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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Study on the morphological features, pathologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (WD-HCC), and to find clues for its pathologic diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
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Corticosterone Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of Restraint Stress on the Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cell to Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Fibrotic Liver by Downregulating CXCR4/7 Expression.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Recent studies have revealed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a great potential in therapeutic applications. The low efficiency of MSC recruitment and homing to sites of diseased organ tissue, however, remains a major hurdle in their application for treatment of diseases. Stress is commonly associated with various diseases. At the present time, little information is available about the effect of stress on MSC function. Here, we employed a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mouse liver fibrosis model to investigate whether constraint stress affects the migration of MSCs to fibrotic liver. MSC homing to the fibrotic liver was significantly inhibited in mice with restraint stress. Restraint stress induced an elevation of corticosterone level in the serum. Blocking glucocorticoid signaling with either corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (MET) or glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 attenuated restraint stress-induced inhibition of MSCs migration. The serum concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) increased in mice treated with CCl4. Restraint stress had no influence on expression of SDF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the fibrotic liver. Culture with the serum of CCl4-treated mice or SDF-1 promoted MSC migration, which was suppressed by corticosterone. Exposure of MSCs to corticosterone decreased their expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7). These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of corticosterone on MSC migration might be mediated via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in MSCs. Interventions targeting the interaction between corticosterone and its receptor improve migration and homing of MSCs in hosts receiving transplantation of these cells.
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Evaluation of docetaxel- and oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy in postgastrectomy gastric cancer patients reveals obvious survival benefits in docetaxel-treated mixed signet ring cell carcinoma patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine the disease-free and overall survival (DFS and OS, respectively) in 991 postgastrectomy gastric cancer patients untreated (n = 372) or treated with either oxaliplatin-based (n = 376) or docetaxel-based (n = 243) chemotherapy and to identify prognostic factors that could help establish subgroups of patients who would benefit from such treatment. The median follow-up duration was 55.3 months (range 31.2-90.8 months). Subgroup analyses revealed that gastric adenocarcinoma (DFS 56.9 vs 53.2 months, P = 0.180, ?(2) = 1.802; OS not reached vs 70.7 months, P = 0.521, ?(2) = 0.412), but not absolute signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma (DFS 15.1/18.0 vs 10.1 months, P = 0.171/0.259, ?(2) = 1.874/1.275; OS 21.0/26.1 vs 20.5 months, P = 0.551/0.196, ?(2) = 0.355/1.674), patients undergoing either docetaxel- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy had a lower risk of recurrence and increased survival in comparison to those without chemotherapy. In the mixed SRC carcinoma patients, DFS and OS of patients treated with docetaxel-based regimen had a longer survival (DFS 50.1 vs 29.9 months, P = 0.046, ?(2) = 3.987; OS not reached vs 48.6 months, P = 0.016, ?(2) = 5.854) and lower risk of recurrence and death (DFS HR 0.540, 95 % CI 0.355-0.874, P = 0.012; OS HR 0.452, 95 % CI 0.259-0.790, P = 0.005) than oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Cumulatively, our results indicate that adjuvant chemotherapy is beneficial and that docetaxel-based regimen should be considered for patients with mixed SRC carcinoma.
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[Significance of arginase-1, glypican-3, hepatocyte paraffin antigen 1 and alpha-fetoprotein in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of liver tumors].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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To study the expression of arginase-1 (Arg-1), glypican-3 (GPC3), hepatocyte paraffin antigen 1 (HepPar-1) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), benign liver lesions (BLL) and metastatic carcinoma (MC), and their applications in diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
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Cell-based therapy for acute and chronic liver failures: distinct diseases, different choices.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Cell-based therapies (CBTs) are considered the effective approaches to treat liver failure. However, which cell type is the most suitable source of CBTs for acute liver failure (ALF) or chronic liver failure (CLF) remains unclear. To investigate this, mature hepatocytes in adult liver (adult HCs), fetal liver cells (FLCs), induced hepatic stem cells (iHepSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were used to CBTs for ConA-induced ALF and Fah-deficient induced CLF in mice. The results showed that only BMSCs remitted liver damage and rescued ALF in ConA-treated mice. In this process, BMSCs inhibited ConA-induced inflammatory response by decreasing the mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IFN-? and FasL and increasing IL-10 mRNA expression. However, in the CLF model, not BMSCs but adult HCs transplantation lessened liver injury, recovered liver function and rescued the life of Fah-/- mice after NTBC withdrawal. Further study showed that adult HCs offered more effective liver regeneration compared to other cells in Fah-/- mice without NTBC. These results demonstrated that BMSCs and adult HCs are the optimal sources of CBTs for ConA-induced ALF and Fah-deficient induced CLF in mice, respectively. This finding deepens our understanding about how to select a proper CBT for different liver failure.
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Discovery of a New Series of Naphthamides as Potent VEGFR-2 Kinase Inhibitors.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Inhibition of VEGFR-2 signaling pathway has already become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a new series of naphthamides as potent inhibitors of VEGFR-2. Among these compounds, 14c exhibited high VEGFR-2 inhibitory potency in both enzymatic and HUVEC cellular proliferation assays, with IC50 values of 1.5 and 0.9 nM, respectively. Kinase selectivity profiling revealed that 14c was a multitargeted inhibitor, and it also exhibited good potency against VEGFR-1, PDGFR-?, and RET. Furthermore, 14c effectively blocked tube formation of HUVEC at nanomolar level. Overall, 14c might be a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer.
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Autophagy inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis through downregulating Bad and Bim in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The tumor microenvironment, including ischemia, has been increasingly recognized as a critical factor in the process of tumor development. Hypoxia and nutrient deficiency resulting from ischemia widely exist in solid tumors. Recent studies have shown that hypoxia and nutrient deficiency contribute to chemoresistance by inducing autophagy, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of autophagy induced by low glucose and hypoxia (LH) in the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Our results demonstrated that LH induced autophagy and downregulated Bad and Bim in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The inhibition of autophagy reversed the reduction of these pro-apoptotic factors during the LH treatment. Furthermore, Bad and Bim were also significantly downregulated by autophagy during the process that LH promoted the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, RNAi or the overexpression of Bad and Bim can significantly reduce or increase chemotherapy-induced cell death, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that the downregulation of Bad and Bim plays a significant role in the autophagy-induced chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
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Peritumoral ductular reaction: a poor postoperative prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The role of ductular reaction (DR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated.
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Expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule associated with elevated ductular reactions in hepatocellar carcinoma.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To evaluate the prognostic significance of the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression in HCC, the relationship between EpCAM with ductular reactions and other clinical features.
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Autophagy protects against palmitate-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common liver diseases, has obtained increasing attention. Palmitate (PA)-induced liver injury is considered a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Autophagy, a cellular degradative pathway, is an important self-defense mechanism in response to various stresses. In this study, we investigated whether autophagy plays a protective role in the progression of PA-induced hepatocytes injury.
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Mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in inflammatory environment by inducing autophagy.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to play an important role in tumor growth. Inflammation is an important feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Certain inflammatory cytokines produced in tumor microenvironment modulate functional activities of MSCs. At the present time, however, the role of MSCs in the development of HCC cell resistance to chemotherapy in the inflammatory microenvironment during tumor growth has not yet been identified.
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HIF-1 alpha overexpression correlates with poor overall survival and disease-free survival in gastric cancer patients post-gastrectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Overall, gastric cancer prognosis remains poor. Detailed characterization of molecular markers that govern gastric cancer pathogenesis is warranted to establish innovative therapeutic options. HIF-1? overexpression has been linked to poor gastric cancer prognosis. However, though researched for years, the prognostic role of HIF-1? in gastric cancer is still controversial. Hence, the objective of the present study was to analyze the prognostic values of HIF-1?, TGF-?, VEGF and pERK1/2 in gastric cancer patients following gastrectomy.
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Decreased PADI4 mRNA association with global hypomethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma during HBV exposure.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To gain insight into the role of peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4), we determined the relationship between PADI4 mRNA and global hypomethylation during HBV exposure in hepatocarcinogenesis. We analyzed Line-1 methylation by MSP, and CD133 mRNA by real-time PCR in 74 HCC. The HCC cancer lines (7721, Huh7, and Hep-G2) were treated with 5-Aza-CdR and TSA. PADI4 mRNA were lower in HCC tissues (Mean(-?Ct) = 1.41) than that in Non-Hcc tissues (Mean(-?Ct) = 3.10). Expression of PADI4 was elevated in only 20 (27 %) of the 74 HCC patients but decreased in 54 (73 %) of the patients. The declined PADI4 mRNA was significantly associated with Line-1 demethylation in HCC patients. PADI4 mRNA were lower in HCC patients with Line-1 ?MI <-0.15 (Mean(-??Ct) = -2.66) than those with Line-1 ?MI >= -0.15 (Mean(-??Ct) = -1.02). The results suggested that HCC showing hypomethylation of Line-1 is considered to be silencing PADI4 mRNA. And the lower PADI4 mRNA was also found in HCC patients with HBV >= 10(5) (copy/ml) than those with HBV < 10(5) (copy/ml). After treated by 5-Aza-CdR and TSA, we found that PADI4 mRNA induced significantly by TSA in Huh7 and Hep-G2 cells, but not in 7721 cells. Meanwhile, PADI4 mRNA induced by the combination of 5-Aza-CdR and TSA in HCC cells, and it could no effect for exposure to 5-Aza-CdR alone. The results suggested that decreased PADI4 mRNA is associated with global hypomethylation in HCC during HBV exposure.
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Pemetrexed plus platinum or gemcitabine plus platinum for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: final survival analysis from a multicentre randomized phase II trial in the East Asia region and a meta-analysis.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Pemetrexed plus platinum has shown efficacy as a first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but little is known about its efficacy and safety in East Asian patients. We report the final analysis of overall survival (OS) from a multicentre, randomized, phase II trial in chemotherapy-naive Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC. An additional meta-analysis was performed to systematically evaluate pemetrexed/platinum as first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC.
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HPIP is upregulated in liver cancer and promotes hepatoma cell proliferation via activation of G2/M transition.
IUBMB Life
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Hematopoietic pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor (PBX)-interacting protein (HPIP) has been shown to play a role in cancer development and progression. However, the detailed role of HPIP in cancer cell growth and the exact mechanism by which HPIP regulates cancer cell proliferation remains unclear. Here, we report that HPIP is overexpressed in most of 328 liver cancer patients and regulates hepatoma cell proliferation through G2/M checkpoint activation. HPIP increased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of human liver cancer cell lines. The amino acid region 531-631 of HPIP was important for its modulation of liver cancer cell growth. The increased effects of HPIP on liver cancer cell proliferation were associated with activation of the G2/M cell-cycle concomitant with a marked increase of cyclin B1 and the inhibition of the negative G2/M phase regulator GADD45?. HPIP knockdown dramatically suppressed the growth of HepG2 liver cancer cells in nude mice. These data highlight the important role of HPIP in liver cancer cell growth and suggest that HPIP may be a good target for liver cancer therapy.
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Anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from the fruits of four Tibetan plateau indigenous medicinal plants.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L., Lycium barbarum L., Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. are traditional medicinal food of Tibetans and used to alleviate fatigue caused by oxygen deficiency for thousands of years. The present study focused on exploiting natural polysaccharides with remarkable anti-fatigue activity from the four Qinghai-Tibet plateau characteristic berries.
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Tumor necrosis factor-? attenuates starvation-induced apoptosis through upregulation of ferritin heavy chain in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Tumor microenviroment is characteristic of inflammation, ischemia and starvation of nutrient. TNF-?, which is an extraordinarily pleiotropic cytokine, could be an endogenous tumor promoter in some tumor types. The basic objective of this study was to investigate the effects of TNF-? on the cell viability and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells under serum starvation, and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved.
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Autophagy lessens ischemic liver injury by reducing oxidative damage.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion is a multi-factorial process which causes liver injury. It is reported that ischemia alone is sufficient to induce liver injury. Nutrient deprivation is a crucial factor impacting ischemic injury of the liver. Therefore, we explored the role of autophagy in ischemia through using hepatic ischemia rat model in vivo and nutrient-free model in vitro.
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The silence of MUC2 mRNA induced by promoter hypermethylation associated with HBV in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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To evaluate the promoter methylation status of MUC2 gene and mRNA expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Paradoxical roles of autophagy in different stages of tumorigenesis: protector for normal or cancer cells.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Autophagy serves as a dynamic degradation and recycling system that provides biological materials and energy in response to stress. The role of autophagy in tumor development is complex. Various studies suggest that autophagy mainly contributes to tumor suppression during the early stage of tumorigenesis and tumor promotion during the late stage of tumorigenesis. During the tumorization of normal cells, autophagy protects genomic stability by retarding stem cells-involved damage/repair cycle, and inhibits the formation of chronic inflammatory microenvironment, thus protecting normal cell homeostasis and preventing tumor generation. On the other hand, autophagy also protects tumor cells survival during malignant progression by supporting cellular metabolic demands, decreasing metabolic damage and supporting anoikis resistance and dormancy. Taken together, autophagy appears to play a role as a protector for either normal or tumor cells during the early or late stage of tumorigenesis, respectively. The process of tumorigenesis perhaps needs to undergo twice autophagy-associated screening. The normal cells that have lower autophagy capacity are prone to tumorization, and the incipient tumor cells that have higher autophagy capacity possibly are easier to survival in the hash microenvironment and accumulate more mutations to promote malignant progression.
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One cell, multiple roles: contribution of mesenchymal stem cells to tumor development in tumor microenvironment.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The discovery of tissue reparative and immunosuppressive abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has drawn more attention to tumor microenvironment and its role in providing the soil for the tumor cell growth. MSCs are recruited to tumor which is referred as the never healing wound and altered by the inflammation environment, thereby helping to construct the tumor microenvironment. The environment orchestrated by MSCs and other factors can be associated with angiogenesis, immunosuppression, inhibition of apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), survival of cancer stem cells, which all contribute to tumor growth and progression. In this review, we will discuss how MSCs are recruited to the tumor microenvironment and what effects they have on tumor progression.
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Hepatic stellate cells secreted hepatocyte growth factor contributes to the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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As the main source of extracellular matrix proteins in tumor stroma, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have a great impact on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we have investigated a mechanism whereby HSCs modulate the chemoresistance of hepatoma cells. We used human HSC line lx-2 and chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin to investigate their effects on human HCC cell line Hep3B. The results showed that cisplatin resistance in Hep3B cells was enhanced with LX-2 CM (cultured medium) exposure in vitro as well as co-injection with LX-2 cells in null mice. Meanwhile, in presence of LX-2 CM, Hep3B cells underwent epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and upregulation of cancer stem cell (CSC) -like properties. Besides, LX-2 cells synthesized and secreted hepatic growth factor (HGF) into the CM. HGF receptor tyrosine kinase mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (Met) was activated in Hep3B cells after LX-2 CM exposure. The HGF level of LX-2 CM could be effectively reduced by using HGF neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, depletion of HGF in LX-2 CM abolished its effects on activation of Met as well as promotion of the EMT, CSC-like features and cisplatin resistance in Hep3B cells. Collectively, secreting HGF into tumor milieu, HSCs may decrease hepatoma cells sensitization to chemotherapeutic agents by promoting EMT and CSC-like features via HGF/Met signaling.
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[HPLC determination of four components in Tibetan medicine Dangzuo of different Tibetan regions].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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To develop an HPLC method for determination of gallic acid, hydroxysafflor yellow A, cinnamic aldehyde and piperine in Tibetan medicine Dangzuo, and to compare the content of four active components in Dangzuo of different Tibetan regions.
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Immunosuppressive effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in inflammatory microenvironment favours the growth of B16 melanoma cells.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are studied for their potential clinical use in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and tumour therapy. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs in tumour therapy still remains limited unless the immunosuppressive role of MSCs for tumour growth in vivo is better understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of MSCs favouring tumour escape from immunologic surveillance in inflammatory microenvironment. We first compared the promotive capacity of bone marrow-derived MSCs on B16 melanoma cells growth in vivo, pre-incubated or not with the inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-? and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. We showed that the development of B16 melanoma cells is faster when co-injected with MSCs pre-incubated with IFN-? and TNF-? compared with control groups. Moreover, tumour incidence increases obviously in allogeneic recipients when B16 melanoma cells were co-injected with MSCs pre-incubated with IFN-? and TNF-?. We then demonstrated that the immunosuppressive function of MSCs was elicited by IFN-? and TNF-?. These cytokine combinations provoke the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by MSCs. The impulsive effect of MSCs treated with inflammatory cytokines on B16 melanoma cells in vivo can be reversed by inhibitor or short interfering RNA of iNOS. Our results suggest that the MSCs in tumour inflammatory microenvironment may be elicited of immunosuppressive function, which will help tumour to escape from the immunity surveillance.
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Autophagy in hypoxia protects cancer cells against apoptosis induced by nutrient deprivation through a Beclin1-dependent way in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Oxygen deficiency and nutrient deprivation widely exists in solid tumors because of the poor blood supply. However, cancer cells can survive this adverse condition and proliferate continuously to develop. To figure out the way to survive, we investigated the role of autophagy in the microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma. In order to simulate the tumor microenvironment more veritably, cells were cultured in oxygen-nutrient-deprived condition following a hypoxia preconditioning. As a result, cell death under hypoxia plus nutrient deprivation was much less than that under nutrient deprivation only. And the decreased cell death mainly attributed to the decreased apoptosis. GFP-LC3 and electron microscopy analysis showed that autophagy was significantly activated in the period of hypoxia preconditioning. However, autophagic inhibitor-3-MA significantly abrogated the apoptosis reduction in hypoxia, which implied the involvement of autophagy in protection of hepatocellular carcinoma cells against apoptosis induced by starvation. Furthermore, Beclin 1 was proved to play an important role in this process. siRNA targeting Beclin 1 was transfected into hepatocellular carcinoma cells. And both data from western blot detecting the expression of LC3-II and transmission microscopy observing the accumulation of autophagosomes showed that autophagy was inhibited obviously as a result of Beclin 1 knockdown. Besides, the decreased apoptosis of starved cells under hypoxia was reversed. Taken together, these results suggest that autophagy activated by hypoxia mediates the tolerance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to nutrient deprivation, and this tolerance is dependent on the activity of Beclin 1.
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Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in tumor microenvironment.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and also in the tumor invasion process. In addition, EMT also causes disruption of cell-cell adherence, loss of apico-basal polarity, matrix remodeling, increased motility and invasiveness in promoting tumor metastasis. The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in facilitating cancer metastasis and may induce the occurrence of EMT in tumor cells. A large number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor site, as well as hypoxia existing in a large area of tumor, in addition many stem cells present in tumor microenvironment, such as cancer stem cells (CSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), all of these may be the inducers of EMT in tumor cells. The signaling pathways involved in EMT are various, including TGF-?, NF-?B, Wnt, Notch, and others. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of the tumor microenvironment in EMT and the related signaling pathways as well as the interaction between them.
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Tumor necrosis factor-alpha promotes tumor growth by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? has been proved as an adjuvant therapy for tumor by FDA. However, the effect of chronic TNF-? expression for tumor is still controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of low-dose TNF-? on tumor growth. We confirmed that low-dose TNF-? promoted angiogenesis of tumor in vivo, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, the transcription factor of VEGF, were both upregulated. Our results suggested that low-dose TNF-? was a powerful activator of angiogenesis in tumor and HIF-1?-VEGF pathway seemed to be the most important molecular mechanism.
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[Composition and thermal stability of traditional Tibetan mineral medicine Nanhanshuishi].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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To determine the composition, structure, trace elements and thermal stability of Tibetan medicine Nanhanshuishi.
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[Study on processing technics of Tibetan medicine Nanhanshuishi].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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To study the heat processing technics of Nanhanshuishi.
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Maintenance therapy with continuous or switch strategy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Maintenance therapy for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has gained extensive interest. Varying results for this treatment underpin the need for a synthesis of evidence.
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Primary solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid - report of a case and review of the literature.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm, especially in the thyroid. We report a case of primary solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland in a 37 year-old Chinese man. The tumor was characterized by bland-looking spindle cells admixed with thin and thick collagen fibers. On immunohistochemistry study indicated that tumor cells were diffusely positive for CD34, Bcl-2 and CD99, and negative for Desmin, NSE, SMA, S-100, and CD68. The patient remains well 16 months after excision. The morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the thyroid SFTs are similar to their reported counterparts in other anatomic sites.
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Elevated expression of the stem cell marker CD133 associated with Line-1 demethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The relationship of Line-1 demethylation and the CD133 expression of cancer stem cells were discussed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Adult wilms tumor with intracaval and intracardiac extension: report of a case and review of literature.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a partially differentiated WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 54-year-old man. The morphologic and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis.
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Efficacy and safety of vandetanib, a dual VEGFR and EGFR inhibitor, in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Vandetanib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, has attracted wide interest in treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess its efficacy and safety via a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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CpG island methylator phenotype of cell-cycle regulators associated with TNM stage and poor prognosis in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) involves the targeting of multiple genes by promoter hypermethylation, and the cell-cycle regulatory proteins often change in human neoplasms. To gain insight into the role of epigenetic aberration of cell-cycle regulator genes in oesophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the authors determined the hypermethylation profile in ESCC.
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Malignant mesenchymoma of the thyroid: case report and literature review.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Malignant mesenchymoma of the thyroid is extremely rare. We report such a tumor involving the bilateral lobes of the thyroid which showed simultaneous chondrosarcomatous, osteosarcomatous, fibrosarcomatous and rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. The patient was a 52-year-old woman admitted with a history of facial swelling, neck thickness and swallowing discomfort of one months duration. Sonographic examination indicated a thyroid mass involving the bilateral lobes. Macroscopically, the tumors of both lobes were well demarcated, solid, greyish-white, and multinodular on the cut surface. Some nodules were translucent in appearance and hard in texture. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of small primitive mesenchymal cells with osteoid formation resembling the small cell variant of osteosarcoma interspersed with multiple cartilaginous nodules that indicated chondrosarcomatous differentiation. Some tumor cells showed prominent rhabdomyoblastic differentiation with eosinophilic cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei. Fibrosarcomatous areas were also observed. Immunohistochemically, the small primitive mesenchymal cells were positive for vimentin and CD99 and negative for CD56, Syn, CgA, CK, TG, TTF-1, calcitonin, and S-100. The tumor cells in the rhabdomyosarcomatous area were MyoD1 and muscle-specific actin positive. Molecular analysis for BRAFand RAS gene alterations showed no point mutation. The tumor recurred four months after surgery and tumor thrombi were suspected in the bilateral internal carotid arteries on ultrasonography. Primary malignant mesenchymoma of the thyroid is a high-grade malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Its differerential diagnosis includes anaplastic carcinoma and other rare sarcomas with chondroid, osteoid, and other mesenchymal metaplasia.
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Hepatoblast-like progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells can repopulate livers of mice.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Hepatocyte-like cells can be derived from pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, but ES cell-derived hepatic cells with extensive capacity to repopulate liver have not been identified. We aimed to identify and purify ES cell-derived hepatoblast-like progenitor cells and to explore their capacity for liver repopulation in mice after in vitro expansion.
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Diagnostic utility of novel stem cell markers SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and sometimes they pose diagnostic difficulty without immunohistochemical studies. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of 6 stem cell markers (SCMs) SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TCL1 in 16 primary mediastinal seminomas, 3 embryonal carcinomas (ECs), 10 yolk sac tumors (YSTs), 7 teratomas (4 mature, 3 immature), and 1 choriocarcinoma. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as: 0 (no tumor cell staining), 1+ (< or =30%), 2+ (31% to 60%), 3+ (61% to 90%), and 4+ (>90%). The staining intensity of SCMs was scored as weak, moderate, or strong. We also compared them with currently used GCT markers placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), c-KIT, CD30, and glypican-3. All 16 seminomas showed staining for SALL4 (4+ in 15, 2+ in 1) (15 strong, 1 moderate), OCT4 (4+ in 11, 3+ in 4, 2+ in 1) (13 strong, 3 moderate), and UTF1 (4+ in 13, 3+ in 2, 2+ in 1) (7 strong, 5 moderate, 4 weak). Positive staining was shown by 9/9 seminomas tested for NANOG (4+ in 7, 2+ in 2) (8 strong, 1 weak), TCL1 (4+ strong in all), c-KIT (4+ in all), and PLAP (4+ in 5, 3+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 1+ in 1), but SOX2 staining was negative in all these tumors. All 3 ECs showed 4+ strong staining for SALL4, OCT4, and UTF1 but negative for TCL1. SOX2 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (4+ strong in 1, 3+ weak to moderate in 2) whereas NANOG staining was seen in 2/3 ECs (2+ weak, 1+ moderate). CD30 staining was seen in 3/3 ECs (1+, 2+, 4+). Strong SALL4 staining was seen in 10/10 YSTs (4+ in 9, 2+ in 1). All 10 YSTs showed AFP (1+ in 7, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 2) and glypican-3 (1+ in 3, 2+ in 1, 3+ in 5, 4+ in 1) staining but only 4/10 YSTs showed PLAP staining (1+ in all 4). The mean percentage of YST cells stained with SALL4 was 92%, whereas it was 23% for AFP, 50% for glypican-3, and 4% for PLAP (P<0.01). Focal (1+) SALL4 (weak) and SOX2 (weak to moderate) staining was seen in 2/7 and 4/7 teratomas, respectively. The choriocarcinoma was negative for all 6 SCMs. Eleven thymomas and 6 thymic carcinomas were negative for 6 SCMs. No staining of NANOG and SOX2 was seen in 20 lymphomas (5 Hodgkin, 5 large B cell, 5 lymphoblastic, 5 anaplastic large cell) (other 4 SCMs in lymphomas earlier studied). Our study indicates that SALL4, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, UTF1, and TLC1 are novel sensitive diagnostic markers for primary mediastinal GCTs, with high specificity. Of these 6 SCMs, SALL4 is the only 1 expressed in YST. These novel SCMs are more sensitive than the currently used markers for mediastinal GCTs.
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Primary colorectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of seven cases.
Pathology
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Primary colorectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours are rare. Here we report seven such cases to demonstrate their clinicopathological features and prognosis.
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Leukocyte infiltration as a surrogate marker for diagnosis of invasion.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Dr. YG Mans hypothesis that breast tumor invasion is triggered by the aberrant leukocyte infiltration induced by degeneration of myoepithelial cells holds a lot of truth in our clinical practice, and leukocyte infiltration may be regarded as a surrogate marker for diagnosis of invasion.
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Primary gastric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 5 cases.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Primary gastric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are rare. Here we report on 5 such cases (4 males and 1 female, age range 36-45 years). Their presenting symptoms included abdominal mass (5 patients), abdominal pain (4 patients), and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (1 patient). Tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 8 cm in the greatest dimension. Histologically, these tumors showed three patterns: myxoid hypocellular, fascicular, and hyalinized. A lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was present in all 5 tumors. One to two mitotic figures were recognized in 10 high power fields (HPFs) in 4 patients and focally up to 5 in 10HPFs in 1 patient. No prominent nuclear atypia or necrosis was observed. ALK, smooth muscle actin, and vimentin staining were observed in all tumors. One tumor focally expressed desmin. S-100, CD21, CD34, CD35, CD68, and CD117 were negative in all IMTs. The patients were followed up for 2-5 years (mean 3.4 years), and none of them had tumor metastasis or died. Only one patient developed local recurrence and is now alive with no evidence of disease after the second surgery (11 months after the second surgery). Our results indicate that primary gastric IMTs have an intermediate behavior as seen at other sites.
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Inflammatory angiomyolipomas of the liver: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 5 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Hepatic angiomyolipoma (AML) may demonstrate a marked histologic diversity. We report 5 cases of hepatic AML exhibiting prominent inflammatory cells in the background (inflammatory AML). The patients were 4 females and 1 male, with age ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean, 39.2 years). Three tumors were in the left lobe and 2 in the right lobe. The tumor size was from 5.5 to 10 cm in the greatest dimension (mean, 7.46 cm). No patient had clinical features of tuberous sclerosis. Histologically, the striking feature was the infiltration of numerous inflammatory cells in the background of the tumors, including small lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes. The percentage of tumor area with heavy inflammatory infiltration was more than 50% in all cases. The myoid cells were spindled and epithelioid in shape, with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm, and were arranged in fascicles and clusters. Scattered adipose cells and sinusoidal and thick-walled blood vessels were variably present in all tumors. Focal trabecular arrangement was present in 2 of the 5 tumors. There was no nuclear atypia, and mitotic figures were rare. The myoid cells were diffusely positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and HMB-45 in all cases. All patients showed no evidence of disease after the initial surgical excision during a follow-up period from 3 to 9 years. The inflammatory AMLs should be distinguished from other tumors with inflammatory background such as inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and follicular dendritic cell tumor.
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Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the heart in a child.
Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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We report a case of cardiac perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) that occurred in a 10-year-old girl. The patient presented with cardiac murmur and increasing dyspnea. A solid mass was detected in the left atrioventricular groove by sonography and chest computed tomography. Histologic examination revealed a tumor composed of spindle and epithelioid cells, exhibiting either a clear or a slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm and a bland nucleus. Intranuclear pseudoinclusions and calcifications could be found occasionally. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for HMB45, melan-A, and smooth muscle actin. We regard this case as a PEComa of uncertain malignant potential. The patient remains disease free at her 18-month follow up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the 3rd report of cardiac PEComa and the 1st report of cardiac PEComa affecting a child.
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Hypoxia-induced autophagy contributes to the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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Hypoxia commonly exists in solid tumors. Under such adverse conditions, adaptive responses including autophagy are usually provoked to promote cell survival. In our study, autophagy, a lysosomal-mediated degradation pathway, is demonstrated as a protective way to make hepatocellular carcinoma cells resistant to chemotherapy under hypoxia. Compared with normoxia, chemotherapeutic agent-induced cell death under hypoxia was significantly decreased, as a result of the reduced apoptosis. However, when autophagy was inhibited by 3-MA or siRNA targeted Beclin 1, this reduction was reversed, i.e., chemoresistance was attenuated, which means autophagy mediates the chemoresistance under hypoxia. In conclusion, autophagy decreases hepatoma cells sensitization to chemotherapeutic agents by affecting their apoptotic potential.
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Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: a study of 77 cases.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Primary germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) sometimes pose diagnostic difficulty. In this study we analyzed the diagnostic utility of a novel marker, SALL4, in 77 such tumors (59 pure and 18 mixed) consisting of the following tumors/tumor components: 49 germinomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas, 27 yolk sac tumors, 3 choriocarcinomas, and 14 teratomas. We also stained SALL4 in 99 primary non-germ cell tumors to test SALL4 specificity. We compared SALL4 with OCT4 in all germ cell tumors and compared SALL4 with alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3 in all yolk sac tumors. The staining was semiquantitatively scored as 0 (no staining), 1+ (90%). Strong SALL4 staining was observed in all 49 germinomas (4+ in 48, 3+ in 1), 7 embryonal carcinomas (all 4+), and 27 yolk sac tumors (1+ in 1, 2+ in 2, 3+ in 7, 4+ in 17). SALL4 staining, 1+ weak to focally strong, was observed in 2 of 3 choriocarcinomas (in mononucleated trophoblasts) and in 9 of 14 teratomas (in primitive neuroepithelium and teratomatous glands). All germinomas and embryonal carcinomas showed strong OCT4 staining (4+ in all except 1 germinoma with 3+), whereas other germ cell tumors were negative. Out of 27 yolk sac tumors, 26 showed positive alpha-fetoprotein staining (1+ in 9, 2+ in 7, 3+ in 5, and 4+ in 5). All yolk sac tumors showed positive glypican-3 staining (1+ in 6, 2+ in 6, 3+ in 7, and 4+ in 8). The mean percentage of yolk sac tumor cells stained was 84% with SALL4, 45% with alpha-fetoprotein, and 63% with glypican-3 (P<0.01). No non-germ cell tumors showed SALL4 staining. Our results indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive diagnostic marker for primary germ cell tumors of the CNS with high specificity. SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than alpha-fetoprotein and glypican-3 for yolk sac tumors.
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Primary choriocarcinoma of the liver: a clinicopathological study of five cases in males.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2009
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Primary choriocarcinomas of the liver are rare. Previous reported cases were mostly in infants with only rare adult cases. Here, we presented five adult cases. The patients were all males, with an average age of 41.6 years (from 36 to 48 years). Clinical presentations included right upper abdominal pain or abdominal distension. All patients presented with a large hepatic mass on ultrasonography that measured 11 cm on average in the greatest diameter. Elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels were noted in all cases. At presentation, the tumor was confined to the liver in two patients and therefore surgically resected. The other three patients presented with extrahepatic metastases on imaging study and therefore only received chemotherapy. All five patients died from the tumor within 2 to 8 months. Autopsy was performed for all five cases. The autopsy confirmed that the choriocarcinoma was confined to the liver in two surgically resected cases. The other three patients had metastatic choriocarcinoma in the lung (two patients), peritoneum (one patient), adrenal glands (one patient), and brain (one patient). None of the patients had any evidence of a testicular tumor or scar after examination of the entirely submitted testes. No tumor was observed in central nervous system, mediastinum, or other organs other than described above. Grossly, the primary tumors were large, soft, hemorrhagic, and with foci of necrosis. Histologically, the tumors were composed of mononucleated trophoblastic cells with round nuclei, clear cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli admixed with large, multinucleated syncytiotrophoblastic cells. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were strongly positive for keratin, HCG, and focally positive for human placental lactogen. Ki-67 proliferation index was high (mean 75%) in the mononucleated trophoblastic cells. Our series is the largest one to document primary hepatic choriocarcinoma in adults. Although these tumors are rare, they behave in a very aggressive fashion.
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Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in extragonadal yolk sac tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 59 cases with comparison to placental-like alkaline phosphatase, alpha-fetoprotein, and glypican-3.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2009
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Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs; primary and metastatic) are rare but are malignant germ cell tumors. Pathologic diagnosis of extragonadal YSTs can be challenging without immunohistochemical markers but markers used for diagnosing these tumors such as placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and glypican-3 lack adequate sensitivity and/or specificity. In earlier studies with gonadal germ cell tumors, SALL4 has been identified as a novel diagnostic marker for YSTs and other types of primitive germ cell tumors. Here, we investigated the diagnostic utility of SALL4 in 59 extragonadal YSTs (27 primary sacrococcygeal, 15 primary nonsacrococcygeal, and 17 metastatic) by immunohistochemical staining. We also compared SALL4 with PLAP, AFP, and glypican-3. In addition, we performed immunostains for pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and OCT4 in these tumors. Our results showed that all 59 YSTs showed strong pancytokeratin staining (70% tumor cells in 1 case, >90% tumor cells in 58) and 10 (17%) of them also showed focal epithelial membrane antigen staining (<3% tumor cells). All 59 YSTs were negative for OCT4. Strong SALL4 staining was seen in all 59 YSTs (in more than 90% tumor cells in 54 and 70% to 85% tumor cells in 5 YSTs). Only 39 of 59 (66%) YSTs showed positive PLAP staining and the staining was often focal (in less than 30% tumor cells) (28 of 39 cases). Positive AFP staining was seen in the vast majority of YSTs (56 of 59 or 95%); however, 32 (54%) YSTs showed staining in less than 30% tumor cells. Although all 59 YSTs showed positive glypican-3 staining, 18 (30%) showed staining in less than 30% tumor cells, and additional 10 (17%) showed staining in between 30% and 60% tumor cells. In these 59 YSTs, the mean percentage of tumor cells stained with PLAP was 14% (range: 0% to 90%), with AFP 35% (range 0% to 95%), and with glypican-3 57% (range: 1% to 100%), whereas the mean percentage of tumor cells stained for SALL4 was 94% (range: 70% to 100%) (P<0.001). Our results indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive (100% sensitivity) diagnostic marker for extragonadal YSTs. SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than PLAP, AFP, or glypican-3 for extragonadal YSTs.
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Correlation of CpG island methylator phenotype with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2009
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CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), in which multiple genes are concurrently methylated, is an important mechanism in hepatocellular carcinoma development. We determined a hypermethylation profile in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined the promoter methylation status of 10 genes in 60 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 60 cases of paired non-tumor tissues, and 6 cases of normal tissues by methylation-specific PCR. The average methylated gene numbers were significantly different between HCC and nontumor tissues (p<0.001). We found metastasis, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage were significantly different among patients with different CIMP status. Patients with high frequency CIMP tumors had significantly worse survival than patients with intermediate frequency or no CIMP tumors (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). Our results suggested that CIMP could serve as a molecular marker of late stage and poorly prognostic HCC development.
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Correlated alterations in prostate basal cell layer and basement membrane.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Our recent studies revealed that focal basal cell layer disruption (FBCLD) induced auto-immunoreactions represented a contributing factor for human prostate tumor progression and invasion. As the basement membrane surrounds and attaches to the basal cell layer, our current study assessed whether FBCLD would impact the physical integrity of the associated basement membrane. Paraffin sections from 25-human prostate tumors were subjected to double immunohistochemistry to simultaneously elucidate the basal cell layer and the basement membrane with corresponding biomarkers. The physical integrity of the basement membrane overlying FBCLD was examined to determine the extent of correlated alterations. Of a total of 89 FBCLD encountered, 76 (85 %) showed correlated alterations in the overlying basement membrane, which included distinct focal disruptions or fragmentations. In the remaining 13 (15%) FBCLD, the overlying basement membrane showed significant attenuation or reduction of the immunostaining intensity. The basement membrane in all or nearly all ducts or acini with p63 positive basal cells was substantially thicker and more uniform than that in ducts or acini without p63 positive basal cells, and also, a vast majority of the focal disruptions occurred near basal cells that lack p63 expression. These findings suggest that focal disruptions in the basal cell layer and alterations in the basement membrane are correlated events and that the physical and functional status of the basal cells could significantly impact the physical integrity of the overlying basement membrane. As the degradation of both the basal cell layer and the basement membrane is a pre-requisite for prostate tumor invasion or progression, ducts or acini with focally disrupted basal cell layer and basement membrane are likely at greater risk to develop invasive lesions. Thus, further elucidation of the specific molecules and mechanism associated with these events may lead to the development of a more effective alternative for repeat biopsy to monitor tumor progression and invasion.
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MicroRNA-101 regulates expression of the v-fos FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) oncogene in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been proposed as a versatile class of molecules involved in regulation of various biological processes. Although there is emerging evidence that some microRNAs can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, the specific role of miRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear at this point. In this study, we examined the microRNA expression profiles in a set of 20 human HCC specimens by miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that among the 20 HCC samples analyzed, microRNA-101 was significantly down-regulated twofold or more (twofold to 20-fold) in 16 samples compared with the matching nontumoral liver tissues. Using both a luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis, we showed that microRNA-101 repressed the expression of v-fos FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS) oncogene, a key component of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Moreover, using a luciferase expression vector (pAP-1-Luc) driven by seven copies of an AP-1 cis-element, we observed that microRNA-101 expression inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced AP-1 activity. In in vitro Matrigel invasion and Transwell migration assays, enhanced microRNA-101 expression inhibited the invasion and migration of cultured HCC cells, respectively. These findings suggest that microRNA-101 may play an important role in HCC.
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[Chemical and structural analysis of Nengchi Bajin ashes in refining of Tibetan medicine gTSo thal].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
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To investigate the chemical components and microstructure of Nengchi Bajin ashes which are adjuvant material in the refining of Tibetan medicine gTSo thal, in order to explore the material basis of the refining of gTSo thal.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Mesenchymal stem cells in inflammation microenvironment accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
PLoS ONE
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In response to inflammation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to migrate to tissue injury sites to participate in immune modulation, tissue remodeling and wound healing. Tumors apply persistent mechanical and pathological stress to tissues and causes continual infiltration of MSCs. Here, we demonstrate that MSCs promote human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis under the influence of inflammation. The metastasis promoting effect could be imitated with the supernatant of MSCs pretreated with IFN? and TNF?. Interestingly, treatment of HCC cells with the supernatant leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an effect related to the production of TGF? by cytokines stimulated MSCs. Importantly, the levels of MSCs expressing SSEA4 in clinical HCC samples significantly correlated with poor prognosis of HCC, and EMT of HCC was strongly associated with a shorter cancer-free interval (CFI) and a worse overall survival (OS). Therefore, our results suggest that MSCs in tumor inflammatory microenvironment could promote tumor metastasis through TGF?-induced EMT.
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Combined EGFR and VEGFR versus single EGFR signaling pathways inhibition therapy for NSCLC: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
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Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple signaling pathways influencing tumor cell survival and proliferation, and it is likely that blocking only one of these pathways allows others to act as salvage or escape mechanisms for cancer cells. Whether combined inhibition therapy has greater anti-tumor activity than single inhibition therapy is a matter of debate. Hence, a meta-analysis comparing therapy inhibiting both VEGFR and EGFR signaling pathways with that inhibiting EGFR signaling pathway alone was performed.
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Distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in China: analysis of 4,638 cases according to the World Health Organization classification.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
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To estimate the distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in China, we conducted a comprehensive analysis, based on subtype, age, sex, and lesion, of primary and resected biopsy specimens of 4,638 lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed from 2004 to 2008 at 5 large hospitals. Of the 4,638 patients, mature B-cell neoplasms accounted for 64.3% of all lymphoid neoplasms, mature T/NK-cell neoplasms for 23.3%, and Hodgkin lymphoma for 8.6%. The most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (36.2%), followed by extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (11.0%), classic Hodgkin lymphoma (8.4%), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (7.7%), plasmacytic neoplasm (5.0%), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (3.9%). For most lymphoid neoplasm subtypes, male subjects showed higher rates than female subjects. In summary, our study showed that the epidemiologic features of lymphoid neoplasms in China are distinct from those in Western countries and similar in many ways to those in other countries of the Far East.
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Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: differentiation patterns and immunohistochemical features - a mini-review and our new findings.
J Cancer
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Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) represent a group of highly heterogeneous human malignancies often with multiple histological origins, divergent differentiation patterns, and diverse immunohistochemical presentations. The differential diagnosis of MPNST from other spindle cell neoplasms poses great challenges for pathologists. This report provides a mini-review of these unique features associated with MPNST and also presents the first cases of MPNST with six differentiation patterns.
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Background progenitor activation is associated with recurrence after hepatectomy of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma.
Hepatology
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Hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) play important roles in both liver regeneration and carcinogenesis. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHC), a malignant primary liver tumor with poor prognosis, is thought to be of HPC origin. However, the prognostic significance of this etiology is not well defined. Therefore, we retrospectively investigated the relationship of HPC-related pathological features and long-term outcome in patients with CHC in our department. In a cohort of 80 patients identified between 1997 and 2003, including 70 patients who underwent resection with curative intent, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were correlated with the proliferative activity of nontumor ductular reaction (DR) and the expression levels of HPC and biliary markers including ?-fetoprotein (AFP), keratin 7 (K7), keratin 19 (K19), oval cell (OV)-6, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and c-Kit in both tumor and nontumor liver. We found that nontumor ductular reactions (DRs), specifically the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index of the ductular reaction (PI-DR), a surrogate for transit-amplifying compartments, was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS. By contrast, intratumoral expression of only one marker, absence of AFP, was associated with OS. PI-DR was also independently associated with synchronous "multicentric occurrence" in hepatocellular carcinoma components, a feature of CHC that may predispose to metachronous multifocal tumorigenesis.
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The silencing of RECK gene is associated with promoter hypermethylation and poor survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
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To evaluate the promoter methylation status of RECK gene and mRNA expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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The role of immunosuppression of mesenchymal stem cells in tissue repair and tumor growth.
Cell Biosci
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have acquired great interests for their potential use in the clinical therapy of many diseases because of their functions including multiple lineage differentiation, low immunogenicity and immunosuppression. Many studies suggest that MSCs are strongly immunosuppressive in vitro and in vivo. MSCs exert a profound inhibitory effect on the proliferation of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. In addition, several soluble factors have been reported to involved in the immunosuppressive effects by MSCs such as TGF-?, HGF, PGE2, IDO and iNOS. These results suggest that MSCs can be used in the therapy of immune disorder diseases, prevention of organ transplantation rejection and tissue injury. In recent study, we demonstrated that MSCs in tumor inflammatory microenvironment might be elicited of immunosuppressive function. Thus, the application of MSCs in cancer therapy might have negative effect by helping tumor cells escaping from the immune surveillance.
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The tumor suppressor role of Src homology phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
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The human gene PTPN11, which encodes the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase of Src homology phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2), has been previously well interpreted as a proto-oncogene in a variety of malignancies. However, the tumor suppressor role of Shp2 has also been reported. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Shp2 expression and its associated clinical manifestations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Stem cells deployed for bone repair hijacked by T cells.
Cell Stem Cell
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising source for bone regeneration. Recently, in Nature Medicine, Liu et al. (2011) reported that host lymphocytes secrete IFN-? and TNF-? to initiate apoptosis of transplanted MSCs and that aspirin can alleviate these effects to improve bone repair.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.