase survival in the context of experimental GBM. However, the impact of simultaneously targeting all three pathways in brain tumors has been left unanswered.
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Dynamic Permeability and Quantitative Susceptibility: Related Imaging Biomarkers in Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Hyperpermeability and iron deposition are 2 central pathophysiological phenomena in human cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease. Here, we used 2 novel MRI techniques to establish a relationship between these phenomena.
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The timing of neural stem cell-based virotherapy is critical for optimal therapeutic efficacy when applied with radiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of glioblastoma.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains fatal despite intensive surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic interventions. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been used as cellular vehicles for the transportation of oncolytic virus (OV) to therapeutically resistant and infiltrative tumor burdens throughout the brain. The HB1.F3-CD human NSC line has demonstrated efficacy as a cell carrier for the delivery of a glioma tropic OV CRAd-Survivin-pk7 (CRAd-S-pk7) in vitro and in animal models of glioma. At this juncture, no study has investigated the effectiveness of OV-loaded NSCs when applied in conjunction with the standard of care for GBM treatment, and therefore this study was designed to fill this void. Here, we show that CRAd-S-pk7-loaded HB1.F3-CD cells retain their tumor-tropic properties and capacity to function as in situ viral manufacturers in the presence of ionizing radiation (XRT) and temozolomide (TMZ). Furthermore, for the first time, we establish a logical experimental model that aims to recapitulate the complex clinical scenario for the treatment of GBM and tests the compatibility of NSCs loaded with OV. We report that applying OV-loaded NSCs together with XRT and TMZ can increase the median survival of glioma bearing mice by approximately 46%. Most importantly, the timing and order of therapeutic implementation impact therapeutic outcome. When OV-loaded NSCs are delivered prior to rather than after XRT and TMZ treatment, the median survival of mice bearing patient-derived GBM43 glioma xenografts is extended by 30%. Together, data from this report support the testing of CRAd-S-pk7-loaded HB1.F3-CD cells in the clinical setting and argue in favor of a multimodality approach for the treatment of patients with GBM.
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A preclinical evaluation of neural stem cell-based cell carrier for targeted antiglioma oncolytic virotherapy.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Oncolytic adenoviral virotherapy (OV) is a highly promising approach for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In practice, however, the approach is limited by poor viral distribution and spread throughout the tumor mass.
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Intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells significantly extends survival of irradiated mice with experimental brain tumors.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Treatment options of glioblastoma multiforme are limited due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated the utility of intranasal (IN) delivery as a means of transporting stem cell-based antiglioma therapeutics. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delivered via nasal application could impart therapeutic efficacy when expressing TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a model of human glioma. (111)In-oxine, histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to track MSCs within the brain and associated tumor. We demonstrate that MSCs can penetrate the brain from nasal cavity and infiltrate intracranial glioma xenografts in a mouse model. Furthermore, irradiation of tumor-bearing mice tripled the penetration of (111In)-oxine-labeled MSCs in the brain with a fivefold increase in cerebellum. Significant increase in CXCL12 expression was observed in irradiated xenograft tissue, implicating a CXCL12-dependent mechanism of MSCs migration towards irradiated glioma xenografts. Finally, MSCs expressing TRAIL improved the median survival of irradiated mice bearing intracranial U87 glioma xenografts in comparison with nonirradiated and irradiated control mice. Cumulatively, our data suggest that IN delivery of stem cell-based therapeutics is a feasible and highly efficacious treatment modality, allowing for repeated application of modified stem cells to target malignant glioma.
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Effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone on smoking and related behaviors in smokers preparing to quit: a randomized controlled trial.
Addiction
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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To determine if naltrexone affects smoking behaviors in smokers preparing to quit, and whether or not such pre-quit responses predict post-quit date outcomes.
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Nanoparticle-programmed self-destructive neural stem cells for glioblastoma targeting and therapy.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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A 3-step glioblastoma-tropic delivery and therapy method using nanoparticle programmed self-destructive neural stem cells (NSCs) is demonstrated in vivo: 1) FDA-approved NSCs for clinical trials are loaded with pH-sensitive MSN-Dox; 2) the nanoparticle conjugates provide a delayed drug-releasing mechanism and allow for NSC migration towards a distant tumor site; 3) NSCs eventually undergo cell death and release impregnated MSN-Dox, which subsequently induces toxicity towards surrounding glioma cells.
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Inhibition of MMP14 potentiates the therapeutic effect of temozolomide and radiation in gliomas.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Metalloproteinases are membrane-bound proteins that play a role in the cellular responses to antiglioma therapy. Previously, it has been shown that treatment of glioma cells with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (XRT) induces the expression of metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14). To investigate the role of MMP14 in gliomagenesis, we used several chemical inhibitors which affect MMP14 expression. Of all the inhibitors tested, we found that Marimastat not only inhibits the expression of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells, but also induces cell cycle arrest. To determine the relationship between MMP14 inhibition and alteration of the cell cycle, we used an RNAi technique. Genetic knockdown of MMP14 in U87 and U251 glioma cells induced G2/M arrest and decreased proliferation. Mechanistically, we show that TMZ and XRT regulated expression of MMP14 in clinical samples and in vitro models through downregulation of microRNA374. In vivo genetic knockdown of MMP14 significantly decreased tumor growth of glioma xenografts and improved survival of glioma-bearing mice. Moreover, the combination of MMP14 silencing with TMZ and XRT significantly improved the survival of glioma-bearing mice compared to a single modality treatment group. Therefore, we show that the inhibition of MMP14 sensitizes tumor cells to TMZ and XRT and could be used as a future strategy for antiglioma therapy.
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Naltrexone reduction of long-term smoking cessation weight gain in women but not men: a randomized controlled trial.
Biol. Psychiatry
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The opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown promise to reduce weight gain during active treatment, but longer-term studies have not been conducted. The goal was to examine effects of naltrexone on weight gain over long-term follow-up in men and women who quit smoking.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.