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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Allopurinol initiation and change in blood pressure in older adults with hypertension.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Hypertension is a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and new treatments are needed. Uric acid reduction lowers blood pressure (BP) in adolescents, suggesting a direct pathophysiological role in the development of hypertension. Whether the same relationship is present in older adults is unknown. We explored change in BP after allopurinol initiation using data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Data were extracted for patients with hypertension aged >65 years who were prescribed allopurinol with pretreatment and during treatment BP readings. Data from comparable controls were extracted. The change in BP in patients with stable BP medication was the primary outcome and was compared between groups. Regression analysis was used to adjust for potential confounding factors, and a propensity-matched sample was generated. Three hundred sixty-five patients who received allopurinol and 6678 controls were included. BP fell in the allopurinol group compared with controls (between-group difference in systolic and diastolic BP: 2.1 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -0.6 to 4.8; and 1.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-3.1, respectively). Allopurinol use was independently associated with a fall in both systolic and diastolic BP on regression analysis (P<0.001). Results were consistent in the propensity-matched sample. There was a trend toward greater fall in BP in the high-dose allopurinol group, but change in BP was not related to baseline uric acid level. Allopurinol use is associated with a small fall in BP in adults. Further studies of the effect of high-dose allopurinol in adults with hypertension are needed.
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Family history of premature cardiovascular disease: blood pressure control and long-term mortality outcomes in hypertensive patients.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2013
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Current guidelines recommend early referral and initiation of intensive cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction in individuals with a positive family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that a family history of premature CHD and stroke [CV disease (CVD)] would lead to earlier referral of hypertensive patients to secondary care clinic, leading to better control of risk factors, mitigating the excess risk seen in these individuals.
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Serum chloride is an independent predictor of mortality in hypertensive patients.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Chloride (Cl-) is the major extracellular anion in the body, accompanying sodium (Na+), and is primarily derived from dietary sources. Data suggest that increased dietary Cl- intake increases blood pressure, yet paradoxically, higher serum Cl- appears associated with lower mortality and cardiovascular risk. This implies that serum Cl- also reflects risk pathways independent of blood pressure, serum Na+, and bicarbonate (HCO3-). We analyzed 12,968 hypertensive individuals followed up for 35 years, using Cox proportional hazards model to test whether baseline serum Cl- was an independent predictor of mortality. To distinguish the effect of Cl- from Na+ and HCO3-, we adjusted for these electrolytes and also performed the analysis stratified by Na+ /HCO3- and Cl- levels. Generalized estimating equation was used to determine the effect of baseline Cl- on follow-up blood pressure. The total time at risk was 19,7101 person-years. The lowest quintile of serum Cl- (<100 mEq/L) was associated with a 20% higher mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular) compared with the remainder of the subjects. A 1 mEq/L increase in serum Cl- was associated with a 1.5% (hazard ratio, 0.985; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-0.99) reduction in all-cause mortality, after adjustment for baseline confounding variables and Na+, K+ , and HCO3- levels. The group with Na+ > 135 and Cl- > 100 had the best survival, and compared with this group, the Na+ >135 and Cl- <100 group had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.31). Low, not high Serum Cl- (<100 mEq/L), is associated with greater mortality risk independent of obvious confounders. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relation between Cl- and risk.
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Long-term and ultra long-term blood pressure variability during follow-up and mortality in 14,522 patients with hypertension.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Recent evidence indicates that long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) may be an independent cardiovascular risk predictor. The implication of this variability in hypertension clinical practice is unclear. BPV as average real variability (ARV) was calculated in 14,522 treated patients with hypertension in 4 time frames: year 1 (Y1), years 2 to 5 (Y2-5), years 5 to 10 (Y5-10), and years >10 (Y10+) from first clinic visit. Cox proportional hazards models for cause-specific mortality were used in each time frame separately for long-term BPV, across time frames based on ultra long-term BPV, and within each time frame stratified by mean BP. ARV in systolic blood pressure (SBP), termed ARV(SBP), was higher in Y1 (21.3±11.9 mm Hg) in contrast to Y2-5 (17.7±9.9 mm Hg), Y5-10 (17.4±9.6 mm Hg), and Y10+ (16.8±8.5 mm Hg). In all time frames, ARV(SBP) was higher in women (P<0.01) and in older age (P<0.001), chronic kidney disease (P<0.01), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (P<0.01). Higher long-term and ultra long-term BPV values were associated with increased mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality; P for trend, <0.001). This relationship was also evident in subgroups with mean SBP<140 mm Hg in all time frames. Monitoring BPV in clinical practice may facilitate risk reduction strategies by identifying treated hypertensive individuals at high risk, especially those with BP within the normal range.
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Blood pressure response to patterns of weather fluctuations and effect on mortality.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Very few studies have looked at longitudinal intraindividual blood pressure responses to weather conditions. There are no data to suggest that specific response to changes in weather will have an impact on survival. We analyzed >169 000 clinic visits of 16 010 Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic patients with hypertension. Each clinic visit was mapped to the mean West of Scotland monthly weather (temperature, sunshine, rainfall) data. Percentage change in blood pressure was calculated between pairs of consecutive clinic visits, where the weather alternated between 2 extreme quartiles (Q(1)-Q(4) or Q(4)-Q(1)) or remained in the same quartile (Q(n)-Q(n)) of each weather parameter. Subjects were also categorized into 2 groups depending on whether their blood pressure response in Q(1)-Q(4) or Q(4)-Q(1) were concordant or discordant to Q(n)-Q(n). Generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards model were used to model the effect on longitudinal blood pressure and mortality, respectively. Q(n)-Q(n) showed a mean 2% drop in blood pressure consistently, whereas Q(4)-Q(1) showed a mean 2.1% and 1.6% rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. However, Q(1)-Q(4) did not show significant changes in blood pressure. Temperature-sensitive subjects had significantly higher mortality (1.35 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.71]; P=0.01) and higher follow-up systolic blood pressure (1.85 [95% confidence interval, 0.24-3.46]; P=0.02) compared with temperature-nonsensitive subjects. Blood pressure response to temperature may be one of the underlying mechanisms that determine long-term blood pressure variability. Knowing a patients blood pressure response to weather can help reduce unnecessary antihypertensive treatment modification, which may in turn increase blood pressure variability and, thus, risk.
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Hematocrit predicts long-term mortality in a nonlinear and sex-specific manner in hypertensive adults.
Hypertension
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Hematocrit has been inconsistently reported to be a risk marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic Study cohort included 10951 hypertensive patients, who had hematocrit measured at their initial clinic visit and followed for ?35 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for all-cause, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and noncardiovascular mortality. There were 3484 deaths over a follow-up period of 173245 person-years. Hematocrit was higher in men (median, 0.44; interquartile range, 0.42-0.47) than in women (median, 0.41; interquartile range, 0.38-0.43). The lowest risk for all-cause mortality was seen in quartile 2 for men (range, 0.421-0.440) and women (range, 0.381-0.400). Compared with quartile 2, the adjusted hazard ratios for quartiles 1, 3, and 4 were, respectively, 1.11 (range, 0.97-1.28), 1.19 (range, 1.04-1.37), and 1.22 (range, 1.06-1.39) in men and 1.17 (range, 1.01-1.36), 0.97 (range, 0.83-1.13), and 1.19 (range, 1.04-1.37) in women. Men showed a J-shaped pattern for cardiovascular mortality and a linear pattern for noncardiovascular mortality in cause-specific analysis, whereas in women a U-shaped pattern was observed for noncardiovascular mortality only. Higher baseline hematocrit was associated with higher on-treatment blood pressure during follow-up. Baseline hematocrit did not affect the time to reach target blood pressure. The increased risk of death attributed to higher hematocrit was seen in men and women irrespective of their achievement of target blood pressure, indicating that the risk is independent of the effect of hematocrit on blood pressure. Hypertensive patients with hematocrit levels outside of the sex-specific reference ranges identified in this study should be targeted for more aggressive blood pressure and cardiovascular risk reduction treatment.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.