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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetic Basis for Clinical Response to CTLA-4 Blockade in Melanoma.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Background Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective cancer treatments, but molecular determinants of clinical benefit are unknown. Ipilimumab and tremelimumab are antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Anti-CTLA-4 treatment prolongs overall survival in patients with melanoma. CTLA-4 blockade activates T cells and enables them to destroy tumor cells. Methods We obtained tumor tissue from patients with melanoma who were treated with ipilimumab or tremelimumab. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on tumors and matched blood samples. Somatic mutations and candidate neoantigens generated from these mutations were characterized. Neoantigen peptides were tested for the ability to activate lymphocytes from ipilimumab-treated patients. Results Malignant melanoma exomes from 64 patients treated with CTLA-4 blockade were characterized with the use of massively parallel sequencing. A discovery set consisted of 11 patients who derived a long-term clinical benefit and 14 patients who derived a minimal benefit or no benefit. Mutational load was associated with the degree of clinical benefit (P=0.01) but alone was not sufficient to predict benefit. Using genomewide somatic neoepitope analysis and patient-specific HLA typing, we identified candidate tumor neoantigens for each patient. We elucidated a neoantigen landscape that is specifically present in tumors with a strong response to CTLA-4 blockade. We validated this signature in a second set of 39 patients with melanoma who were treated with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Predicted neoantigens activated T cells from the patients treated with ipilimumab. Conclusions These findings define a genetic basis for benefit from CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma and provide a rationale for examining exomes of patients for whom anti-CTLA-4 agents are being considered. (Funded by the Frederick Adler Fund and others.).
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Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of the green fruit extract of Solanum integrifolium Poir.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The green fruit of Solanum integrifolium Poir. has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedy in Taiwanese aboriginal medicine. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of the green fruit extract of S. integrifolium. A bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure was developed to identify the active partition fraction. The methanol fraction (ME), with the highest phenolic content, exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO) release and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. ME also significantly downregulated the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1?, IL-6, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP1?. Moreover, ME significantly upregulated HO-1 expression and stimulated the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Pretreatment of cells with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated ME's inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of green fruit extract of S. integrifolium and its activity may be mediated by the upregulation of HO-1 expression and activation of ERK1/2 pathway.
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Lipid peroxidation end product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal triggers unfolded protein response and heme oxygenase-1 expression in PC12 cells: Roles of ROS and MAPK pathways.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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This study investigates the roles of ROS overproduction and MAPK signaling pathways in the induction of unfolded protein response (UPR) and the expression of Phase II enzymes in response to 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) in a neuronal-like catecholaminergic PC12 cells. Our results showed that 4-HNE triggered three canonical pathways of UPR, namely IRE1-XBP1, PERK-eIF2?-ATF4 and ATF6, and induced the expression of UPR-targeted genes, GRP78, CHOP, TRB3, PUMA, and GADD34, as well as Phase II enzymes, HO-1 and GCLC. 4-HNE also induced apoptosis, intracellular calcium accumulation, caspase-3 activation, and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was correlated with the increased expression of GADD45?. The addition of tiron, a cellular permeable superoxide scavenger, scavenged 4-HNE-mediated ROS formation, but did not alleviate cytotoxicity, or the expression of UPR-targeted genes or Phase II enzymes, indicating that ROS overproduction per se did not play a major role in 4-HNE-caused deleterious effects. HO-1 expression was attenuated by Nrf2 siRNA and chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), suggesting HO-1 expression was regulated by Nrf2-ARE, which may work downstream of ER stress. 4-HNE treatment promptly induced ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK activation. Addition of p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated HO-1 upregulation, but enhanced expression of CHOP, PUMA and TRB3, and cytotoxicity. These results indicate that 4-HNE-induced transient p38 MAPK activation may serve as an upstream negative regulator of ER stress and confer adaptive cytoprotection against 4-HNE-mediated cell injury.
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Arsenic trioxide induces unfolded protein response in vascular endothelial cells.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. We investigate the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in the arsenic-mediated cytotoxicity of the SVEC4-10 mouse endothelial cells. The SVEC4-10 cells underwent apoptosis in response to As2O3 dose- and time-dependently, accompanied by increased accumulation of calcium, and activation of caspase-3. These phenomena were completely inhibited by ?-lipoic acid (LA), which did not scavenge ROS over-production, but were only partially or not ameliorated by tiron, a potent superoxide scavenger. Moreover, arsenic activated UPR, leading to phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit ? (eIF2?), induction of ATF4, and processing of ATF6. Treatment with arsenic also triggered the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein), and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein). The activation of eIF2?, ATF4 and ATF6 and expression of GRP78 and CHOP are repressed by both LA and tiron, indicating arsenic-induced UPR is mediated through ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. Arsenic also induced ER stress-inducible genes, BAX, PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis), TRB3 (tribbles-related protein 3), and SNAT2 (sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter 2). Consistent with intracellular calcium and cell viability data, ROS may not be important in arsenic-induced death, because tiron did not affect the expression of these pro-apoptotic genes. In addition, pretreatment with salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of eIF2? dephosphorylation, enhanced arsenic-induced GRP78 and CHOP expression and partially prevented arsenic cytotoxicity in SVEC4-10 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that arsenic-induced endothelial cytotoxicity is associated with ER stress, which is mediated by ROS-dependent and ROS-independent signaling.
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Curcuminoids distinctly exhibit antioxidant activities and regulate expression of scavenger receptors and heme oxygenase-1.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) have been demonstrated as having antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and hypocholesterolemic activities. We report the diverse antiatherogenic effects and mechanisms of curcuminoids.
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Gene expression profiling of whole blood in ipilimumab-treated patients for identification of potential biomarkers of immune-related gastrointestinal adverse events.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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BACKGROUND: Treatment with ipilimumab, a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma, is associated with some immune-related adverse events (irAEs) such as colitis (gastrointestinal irAE, or GI irAE) and skin rash, which are managed by treatment guidelines. Nevertheless, predictive biomarkers that can help identify patients more likely to develop these irAEs could enhance the management of these toxicities. METHODS: To identify candidate predictive biomarkers associated with GI irAEs, gene expression profiling was performed on whole blood samples from 162 advanced melanoma patients at baseline, 3 and 11 weeks after the start of ipilimumab treatment in two phase II clinical trials (CA184004 and CA184007). Overall, 49 patients developed Grade 2 or higher (grade 2+) GI irAEs during the course of treatment. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences in mean expression levels between the GI irAE and No-GI irAE groups of patients at the three time points. RESULTS: In baseline samples, 27 probe sets showed differential mean expression (>= 1.5 fold, P <= 0.05) between the GI irAE and No-GI irAE groups. Most of these probe sets belonged to three functional categories: immune system, cell cycle, and intracellular trafficking. Changes in gene expression over time were also characterized. In the GI irAE group, 58 and 247 probe sets had a >= 1.5 fold change in expression from baseline to 3 and 11 weeks after first ipilimumab dose, respectively. In particular, on-treatment expression increases of CD177 and CEACAM1, two neutrophil-activation markers, were closely associated with GI irAEs, suggesting a possible role of neutrophils in ipilimumab-associated GI irAEs. In addition, the expression of several immunoglobulin genes increased over time, with greater increases in patients with grade 2+ GI irAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood, sampled before or early in the course of treatment with ipilimumab, resulted in the identification of a set of potential biomarkers that were associated with occurrence of GI irAEs. However, because of the low sensitivity of these biomarkers, they cannot be used alone to predict which patients will develop GI irAEs. Further investigation of these biomarkers in a larger patient cohort is warranted.
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An immune-active tumor microenvironment favors clinical response to ipilimumab.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2011
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Ipilimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody specific to CTLA-4, has been shown to improve overall survival in metastatic melanoma patients. As a consequence of CTLA-4 blockade, ipilimumab treatment is associated with proliferation and activation of peripheral T cells. To better understand various tumor-associated components that may influence the clinical outcome of ipilimumab treatment, gene expression profiles of tumors from patients treated with ipilimumab were characterized.
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Lipoic acid ameliorates arsenic trioxide-induced HO-1 expression and oxidative stress in THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Inorganic arsenic is a common environmental contaminant; chronic exposure to arsenic can alter the physiology of various key immune cells, particularly macrophages. The aim of this research is to elucidate the key parameters associated with arsenic-induced toxicity and investigate the potential and mechanism of ?-lipoic acid (LA), a potent thioreducant, for reducing the toxicity in human promonocytic THP-1 cells. We found that a non-lethal concentration of arsenic trioxide (1 ?M) significantly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a response biomarker to arsenic, without stimulating measurable superoxide production. Co-treatment of cells with the HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (Znpp) potentiated arsenic-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that HO-1 confers a cytoprotective effect against arsenic toxicity. In addition, low concentrations of arsenic trioxide (1 and 2.5 ?M) markedly inhibited monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and expression of macrophage markers. Treatment of cells with LA attenuated arsenic trioxide-induced cytotoxicity and HO-1 over-expression and restored the redox state. In addition, LA neutralized arsenic trioxide-inhibition of monocyte maturation into macrophages and reversed the expression and activity of scavenger receptors. In conclusion, the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide is associated with an imbalance of the cellular redox state, and LA can protect cells from arsenic-induced malfunctions either through its reducing activity, direct interacting with arsenic or stimulating other unidentified signaling pathways.
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Regulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression and MAPK pathways in response to kaempferol and rhamnocitrin in PC12 cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Oxidative stress has been considered as a major cause of cellular injuries in a variety of clinical abnormalities, especially neural diseases. Our aim of research is to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of kaempferol and rhamnocitrin (kaempferol-7-methyl ether) on oxidative damage in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells induced by a limited supply of serum and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The current result demonstrated that kaempferol protected PC12 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with kaempferol also diminished intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to H2O2 and strongly elevated cell viability. RT-Q-PCR and Western blotting revealed that kaempferol and rhamnocitrin significantly induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 gene expression. Addition of zinc protoporphyrin (Znpp), a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated their protective effects in H2O2-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 in cell resistance to oxidative injury. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, we observed that kaempferol induced sustained extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in PC12 cells grown in low serum medium; while rhamnocitrin only stimulated transient ERK cascade. Addition of U0126, a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2, which is upstream of ERK1/2, had no effect on kaempferol- or rhamnocitrin-induced HO-1 mRNA expression, indicating no direct cross-talk between these two pathways. Furthermore, both kaempferol and rhamnocitrin were able to persistently attenuate p38 phosphorylation. Taking together, the above findings suggest that kaempferol and rhamnocitrin can augment cellular antioxidant defense capacity, at least in part, through regulation of HO-1 expression and MAPK signal transduction.
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Arsenic modulates heme oxygenase-1, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endothelial cells: roles of ROS, NF-?B, and MAPK pathways.
Arch. Toxicol.
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Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to an increased risk of vascular diseases. To clarify the molecular mechanisms through which arsenic causes injuries to blood vessels, we analyzed the effects of arsenic trioxide on the cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression of related genes, and signaling pathways involved in the SVEC4-10 mouse endothelial cells. Arsenic dose-dependently caused SVEC4-10 cell death, which is completely inhibited by ?-lipoic acid (LA), a thioreductant, but partially ameliorated by Tiron, a potent superoxide scavenger. The mRNA levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly increased by arsenic. The up-regulation of these can be blocked by LA instead of Tiron, suggesting ROS is not important in their increase. HO-1 competitive inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin improved the cytotoxicity of arsenic in an inverted-U dose-response curve, indicating the biphasic hormetic effect of HO-1. HO-1 siRNA decreased VEGF expression in response to arsenic. Arsenic exposure also enhanced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and increased activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). NF-?B inhibitor Bay 11-7082 reduced arsenic-mediated expression of HO-1 and IL-6. Selective blocking of the MAPK pathways with p38 inhibitor SB203580 significantly decreased arsenic-induced HO-1 and VEGF expression, while JNKs inhibitor SP600125 increased IL-6 expression. These results suggest that in arsenic-treated SVEC4-10 cells, HO-1 expression is mediated through Nrf2-, NF-?B-, and p38 MAPK-dependent signaling pathways and serves as an upstream regulator of VEGF. IL-6 expression is regulated by NF-?B and JNKs. In conclusion, oxidative stress may be associated with arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and endothelial gene up-regulation, but signaling transduction dominates the direct effects of ROS.
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