Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans.
Plasmalogens (Pls) represent a specific subclass of glycerophospholipids characterized by the presence of a vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of glycerol. Pls are quantitatively important in membranes of neuronal tissues, including the brain and the retina, where they can represent until almost two-third of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. They are considered as reservoirs of polyunsaturated fatty acids as several studies have shown that arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are preferentially esterified on Pls when compared to other glycerophospholipids. Reduced levels of Pls were observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. In a mouse model of Pls deficiency, "glaucoma-like" optic nerve abnormalities were observed as well as developmental defects in the eye. These included microphthalmia, dysgenesis of the anterior segment of the eye, and abnormalities in retinal vessel architecture. Several data from animal and in vitro studies suggest that Pls may be involved in the regulation of retinal vascular development through the release of polyunsaturated fatty acids by a calcium-independent phospholipase A2.
Cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) converts cholesterol into 24S-hydroxycholesterol in neurons and participates in cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system, including the retina. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of CYP46A1 inhibition by voriconazole on cholesterol homeostasis and function in the retina. Rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of voriconazole (60mg/kg), minocycline (22mg/kg), voriconazole plus minocycline, or vehicle during five consecutive days. The rats were submitted to electroretinography to monitor retinal functionality. Cholesterol and 24S-hydroxycholesterol were measured in plasma, brain and retina by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The expression of CYP46A1, and GFAP as a marker for glial activation was analyzed in the retina and brain. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in plasma, vitreous, retina and brain. Voriconazole significantly impaired the functioning of the retina as exemplified by the reduced amplitude and increased latency of the b-wave of the electroretinogram, and altered oscillary potentials. Voriconazole decreased 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels in the retina. Unexpectedly, CYP46A1 and GFAP expression was increased in the retina of voriconazole-treated rats. ICAM-1 and MCP-1 showed significant increases in the retina and vitreous body. Minocycline did not reverse the effects of voriconazole. Our data highlighted the cross talk between retinal ganglion cells and glial cells in the retina, suggesting that reduced 24S-hydroxycholesterol concentration in the retina may be detected by glial cells, which were consequently activated.
Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the leading causes of blindness in Western populations. Although it is a matter of controversy, large-scale population-based studies have reported increased prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in patients with diabetes or diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome, one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, would represent a favorable environment for the development of choroidal neovascularization, the main complication of age-related macular degeneration. The fructose-fed rat was used as a model for metabolic syndrome in which choroidal neovascularization was induced by laser photocoagulation. Male Brown Norway rats were fed for 1, 3, and 6 months with a standard equilibrated chow diet or a 60%-rich fructose diet (n?=?24 per time point). The animals expectedly developed significant body adiposity (+17%), liver steatosis at 3 and 6 months, hyperleptinemia at 1 and 3 months (two-fold increase) and hyperinsulinemia at 3 and 6 months (up to two-fold increase), but remained normoglycemic and normolipemic. The fructose-fed animals exhibited partial loss of rod sensitivity to light stimulus and reduced amplitude of oscillatory potentials at 6 months. Fructose-fed rats developed significantly more choroidal neovascularization at 14 and 21 days post-laser photocoagulation after 1 and 3 months of diet compared to animals fed the control diet. These results were consistent with infiltration/activation of phagocytic cells and up-regulation of pro-angiogenic gene expression such as Vegf and Leptin in the retina. Our data therefore suggested that metabolic syndrome would exacerbate the development of choroidal neovascularization in our experimental model.
Proper development of retinal blood vessels is essential to ensure sufficient oxygen and nutrient supplies to the retina. It was shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could modulate factors involved in tissue vascularization. A congenital deficiency in ether-phospholipids, also termed "plasmalogens", was shown to lead to abnormal ocular vascularization. Because plasmalogens are considered to be reservoirs of PUFAs, we wished to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which plasmalogens regulate retinal vascular development and whether the release of PUFAs by calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) could be involved.
Purpose: To determine whether tear osmolarity contributes to the assessment of the ocular surface in soft contact lens (CL) wearers. Methods: Prospective, case-control series in 44 CL wearers (28 tolerant and 16 intolerant) and 34 healthy subjects. Every patient underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination with a tear osmolarity test (TearLab System), conjunctival impression cytology and meibomian lipid sampling. Symptoms, break-up time (BUT), tear osmolarity, conjunctival expression of HLA-DR and meibomian fatty acid composition were evaluated. Results: Tear osmolarity did not differ between controls and CL wearers (p?=?0.23). Flow cytometry results expressed in antibody-binding capacity (ABC) units and percentage of positive cells revealed a significant difference between the intolerant CL wearer group and the control group (p?0.0001). Comparisons between tolerant and intolerant CL wearers showed only a significant difference for mean fluorescence levels expressed in ABC units (p?0.0001). The BUT was significantly shorter in intolerant and tolerant CL wearers subjects than in healthy subjects (p?0.0001), whereas there was no significant difference in meibomian fatty acid composition (p?=?0.99) between the two groups. Conclusion: Contact lens wear is responsible for ocular surface alterations whose patterns are very similar to those reported in early dry-eye syndrome. However, tear osmolarity was not modified in these selected CL wearers. The yield of tear osmolarity with TearLab™ in assessing ocular surface disorders in CL wearers deserves further investigation.
Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are early-eye-development anomalies resulting in absent or small ocular globes, respectively. A/M anomalies occur in syndromic or nonsyndromic forms. They are genetically heterogeneous, some mutations in some genes being responsible for both anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping, exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygosity for one splice-site and two missense mutations in the gene encoding the A3 isoform of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3) in three consanguineous families segregating A/M with occasional orbital cystic, neurological, and cardiac anomalies. ALDH1A3 is a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic acid gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during early eye development. Transitory expression of mutant ALDH1A3 open reading frames showed that both missense mutations reduce the accumulation of the enzyme, potentially leading to altered retinoic acid synthesis. Although the role of retinoic acid signaling in eye development is well established, our findings provide genetic evidence of a direct link between retinoic-acid-synthesis dysfunction and early-eye-development anomalies in humans.
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a crucial role in growth and patterning during embryonic development, and also in stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in adults. Aberrant Shh pathway activation is involved in the development of many tumors, and one of the most affected Shh signaling steps found in these tumors is the regulation of the signaling receptor Smoothened by the Shh receptor Patched. In the present work, we investigated Patched activity and the mechanism by which Patched inhibits Smoothened.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may be partially prevented by dietary habits privileging the consumption of ?3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3s) while lowering linoleic acid (LA) intake. The present study aimed to document whether following these epidemiological guidelines would enrich the neurosensory retina and RPE with ?3s and modulate gene expression in the neurosensory retina. Rat progenitors and pups were fed with diets containing low or high LA, and low or high ?3s. After scotopic single flash and 8-Hz-Flicker electroretinography, rat pups were euthanized at adulthood. The fatty acid profile of the neurosensory retina, RPE, liver, adipose tissue and plasma was analyzed using gas chromatography. Gene expression was analyzed with real-time PCR in the neurosensory retina. Diets rich in ?3s efficiently improved the incorporation of ?3s into the organs and tissues. This raising effect was magnified by lowering LA intake. Compared to a diet with high LA and low ?3s, low LA diets significantly upregulated LDL-receptor gene expression. Similar but not significant upregulation of CD36, ABCA1, ALOX5 and ALOX12 gene expression was observed in rats fed with low LA. No effect was observed on retinal function. Increasing the intake in ?3s and lowering LA improved the enrichment with ?3s of the tissues, including the neurosensory retina and RPE, and upregulated genes involved in lipid trafficking in the neurosensory retina. Those results consistently reinforced the beneficial role of ?3s in the prevention of AMD, especially when the diet contained low levels of LA, as suggested from epidemiological data.
N-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to prevent tissue release of inflammatory molecules. We have shown that a combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs is more efficient than single supplementations on the long-term consequences of intraocular pressure elevation. We hypothesized that such an association is also more effective during early retinal stress by modifying retinal proinflammatory prostaglandin and cytokine productions. Rats were supplemented for 3 months with n-6 PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs, or both n-6 and n-3 PUFAs. After 3 months, a surgical elevation of intraocular pressure was induced. Retinal morphometry and glial cell activation were evaluated 24 hours after laser treatment. The retinal levels of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and the messenger RNA levels of interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? were measured. Retinal glial cell activation after laser treatment was partly prevented by dietary n-6, n-3, and n-6 and n-3 PUFAs. Retinal PGE(1) was unaffected by the laser treatment or by the diet. Dietary n-6 and/or n-3 PUFAs prevented the increase in PGE(2) levels observed in laser-treated retinas without affecting the induction of interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? messenger RNAs. This study shows that not only a combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs but also single supplementations can preserve the retina from early glial cell activation and PGE(2) release. The protective effect is not mediated by changes in cytokine expression but may be related to modifications in retinal prostaglandin metabolism.
Free cholesterol is the predominant form of cholesterol in the neural retina. The vertebrate neural retina exhibits its own capacity to synthesize cholesterol and meets its demand also by taking it from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol synthesis and trafficking in the neural retina has detrimental consequences on its structure and function, highlighting the crucial importance of maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the retina. Our purpose was to give a review on the functioning of the retina, the role of cholesterol and cholesterol metabolism therein, with special emphasis on cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). Similar to the brain, the retina expresses cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) and is enriched in its metabolic product, 24S-hydroxycholesterol. We recently published that one single nucleotide polymorphism in CYP46A1 gene, designated as rs754203, was a risk factor for glaucoma. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting more than 60 million people. Glaucoma is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells, which show high CYP46A1 expression. These data suggest the potential involvement of CYP46A1 and 24S-hydroxycholesterol in the pathophysiology of glaucoma.
The corollaries of the obesity epidemic that plagues developed societies are malnutrition and resulting biochemical imbalances. Low levels of essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying synaptic alterations are mostly unknown. We found that lifelong n-3 PUFAs dietary insufficiency specifically ablates long-term synaptic depression mediated by endocannabinoids in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and accumbens. In n-3-deficient mice, presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1)Rs) normally responding to endocannabinoids were uncoupled from their effector G(i/o) proteins. Finally, the dietary-induced reduction of CB(1)R functions in mood-controlling structures was associated with impaired emotional behavior. These findings identify a plausible synaptic substrate for the behavioral alterations caused by the n-3 PUFAs deficiency that is often observed in western diets.
Environmentally induced stress plays a significant role in retinal degeneration and blindness both in animals and in humans. Among such sources of stress, phototoxicity is well studied and has been shown to lead to photoreceptor-specific loss in a number of species. However, the vast majority of studies have been conducted in nocturnal, albino rod-dominant rat and mouse strains, and the pertinence of such findings to human pathology and cone loss is debatable. The authors examined retinal vulnerability to damage in the diurnal murid rodent Arvicanthis ansorgei, a pigmented species with a large number of cones.
The vertebrate retina has multiple demands for utilization of cholesterol and must meet those demands either by synthesizing its own supply of cholesterol or by importing cholesterol from extraretinal sources, or both. Unlike the blood-brain barrier, the blood-retina barrier allows uptake of cholesterol from the circulation via a lipoprotein-based/receptor-mediated mechanism. Under normal conditions, cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated; also, cholesterol exists in the neural retina overwhelmingly in unesterified form, and sterol intermediates are present in minimal to negligible quantities. However, under certain pathological conditions, either due to an inborn error in cholesterol biosynthesis or as a consequence of exposure to selective inhibitors of enzymes in the cholesterol pathway, the ratio of sterol intermediates to cholesterol in the retina can rise dramatically and persist, in some cases resulting in progressive degeneration that significantly compromises the structure and function of the retina. Although the relative contributions of de novo synthesis versus extraretinal uptake are not yet known, herein we review what is known about these processes and the dynamics of cholesterol in the vertebrate retina and indicate some future avenues of research in this area.
The retina is one of the vertebrate tissues with the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). A large proportion of retinal phospholipids, especially those found in photoreceptor membranes, are dipolyunsaturated molecular species. Among them, dipolyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species are known to contain very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFA) from the n-3 and n-6 series having 24-36 carbon atoms (C24-C36) and four to six double bonds. Recent interest in the role played by VLC-PUFA arose from the findings that a protein called elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids 4 (ELOVL4) is involved in their biosynthesis and that mutations in the ELOVL4 gene are associated with Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STD3), a dominantly inherited juvenile macular degeneration leading to vision loss. The aim of the present study was to develop an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the structural characterisation and the quantification of dipolyunsaturated PC molecular species containing VLC-PUFA and validate this methodology on retinas from bovines and human donors. Successful separation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), PC, lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) was achieved using a silica gel column and a gradient of hexane/isopropanol/water containing ammonium formate as a mobile phase. A complete structural characterisation of intact phosphatidylcholine species was obtained by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the negative mode. Fatty acid composition and distribution can be clearly assigned based on the intensity of sn-2/sn-1 fragment ions. The PC species were characterised on bovine retina, 28 of which were dipolyunsaturated PC species containing one VLC-PUFA (C24-C36) with three to six double bonds. VLC-PUFA was always in the sn-1 position while PUFA at the sn-2 position was exclusively docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). Most of these VLC-PUFA-containing dipolyunsaturated PCs were detected and quantified in human retinas. The quantitative analysis of the different PC molecular species was performed in the positive mode using precursor ion scanning of m/z 184 and 14:0/14:0-PC and 24:0/24:0-PC as internal standards. The relationship between the MS peak intensities of different PC species and their carbon chain length was included for calibration. The main compounds represented were those having VLC-PUFA with 32 carbon atoms (C32:3, C32:4, C32:5 and C32:6) and 34 carbon atoms (C34:3, C34:4, C34:5 and C34:6). Dipolyunsaturated PCs with 36:5 and 36:6 were detected but in smaller quantities. In conclusion, this new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method is sensitive and specific enough to structurally characterise and quantify all molecular PC species, including those esterified with VLC-PUFA. This technique is valuable for a precise characterisation of PC molecular species containing VLC-PUFA in retina and may be useful for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of STD3.
Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the neonates.
Genetics has made significant contributions to the study of glaucoma over the past few decades. Cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) is a cholesterol-metabolizing enzyme that is especially expressed in retinal ganglion cells. CYP46A1 and its metabolic product, 24S-hydroxycholesterol, have been linked to neurodegeneration. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CYP46A1 gene, designated as rs754203 and associated with Alzheimer disease, was evaluated as a genetic risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), as well as plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels.
The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland to dietary supplies of long-chain omega-3 (omega3) and omega-6 (omega6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Male Wistar rats were fed a 5% lipid diet containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA and GLA for 3 months. Lipids were extracted from plasma phospholipids, retina and exorbital lacrimal gland, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA increased omega3 PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids as well as in the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland. By contrast, GLA supplementation favored omega6 PUFA incorporation, and particularly the incorporation of the end-chain omega6 product, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), into all tissues. Supplementation with EPA, DHA and GLA increased the levels of DHA, EPA and dihomo-GLA (dGLA), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) was unchanged and DPA decreased in the retina and the lacrimal gland. The ability of both tissues to incorporate PUFAs from blood was evaluated. The results showed that the retina was more selective than the lacrimal gland for EPA. In spite of the different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary PUFAs, these results suggest that the concomitant use of dietary omega3 and omega6 PUFAs may be useful in modulating inflammation in both tissues.
Functional atrophy and accompanying lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the lacrimal gland (LG) are characteristics of Sjögrens Syndrome (SjS). The male NOD mouse is an experimental model for the autoimmune exocrinopathy that develops in the LG of SjS patients. Acinar cells in LG of male NOD mice aged 3-4 months were previously shown to accumulate lipid droplets. In the current study, analysis of lipid components revealed that the accumulated lipids were mostly cholesteryl esters (CE). Gene expression microarray analysis followed by real-time RT-PCR revealed alterations in the expression of several genes involved in lipid homeostasis in LG of 12-week-old male NOD mice relative to matched BALB/c controls. A series of upregulated genes including apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein F, hepatic lipase, phosphomevalonate kinase, ATP-binding cassette D1 and ATP-binding cassette G1 were identified. Comparison of liver mRNAs to LG mRNAs in BALB/c and NOD mice revealed that the differential expressions were LG-specific. Gene expression profiles were also characterized in LGs of female mice, younger mice and immune-incompetent NOD SCID mice. Investigation of the cellular distribution of Apo-E and Apo-F proteins suggested that these proteins normally coordinate to mediate lipid efflux from the acinar cells but that dysfunction of these processes due to missorting of Apo-F may contribute to CE deposition. Finally, the initiation and extent of lipid deposition were correlated with lymphocytic infiltration in the LG of male NOD mice. We propose that impaired lipid efflux contributes to lipid deposition, an event that may contribute to the development and/or progression of dacryoadenitis in the male NOD mouse.
Among several theories involved in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the vascular theory considers the disease to be a consequence of reduced ocular blood flow associated with red blood cell abnormalities. Red blood cell membrane structure and function are influenced by their phospholipid composition. We investigated whether specific lipid entities that may affect the membrane physiology, namely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and plasmalogens, are modified in POAG and whether these potential variations are related to the stage of glaucoma. Blood samples were collected from 31 POAG patients and 10 healthy individuals. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp and Parrish classification. Lipids were extracted from red blood cell membranes and individual phospholipid species were quantified by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using triple quadrupole technology. POAG patients had reduced erythrocyte levels of phosphatidyl-choline (PC) carrying docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). POAG patients also displayed lower levels of choline plasmalogens (PlsC) carrying PUFAs other than DHA. These differences were greater as the severity of the disease increased. Linear regressions predicted that red blood cell PlsC levels would decrease years before clinical symptoms, whereas the levels of PC carrying DHA were linearly correlated to visual field loss. Our data demonstrate the selective loss of some individual phospholipid species in red blood cell membranes, which may partly explain their loss of flexibility in POAG.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA may affect retinal PUFA composition and PGE(1) and PGE(2) production. Male Wistar rats were fed for 3 months with diets containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA, or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA, and GLA. The fatty acid composition of retinal phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. Prostaglandin production was measured by enzyme immunoassay. When compared to rats fed the control diet, the retinal levels of DHA were increased in rats fed both diets enriched with n-3 PUFA (EPA + DHA and EPA + DHA + GLA diets) and decreased in those supplemented with n-6 PUFA only (GLA diet). The diet enriched with both n-6 and n-3 PUFA resulted in the greatest increase in retinal DHA. The levels of PGE(1) and PGE(2) were significantly increased in retinal homogenates of rats fed with the GLA-rich diet when compared with those of animals fed the control diet. These higher PGE(1) and PGE(2) levels were not observed in animals fed with EPA + DHA + GLA. In summary, GLA added to EPA + DHA resulted in the highest retinal DHA content but without increasing retinal PGE(2) as seen in animals supplemented with GLA only.
Numerous studies have reported the implication of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in various biological mechanisms. Most of these works have used in vitro models and only a few have been carried out in vivo on iPLA2(-/-) mice. The functions of iPLA2 have been investigated in vivo in the heart, brain, pancreatic islets, and liver, but not in the retina despite its very high content in phospholipids. Phospholipids in the retina are known to be involved in several various key mechanisms such as visual transduction, inflammation or apoptosis. In order to investigate the implication of iPLA2 in these processes, this work was aimed to build an in vivo model of iPLA2 activity inhibition. After testing the efficacy of different chemical inhibitors of iPLA2, we have validated the use of bromoenol lactone (BEL) in vitro and in vivo for inhibiting the activity of iPLA2. Under in vivo conditions, a dose of 6?g/g of body weight of BEL in mice displayed a 50%-inhibition of retinal iPLA2 activity 8-16h after intraperitoneal administration. Delivering the same dose twice a day to animals was successful in producing a similar inhibition that was stable over one week. In summary, this novel mouse model exhibits a significant inhibition of retinal iPLA2 activity. This model of chemical inhibition of iPLA2 will be useful in future studies focusing on iPLA2 functions in the retina.
FATP1 is involved in lipid transport into cells and in intracellular lipid metabolism. We showed previously that this protein interacts with and inhibits the limiting-step isomerase of the visual cycle RPE65. Here, we aimed to analyze the effect of Fatp1-deficiency in vivo on the visual cycle, structure and function, and on retinal aging. Among the Fatp family members, we observed that only Fatp1 and 4 are expressed in the control retina, in both the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In the neuroretina, Fatp1 is mostly expressed in photoreceptors. In young adult Fatp1(-/-) mice, Fatp4 expression was unchanged in retinal pigment epithelium and reduced two-fold in the neuroretina as compared to Fatp1(+/+) mice. The Fatp1(-/-) mice had a preserved retinal structure but a decreased electroretinogram response to light. These mice also displayed a delayed recovery of the b-wave amplitude after bleaching, however, visual cycle speed was unchanged, and both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors presented the same fatty acid pattern compared to controls. In 2 year-old Fatp1(-/-) mice, transmission electron microscopy studies showed specific abnormalities in the retinas comprising choroid vascularization anomalies and thickening of the Bruch membrane with material deposits, and sometimes local disorganization of the photoreceptor outer segments. These anomalies lead us to speculate that the absence of FATP1 accelerates the aging process.
Our previous studies suggested that CYP46A1 and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24SOH) may be associated with glaucoma. Loss of CYP46A1-expressing retinal ganglion cells is involved in the activation of glia, and therefore possibly in the disbalance of cholesterol. In this context, the purpose of our present work was to emphasize the glial and longitudinal CYP46A1 expression after an interventional glaucoma-related stress triggered by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP).
We investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the cholesterol-24S-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) gene, according to CFH and LOC387715 SNPs, with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimers disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of ?3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ?3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.
The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. Even well accepted such relationships have never been clearly established. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following recent data linking lipid intake to ocular health and disease. In the present study, we wanted to determine in humans whether a lipidomic approach based on red blood cells could reveal associations between circulating and tissue lipid profiles. To check if the analytical sensitivity may be of importance in such analyses, we have used a double approach for lipidomics.
The objective of this work was to detect and identify phosphatidylserine plasmalogen species in human ocular neurons represented by the retina and the optic nerve. Plasmalogens (vinyl-ether bearing phospholipids) are commonly found in the forms of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in numerous mammalian cell types, including the retina. Although their biological functions are unclear, the alteration of cellular plasmalogen content has been associated with several human disorders such as rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata Type 2 and primary open-angle glaucoma. By using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified for the first time several species of phosphatidylserine plasmalogens, including atypical forms having moieties with odd numbers of carbons and unsaturation in sn-2 position. Structural elucidation of the potential phosphatidylserine ether linked species was pursued by performing MS(3) experiments, and three fragments are proposed as marker ions to deduce which fatty acid is linked as ether or ester on the glycerol backbone. Interpretation of the fragmentation patterns based on this scheme enabled the assignment of structures to the m/z values, thereby identifying the phosphatidylserine plasmalogens.
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