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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A balance between B cell receptor and inhibitory receptor signaling controls plasma cell differentiation by maintaining optimal Ets1 levels.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Signaling through the BCR can drive B cell activation and contribute to B cell differentiation into Ab-secreting plasma cells. The positive BCR signal is counterbalanced by a number of membrane-localized inhibitory receptors that limit B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Deficiencies in these negative signaling pathways may cause autoantibody generation and autoimmune disease in both animal models and human patients. We have previously shown that the transcription factor Ets1 can restrain B cell differentiation into plasma cells. In this study, we tested the roles of the BCR and inhibitory receptors in controlling the expression of Ets1 in mouse B cells. We found that Ets1 is downregulated in B cells by BCR or TLR signaling through a pathway dependent on PI3K, Btk, IKK2, and JNK. Deficiencies in inhibitory pathways, such as a loss of the tyrosine kinase Lyn, the phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP1) or membrane receptors CD22 and/or Siglec-G, result in enhanced BCR signaling and decreased Ets1 expression. Restoring Ets1 expression in Lyn- or SHP1-deficient B cells inhibits their enhanced plasma cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that downregulation of Ets1 occurs in response to B cell activation via either BCR or TLR signaling, thereby allowing B cell differentiation and that the maintenance of Ets1 expression is an important function of the inhibitory Lyn ? CD22/SiglecG ? SHP1 pathway in B cells.
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IGH@ translocations co-exist with other primary rearrangements in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Primary established genetic abnormalities in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia include high hyperdiploidy (51-65 chromosomes), the translocations t(12;21)(p13;q22)/ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and t(9;22)(q34;q11)/BCR-ABL1 fusion, MLL rearrangements and intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21. These rearrangements are of prognostic and therapeutic relevance and are usually mutually exclusive. We identified 28 patients at diagnosis with both a primary genetic rearrangement and an immunoglobulin heavy chain locus translocation using chromosomal analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Among these patients, the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus translocation partner gene was identified in six (CRLF2, CEBPA, CEBPB, TRA/D@, IGF2BP1 and IGK@). Clonal architecture was investigated in 17 patients using multiple color interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, which showed that the translocation was acquired as a secondary abnormality in ten patients, in four patients the etiology was undetermined and in three patients it was observed in a separate clone from the primary chromosomal rearrangement. These findings demonstrate the co-existence of immunoglobulin heavy chain locus translocations with other primary chromosomal rearrangements either in the same or separate clones, which may have prognostic significance in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clinical trials: UKALLXII: Study ID n. ISRCTN77346223 and ALL2003: Study ID n. ISRCTN07355119.
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The transcription factor Ets1, but not the closely related factor Ets2, inhibits antibody-secreting cell differentiation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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B cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) is a tightly-regulated process under the control of multiple transcription factors. One such transcription factor Ets1 blocks the transition of B cells to ASCs via two separate activities: (1) by stimulating the expression of target genes that promote B cell identity and (2) by interfering with the functional activity of the transcription factor Blimp1. Ets1 is a member of a multi-gene family, several of whose members are expressed within the B cell lineage, including the closely-related protein Ets2. In this report, we demonstrate that Ets1, but not Ets2, can block ASC formation, despite the fact that Ets1 and Ets2 bind to apparently identical DNA sequence motifs and are thought to regulate overlapping sets of target genes. The DNA binding domain of Ets1 is required, but not sufficient by itself, to block ASC formation. In addition, less conserved regions within the N-terminus of Ets1 play an important role in inhibiting B cell differentiation. Differences between the N-termini of Ets1 and Ets2, rather than differences in the DNA binding domains, determine whether the proteins are capable of blocking ASC formation or not.
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Independent prognostic value of BCR-ABL1-like signature and IKZF1 deletion, but not high CRLF2 expression, in children with B-cell precursor ALL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Most relapses in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) are not predicted using current prognostic features. Here, we determined the co-occurrence and independent prognostic relevance of 3 recently identified prognostic features: BCR-ABL1-like gene signature, deletions in IKZF1, and high CRLF2 messenger RNA expression (CRLF2-high). These features were determined in 4 trials representing 1128 children with ALL: DCOG ALL-8, ALL9, ALL10, and Cooperative ALL (COALL)-97/03. BCR-ABL1-like, IKZF1-deleted, and CRLF2-high cases constitute 33.7% of BCR-ABL1-negative, MLL wild-type BCP-ALL cases, of which BCR-ABL1-like and IKZF1 deletion (co)occurred most frequently. Higher cumulative incidence of relapse was found for BCR-ABL1-like and IKZF1-deleted, but not CRLF2-high, cases relative to remaining BCP-ALL cases, reflecting the observations in each of the cohorts analyzed separately. No relapses occurred among cases with CRLF2-high as single feature, whereas 62.9% of all relapses in BCR-ABL1-negative, MLL wild-type BCP-ALL occurred in cases with BCR-ABL1-like signature and/or IKZF1 deletion. Both the BCR-ABL1-like signature and IKZF1 deletions were prognostic features independent of conventional prognostic markers in a multivariate model, and both remained prognostic among cases with intermediate minimal residual disease. The BCR-ABL1-like signature and an IKZF1 deletion, but not CRLF2-high, are prognostic factors and are clinically of importance to identify high-risk patients who require more intensive and/or alternative therapies.
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Genes commonly deleted in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: association with cytogenetics and clinical features.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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In childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, cytogenetics is important in diagnosis and as an indicator of response to therapy, thus playing a key role in risk stratification of patients for treatment. Little is known of the relationship between different cytogenetic subtypes in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the recently reported copy number abnormalities affecting significant leukemia associated genes. In a consecutive series of 1427 childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, we have determined the incidence and type of copy number abnormalities using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. We have shown strong links between certain deletions and cytogenetic subtypes, including the novel association between RB1 deletions and intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21. In this study, we characterized the different copy number abnormalities and show heterogeneity of PAX5 and IKZF1 deletions and the recurrent nature of RB1 deletions. Whole gene losses are often indicative of larger deletions, visible by conventional cytogenetics. An increased number of copy number abnormalities is associated with NCI high risk, specifically deletions of IKZF1 and CDKN2A/B, which occur more frequently among these patients. IKZF1 deletions and rearrangements of CRLF2 among patients with undefined karyotypes may point to the poor risk BCR-ABL1-like group. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated in a large representative cohort of children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia that the pattern of copy number abnormalities is highly variable according to the primary genetic abnormality.
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A unique form of haptoglobin produced by murine hematopoietic cells supports B-cell survival, differentiation and immune response.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Haptoglobin (Hp), an acute phase reactant and major hemoglobin-binding protein, has a unique role in host immunity. Previously, we demonstrated that Hp-deficient C57BL/6J mice exhibit stunted development of mature T- and B-cells resulting in markedly lower levels of antigen-specific IgG. The current study identified leukocyte-derived pro-Hp as a relevant mediator of an optimal immune response. Reconstitution of Hp-/- mice with Hp+/+ bone marrow restored normal immune response to ovalbumin. Furthermore, transplanting a mixture of bone marrow-derived from B-cell-deficient and Hp-deficient mice into Rag1-/-/Hp+/+ recipients resulted in mice with a defective immune response similar to Hp-/- mice. This suggests that Hp generated by the B-cell compartment, rather than by the liver, is functionally contributing to a normal immune response. Leukocytes isolated from the spleen express Hp and release a non-proteolytically processed pro-Hp that uniquely differed from liver-derived Hp by not binding to hemoglobin. While addition of purified plasma Hp to cultured B-cells did not alter responses, pro-Hp isolated from splenocytes enhanced cellular proliferation and production of IgG. Collectively, the comparison of wild-type and Hp-deficient mice suggests a novel regulatory activity for lymphocyte-derived Hp, including Hp produced by B-cells themselves, that supports in vivo survival and functional differentiation of the B-cells to ensure an optimal immune response.
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Chromosomal translocations involving the IGH@ locus in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 29 new cases and a review of the literature.
Cancer Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH@) are recurrent but rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), and various partner genes have been described. Here, we report a new series of 29 cases of BCP-ALL with IGH@ translocations. The partner gene was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or molecular cloning in 20 patients. Members of the CEBP gene family (n = 11), BCL2 (n = 3), ID4 (n = 3), EPOR (n = 2), and TRA/D@ (n = 1) were identified and demonstrated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to be markedly up-regulated. The present cases, added to those already reported, confirm the diversity of the partner genes, which, apart from BCL2, are specific to BCP-ALL. Collectively, patients with IGH@ translocations may represent a novel sub-group of BCP-ALL occurring in adolescents and young adults.
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Genomic characterization implicates iAMP21 as a likely primary genetic event in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) defines a distinct subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) that has a dismal outcome when treated with standard therapy. For improved diagnosis and risk stratification, the initiating genetic events need to be elucidated. To investigate the genetic basis of BCP-ALL, genomes of 94 iAMP21 patients were interrogated by arrays, FISH, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Most copy number alterations targeted chromosome 21, reinforcing the complexity of this chromosome. The common region of amplification on chromosome 21 was refined to a 5.1-mb region that included RUNX1, miR-802, and genes mapping to the Down syndrome critical region. Recurrent abnormalities affecting genes in key pathways were identified: IKZF1 (22%), CDKN2A/B (17%), PAX5 (8%), ETV6 (19%), and RB1 (37%). Investigation of clonal architecture provided evidence that these abnormalities, and P2RY8-CRLF2, were secondary to chromosome 21 rearrangements. Patient outcome was uniformly poor with standard therapy irrespective of the presence or absence of these changes. This study has provided evidence that chromosome 21 instability is the only anomaly among those so far investigated that is common to all iAMP21 patients, and therefore the initiating event is likely to be found among the complex structural rearrangements of this abnormal chromosome.
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The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement).
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Demographic, clinical, and outcome features of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and CRLF2 deregulation: results from the MRC ALL97 clinical trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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Deregulated expression of CRLF2 (CRLF2-d) arises via its juxtaposition to the IGH@ enhancer or P2RY8 promoter. Among 865 BCP-ALL children treated on MRC ALL97, 52 (6%) had CRLF2-d, but it was more prevalent among Down syndrome patients (54%). P2RY8-CRLF2 (n = 43) was more frequent than IGH@-CRLF2 (n = 9). CRLF2-d was not associated with age, sex, or white cell count, but IGH@-CRLF2 patients were older than P2RY8-CRLF2 patients (median 8 vs 4 years, P = .0017). Patients with CRLF2-d were more likely to present with enlarged livers and spleens (38% vs 18%, P < .001). CRLF2-d was not seen in conjunction with established chromosomal translocations but 6 (12%) cases had high hyperdiploidy, and 5 (10%) had iAMP21. Univariate analysis suggested that CRLF2-d was associated with an inferior outcome: (event-free survival [EFS] hazard ratio 2.27 [95% confidence interval 1.48-3.47], P < .001; OS 3.69 [2.34-5.84], P < .001). However, multivariate analysis indicated that its effect was mediated by other risk factors such as cytogenetics and DS status (EFS 1.45 [0.88-2.39], P = .140; OS 1.90 [1.08-3.36], P = .027). Although the outcome of IGH@-CRLF2 patients appeared inferior compared with P2RY8-CRLF2 patients, the result was not significant (EFS 2.69 [1.15-6.31], P = .023; OS 2.86 [1.15-6.79], P = .021). Therefore, we concluded that patients with CRLF2-d should be classified into the intermediate cytogenetic risk group.
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Transcription factor Ets-1 in cytokine and chemokine gene regulation.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Ets-1 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed within lymphoid cells, where it is known to control their differentiation, survival and proliferation. Ets-1 is also expressed in other cell types and can be further induced by a variety of stimuli. Accumulating evidence points to an important role for Ets-1 in regulating the differentiation of T helper cell subsets, cytotoxic T cells, B cells and other cell types. Ets-1 also directly controls the expression of cytokine and chemokine genes in a wide variety of different cellular contexts. In this review, we summarize the known roles for Ets-1 in regulating the differentiation of immune cells and other cell types. Furthermore, we review in detail the current understanding of Ets-1 regulation of cytokine and chemokine expression and how this may relate to the biological roles of Ets-1 in regulating immunity as well as in cancer progression.
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Down syndrome acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a highly heterogeneous disease in which aberrant expression of CRLF2 is associated with mutated JAK2: a report from the International BFM Study Group.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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We report gene expression and other analyses to elucidate the molecular characteristics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). We find that by gene expression DS-ALL is a highly heterogeneous disease not definable as a unique entity. Nevertheless, 62% (33/53) of the DS-ALL samples analyzed were characterized by high expression of the type I cytokine receptor CRLF2 caused by either immunoglobulin heavy locus (IgH@) translocations or by interstitial deletions creating chimeric transcripts P2RY8-CRLF2. In 3 of these 33 patients, a novel activating somatic mutation, F232C in CRLF2, was identified. Consistent with our previous research, mutations in R683 of JAK2 were identified in 10 specimens (19% of the patients) and, interestingly, all 10 had high CRLF2 expression. Cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) and mutated Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) cooperated in conferring cytokine-independent growth to BaF3 pro-B cells. Intriguingly, the gene expression signature of DS-ALL is enriched with DNA damage and BCL6 responsive genes, suggesting the possibility of B-cell lymphocytic genomic instability. Thus, DS confers increased risk for genetically highly diverse ALLs with frequent overexpression of CRLF2, associated with activating mutations in the receptor itself or in JAK2. Our data also suggest that the majority of DS children with ALL may benefit from therapy blocking the CRLF2/JAK2 pathways.
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Promoting elementary physical education: results of a school-based evaluation study.
Health Educ Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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Using a quasiexperimental design, the authors examine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students exposed to a developmental physical education (PE) curriculum, Michigans Exemplary Physical Education Curriculum (EPEC), demonstrated stronger motor skill-specific self-efficacy and perceptions of physical activity competence, physical activity levels, motor skills, and physical fitness than did students exposed to existing PE curricula. The authors conducted a multilevel regression analysis with data from 1,464 students in the fourth and fifth grades. Data were collected using a student survey, an activity checklist, and motor and fitness assessments. Compared to students receiving standard PE, students exposed to EPEC showed significantly stronger results in motor skills but not fitness outcomes. The authors found significant positive intervention effects on indicators of motor skill self-efficacy and physical activity levels among the fourth-grade cohort. EPEC was more effective than standard PE curricula at improving motor skill performance (fourth- and fifth-grade cohorts) and at increasing self-reported motor skill-specific self-efficacy and physical activity (fourth-grade cohort).
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Deregulated expression of cytokine receptor gene, CRLF2, is involved in lymphoid transformation in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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We report 2 novel, cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL): a translocation, either t(X;14)(p22;q32) or t(Y;14)(p11;q32), in 33 patients and an interstitial deletion, either del(X)(p22.33p22.33) or del(Y)(p11.32p11.32), in 64 patients, involving the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. The incidence of these abnormalities was 5% in childhood ALL (0.8% with the translocation, 4.2% with the deletion). Patients with the translocation were older (median age, 16 years), whereas the patients with the deletion were younger (median age, 4 years). The 2 abnormalities result in deregulated expression of the cytokine receptor, cytokine receptor-like factor 2, CRLF2 (also known as thymic stromal-derived lymphopoietin receptor, TSLPR). Overexpression of CRLF2 was associated with activation of the JAK-STAT pathway in cell lines and transduced primary B-cell progenitors, sustaining their proliferation and indicating a causal role of CRLF2 overexpression in lymphoid transformation. In Down syndrome (DS) ALL and 2 non-DS BCP-ALL cell lines, CRLF2 deregulation was associated with mutations of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain, suggesting oncogenic cooperation as well as highlighting a link between non-DS ALL and JAK2 mutations.
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Small sizes and indolent evolutionary dynamics challenge the potential role of P2RY8-CRLF2-harboring clones as main relapse-driving force in childhood ALL.
Blood
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The P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion defines a particular relapse-prone subset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (AIEOP-BFM) 2000 protocols. To investigate whether and to what extent different clone sizes influence disease and relapse development, we quantified the genomic P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion product and correlated it with the corresponding CRLF2 expression levels in patients enrolled in the BFM-ALL 2000 protocol in Austria. Of 268 cases without recurrent chromosomal translocations and high hyperdiploidy, representing approximately 50% of all cases, 67 (25%) were P2RY8-CRLF2 positive. The respective clone sizes were ? 20% in 27% and < 20% in 73% of them. The cumulative incidence of relapse of the entire fusion-positive group was clone size independent and significantly higher than that of the fusion-negative group (35% ± 8% vs 13% ± 3%, P = .008) and primarily confined to the non-high-risk group. Of 22 P2RY8-CRLF2-positive diagnosis/relapse pairs, only 4/8 had the fusion-positive dominant clone conserved at relapse, whereas none of the original 14 fusion-positive small clones reappeared as the dominant relapse clone. We conclude that the majority of P2RY8-CRLF2-positive clones are small at diagnosis and virtually never generate a dominant relapse clone. Our findings therefore suggest that P2RY8-CRLF2-positive clones do not have the necessary proliferative or selective advantage to evolve into a disease-relevant relapse clone.
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IGH@ translocations, CRLF2 deregulation, and microdeletions in adolescents and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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To determine the prevalence and prognostic impact of significant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) -related genes: CRLF2 deregulation (CRLF2-d), IGH@ translocations (IGH@-t), and deletions of CDKN2A/B, IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, and EBF1 in adolescents and adults.
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Treatment outcome of CRLF2-rearranged childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a comparative analysis of the AIEOP-BFM and UK NCRI-CCLG study groups.
Br. J. Haematol.
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The prognostic relevance of CRLF2 -rearrangements in childhood acute B-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), was assessed by a comparative analysis of 114 non-Down-syndrome patients (99 P2RY8-CRLF2+ , 15 IGH@-CRLF2+ ), 76 from the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 and 38 from the MRC ALL97 trials. The 6-year cumulative relapse incidence of P2RY8-CRLF2+ patients treated on the two trials was not statistically different: 0·37 ± 0·06 vs. 0·25 ± 0·08 (P = 0·194). In contrast, 0/9 IGH@-CRLF2+ AIEOP-BFM, but 5/6 ALL97 patients relapsed. Conclusively, P2RY8-CRLF2+ patients had an intermediate protocol-independent outcome while the different prognosis of IGH@-CRLF2+ patients could be related to the different structures of the applied treatment protocols.
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Novel imaging method to quantify stratum corneum in dermatopharmacokinetic studies: proof-of-concept with acyclovir formulations.
Pharm. Res.
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Tape-stripping the stratum corneum (SC) is used in the assessment of dermatopharmacokinetics (DPK). The amount of SC per tape can be determined gravimetrically, but a novel imaging method offers advantages in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, precision, stability and speed. High-resolution images, acquired under controlled conditions, are analysed in terms of pixel greyscale values and distributions, and their usefulness in DPK studies is demonstrated in this study using acyclovir.
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Novel imaging method to quantify stratum corneum in dermatopharmacokinetic studies.
Pharm. Res.
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Tape stripping the stratum corneum (SC) is used in topical bioequivalence studies. Formulations are compared using drug concentration profiles as a function of relative SC position; both of these parameters require quantification of SC amount removed per tape. Here, a novel imaging method to quantify SC on tape strips is described. Comparisons are made with established SC quantification methods, specifically weighing and UV pseudo-absorption.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.