Prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of male cancer deaths in the United States and most western countries. Prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed form of prostate cancer. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is less frequently identified at the time of initial diagnosis, but this highly aggressive form of prostate cancer is increasingly observed in patients who have failed first and second line hormone therapy. Thus, developing and exploring models of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NePC) is of increasing importance. Here we review the relevant xenograft tumor and genetically engineered mouse models of NePC, with the aim of addressing salient features and clinical relevance.
The emergence of targeted cancer therapy has been limited by the paucity of determinants which are tumor-specific and generally associated with disease, and have cell dynamics which effectively deploy cytotoxic payloads. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) may be ideal for targeting because it is normally expressed only in insulated barrier compartments, including intestine and brain, but over-expressed by systemic metastatic colorectal tumors. Here, we reveal that GUCY2C rapidly internalizes from the cell surface to lysosomes in intestinal and colorectal cancer cells. Endocytosis is independent of ligand binding and receptor activation, and is mediated by clathrin. This mechanism suggests a design for immunotoxins comprising a GUCY2C-directed monoclonal antibody conjugated through a reducible disulfide linkage to ricin A chain, which is activated to a potent cytotoxin in lysosomes. Indeed, this immunotoxin specifically killed GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer cells in a lysosomal- and clathrin-dependent fashion. Moreover, this immunotoxin reduced pulmonary tumors >80% (p<0.001), and improved survival 25% (p<0.001), in mice with established colorectal cancer metastases. Further, therapeutic efficacy was achieved without histologic evidence of toxicity in normal tissues. These observations support GUCY2C-targeted immunotoxins as novel therapeutics for metastatic tumors originating in the GI tract, including colorectum, stomach, esophagus, and pancreas.
Abstract Broccoli is rich in bioactive components, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, which may impact cancer risk. The glucosinolate profile of broccoli can be manipulated through treatment with the plant stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Our objective was to produce broccoli with enhanced levels of indole glucosinolates and determine its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Brassica oleracea var. Green Magic was treated with a 250 ?M MeJA solution 4 days prior to harvest. MeJA-treated broccoli had significantly increased levels of glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin (P<.05). Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (n=99) were randomized into three diet groups at 5-7 weeks of age: AIN-93G control, 10% standard broccoli powder, or 10% MeJA broccoli powder. Diets were fed throughout the study until termination at 20 weeks of age. Hepatic CYP1A was induced with MeJA broccoli powder feeding, indicating biological activity of the indole glucosinolates. Following ?15 weeks on diets, neither of the broccoli treatments significantly altered genitourinary tract weight, pathologic score, or metastasis incidence, indicating that broccoli powder at 10% of the diet was ineffective at reducing prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model. Whereas broccoli powder feeding had no effect in this model of prostate cancer, our work demonstrates the feasibility of employing plant stress hormones exogenously to stimulate changes in phytochemical profiles, an approach that may be useful for optimizing bioactive component patterns in foods for chronic-disease-prevention studies.
Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. ?-Mangostin (?-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, exerts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in vitro. We evaluated the impact of dietary ?-MG on murine experimental colitis and on the gut microbiota of healthy mice.
The transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model is well established and offers several advantages for the study of chemopreventive agents, including its well-defined course of disease progression and high incidence of poorly differentiated carcinomas within a relatively short length of time. However, there is no consensus on the grading of prostatic lesions in these mice. In particular, agreement is lacking on the criteria for differentiating prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) from well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, specifically as it relates to evidence of invasion. This differentiation is critical for evaluating the effects of putative chemopreventive agents on progression to neoplasia. Moreover, only one of the published grading schemes assigns numerical grades to prostatic lesions, which facilitate statistical analysis. Here, we review five currently available grading schemes and propose a refined scheme that provides a useful definition of invasion for the differentiation of PIN from well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and includes a numerical scoring system that accounts for both the most severe and most common histopathological lesions in each of the lobes of the prostate and their distributions. We expect that researchers will find this refined grading scheme to be useful for chemoprevention studies in TRAMP mice.
Accumulating evidence suggests the therapeutic potential of the immunosuppressive agent FTY720 (fingolimod) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on our previous finding that FTY720 mediates apoptosis in HCC cells by activating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-protein kinase C? (PKC?) signaling independent of effects on sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, we embarked on the pharmacological exploitation of FTY720 to develop a nonimmunosuppressive analogue with antitumor activity. This effort led to the development of OSU-2S, which exhibits higher potency than FTY720 in suppressing HCC cell growth through PKC? activation. In contrast to FTY720, OSU-2S was not phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) in vitro, and did not cause S1P1 receptor internalization in HCC cells or T lymphocyte homing in immunocompetent mice. Although devoid of S1P1 receptor activity, OSU-2S exhibited higher in vitro antiproliferative efficacy relative to FTY720 against HCC cells without cytotoxicity in normal hepatocytes. Several lines of pharmacological and molecular genetic evidence indicate that ROS-PKC?-caspase-3 signaling underlies OSU-2S-mediated antitumor effects, and that differences in the antitumor activity between FTY720 and OSU-2S were attributable to SphK2-mediated phosphorylation of FTY720, which represents a metabolic inactivation of its antitumor activity. Finally, OSU-2S exhibited high in vivo potency in suppressing xenograft tumor growth in both ectopic and orthotopic models without overt toxicity.
Cells undergoing malignant transformation often exhibit a shift in cellular metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. This glycolytic shift, called the Warburg effect, provides a mechanistic basis for targeting glycolysis to suppress carcinogenesis through the use of dietary caloric restriction and energy restriction-mimetic agents (ERMA). We recently reported the development of a novel class of ERMAs that exhibits high potency in eliciting starvation-associated cellular responses and epigenetic changes in cancer cells though glucose uptake inhibition. The lead ERMA in this class, OSU-CG5, decreases the production of ATP and NADH in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effect of OSU-CG5 on the severity of preneoplastic lesions in male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Daily oral treatment with OSU-CG5 at 100 mg/kg from 6 to 10 weeks of age resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the weight of urogenital tract and microdissected dorsal, lateral, and anterior prostatic lobes relative to vehicle controls. The suppressive effect of OSU-CG5 was evidenced by marked decreases in Ki67 immunostaining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the prostate. OSU-CG5 treatment was not associated with evidence of systemic toxicity. Microarray analysis indicated a central role for Akt, and Western blot analysis showed reduced phosphorylation and/or expression levels of Akt, Src, androgen receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in prostate lobes. These findings support further investigation of OSU-CG5 as a potential chemopreventive agent.
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