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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Long-term Survival and Late Effects among 1-year Survivors of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Relapsed Acute Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We analyzed the outcomes of patients who survived disease-free for 1-year or more following second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for relapsed acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes between 1980 and 2009. A total of 1285 patients received a second allogeneic transplant following disease relapse; among these 325 survived relapse-free at 1-year after the second HCT. The median time from first to second HCT was 17 and 24 months for children and adults, respectively. A myeloablative preparative regimen was used in the second transplant in 62% of children and 45% of adult patients. The overall 10-year conditional survival rates after second transplantation in this cohort of patients who had survived disease-free for at least one year were 55% in children and 39% in adults. Relapse was the leading cause of mortality (77% and 54% of deaths in children and adults, respectively). In multivariate analyses, only disease status prior to second HCT was significantly associated with higher risk for overall mortality (HR 1.71 for patients with disease not in complete remission prior to second HCT, P<0.01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 43% and 75% of children and adults following second transplant. Chronic GVHD was the leading cause of non-relapse mortality followed by organ failure and infection. The cumulative incidence of developing at least one of the studied late effects at 10-years after second HCT was 63% in children and 55% in adults. The most frequent late effects in children were growth disturbance (10-year cumulative incidence 22%) and cataracts (20%), and in adults were cataracts (20%) and avascular necrosis (13%). Among patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes who receive a second allogeneic HCT for relapse and survive disease-free for at least 1-year, many can be expected to survive long term. However, they continue to be at risk for relapse and non-relapse morbidity and mortality. Novel approaches are needed to minimize relapse risk and long-term transplant morbidity in this population.
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Transplantation for children with acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison of outcomes with reduced intensity and myeloablative regimens.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The safety and efficacy of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for the treatment of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is unknown. We compared the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in children with acute myeloid leukemia using RIC regimens with those receiving myeloablative-conditioning (MAC) regimens. A total of 180 patients were evaluated (39 with RIC and 141 with MAC regimens). Results of univariate and multivariate analysis showed no significant differences in the rates of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, leukemia-free, and overall survival between treatment groups. The 5-year probabilities of overall survival with RIC and MAC regimens were 45% and 48%, respectively (P = .99). Moreover, relapse rates were not higher with RIC compared with MAC regimens (39% vs 39%; P = .95), and recipients of MAC regimens were not at higher risk for transplant-related mortality compared with recipients of RIC regimens (16% vs 16%; P = .73). After carefully controlled analyses, we found that in this relatively modest study population, the data supported a role for RIC regimens for acute myeloid leukemia in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The data also provided justification for designing a carefully controlled randomized clinical trial that examines the efficacy of regimen intensity in this population.
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Allogeneic Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy (Remestemcel-L, Prochymal) as a Rescue Agent for Severe Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Severe steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is related to significant mortality and morbidity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Early clinical trials of therapy with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in pediatric patients with severe aGVHD resistant to multiple immunosuppressive agents showed promising results. In this study, we evaluated the risk/benefit profile of remestemcel-L (Prochymal), a third-party, off-the-shelf source of hMSCs, as a rescue agent for treatment-resistant aGVHD in pediatric patients. Children with grade B-D aGVHD failing steroids and, in most cases, other immunosuppressive agents were eligible for enrollment. Patients received 8 biweekly i.v. infusions of 2 × 10(6) hMSCs/kg for 4 weeks, with an additional 4 weekly infusions after day +28 for patients who achieved either a partial or mixed response. The enrolled patients compose a very challenging population with severe disease that was nonresponsive to the standard of care, with 88% of the patients experiencing severe aGVHD (grade C or D). Seventy-five patients (median age, 8 yr; 58.7% male; and 61.3% Caucasian) were treated in this study. Sixty-four patients (85.3%) had received an unrelated hematopoietic stem cell graft, and 28 patients (37.3%) had received a cord blood graft. At baseline, the distribution of aGVHD grades B, C, and D was 12.0%, 28.0%, and 60.0%, respectively. The median duration of aGVHD before enrollment was 30 d (range, 2 to 1639 d), and patients failed a median of 3 immunosuppressive agents. Organ involvement at baseline was 86.7% gastrointestinal, 54.7% skin, and 36.0% liver. Thirty-six patients (48.0%) had 2 organs involved, and 11 patients (14.7%) had all 3 organs involved. When stratified by aGVHD grade at baseline, the rate of overall response (complete and partial response) at day +28 was 66.7% for aGVHD grade B, 76.2% for grade C, and 53.3% for grade D. Overall response for individual organs at day +28 was 58.5% for the gastrointestinal system, 75.6% for skin, and 44.4% for liver. Collectively, overall response at day +28 for patients treated for severe refractory aGVHD was 61.3%, and this response was correlated with statistically significant improved survival at day +100 after hMSC infusion. Patients who responded to therapy by day +28 had a higher Kaplan-Meier estimated probability of 100-d survival compared with patients who did not respond (78.1% versus 31.0%; P < .001). Prochymal infusions were generally well tolerated, with no evidence of ectopic tissue formation.
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Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised children and healthy adults.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
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Voriconazole pharmacokinetics are not well characterized in children despite prior studies. To assess the appropriate pediatric dosing, a study was conducted in 40 immunocompromised children aged 2 to <12 years to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole following intravenous (IV)-to-oral (PO) switch regimens based on a previous population pharmacokinetic modeling: 7 mg/kg IV every 12 h (q12h) and 200 mg PO q12h. Area under the curve over the 12-h dosing interval (AUC(0-12)) was calculated using the noncompartmental method and compared to that for adults receiving approved dosing regimens (6 ? 4 mg/kg IV q12h, 200 mg PO q12h). On average, the AUC(0-12) in children receiving 7 mg/kg IV q12h on day 1 and at IV steady state were 7.85 and 21.4 ?g · h/ml, respectively, and approximately 44% and 40% lower, respectively, than those for adults at 6 ? 4 mg/kg IV q12h. Large intersubject variability was observed. At steady state during oral treatment (200 mg q12h), children had higher average exposure than adults, with much larger intersubject variability. The exposure achieved with oral dosing in children tended to decrease as weight and age increased. The most common treatment-related adverse events were transient elevated liver function tests. No clear threshold of voriconazole exposure was identified that would predict the occurrence of treatment-related hepatic events. Overall, voriconazole IV doses higher than 7 mg/kg are needed in children to closely match adult exposures, and a weight-based oral dose may be more appropriate for children than a fixed dose. Safety of voriconazole in children was consistent with the known safety profile of voriconazole.
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Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised adolescents and healthy adults.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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The current voriconazole dosing recommendation in adolescents is based on limited efficacy and pharmacokinetic data. To confirm the appropriateness of dosing adolescents like adults, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 26 immunocompromised adolescents aged 12 to <17 years following intravenous (IV) voriconazole to oral switch regimens: 6 mg/kg IV every 12 h (q12h) on day 1 followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, then switched to 300 mg orally q12h. Area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval (AUC(0-12)) was calculated using a noncompartmental method and compared to the value for adults receiving the same dosing regimens. On average, the AUC(0-12) in adolescents after the first loading dose on day 1 and at steady state during IV treatment were 9.14 and 22.4 ?g·h/ml, respectively (approximately 34% and 36% lower, respectively, than values for adults). At steady state during oral treatment, adolescents also had lower average exposure than adults (16.7 versus 34.0 ?g·h/ml). Larger intersubject variability was observed in adolescents than in adults. There was a slight trend for some young adolescents with low body weight to have lower voriconazole exposure. It is likely that these young adolescents may metabolize voriconazole more similarly to children than to adults. Overall, with the same dosing regimens, voriconazole exposures in the majority of adolescents were comparable to those in adults. The young adolescents with low body weight during the transitioning period from childhood to adolescence (e.g., 12 to 14 years old) may need to receive higher doses to match the adult exposures. Safety of voriconazole in adolescents was consistent with the known safety profile of voriconazole.
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Outcomes of pediatric bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and myelodysplasia using matched sibling, mismatched related, or matched unrelated donors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Although some trials have allowed matched or single human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched related donors (mmRDs) along with HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs) for pediatric bone marrow transplantation in early-stage hematologic malignancies, whether mmRD grafts lead to similar outcomes is not known. We compared patients < 18 years old reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic T-replete, myeloablative bone marrow transplantation between 1993 and 2006. In total, patients receiving bone marrow from 1208 MSDs, 266 8/8 allelic-matched unrelated donors (URDs), and 151 0-1 HLA-antigen mmRDs were studied. Multivariate analysis showed that recipients of MSD transplants had less transplantation-related mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and chronic GVHD, along with better disease-free and overall survival than the URD and mmRD groups. No differences were observed in transplant-related mortality, acute and chronic GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the mmRD and URD groups. These data show that mmRD and 8/8 URD outcomes are similar, whereas MSD outcomes are superior to the other 2 sources. Whether allele level typing could identify mmRD recipients with better outcomes will not be known unless centers alter practice and type mmRD at the allele level.
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Characterization of S-glutathionyl hemoglobin in homozygous sickle cell disease.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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S-glutathionyl hemoglobin is a proposed biomarker of oxidative stress but has not been measured in sickle cell disease patients. Unlike the S-glutathionyl adduct of normal adult hemoglobin, S-glutathionyl sickle hemoglobin (HbSSG) cannot be directly measured by capillary isoelectric focusing, because it coelutes with fetal hemoglobin (HbF). This suggests that HbF, measured in sickle cell patients with or without hydroxyurea therapy, might contain endogenous HbSSG. As S-glutathionyl hemoglobin can form during sample storage, HbSSG could falsely elevate HbF levels in stored samples. We measured HbSSG based on the quantitative difference in the heterogeneous HbF/HbSSG peak before and after hemolysates were treated with dithiothreitol. Paired t tests showed that dithiothreitol reduced HbF/HbSSG in blood from pediatric sickle cell patients (n=25, mean decrease+/-SD=1.0%+/-0.6, P<0.05) but not in normal infants (n=25). Higher HbF levels in hydroxyurea-treated patients (n=5) were not attributable to HbSSG. HbSSG increased significantly within 1 day in samples stored at -20 degrees C but was unchanged in samples stored 60 days at-70 degrees C. We conclude that blood from sickle cell patients contained up to 2.2% HbSSG, and that endogenous HbSSG is a minor interferent in the measurement of HbF in fresh blood but a major interferent in improperly stored samples.
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Late effects in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with acquired severe aplastic anemia: a report from the late effects working committee of the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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With improvements in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), there is a growing population of SAA survivors after HCT. However, there is a paucity of information regarding late effects that occur after HCT in SAA survivors. This study describes the malignant and nonmalignant late effects in survivors with SAA after HCT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 1718 patients post-HCT for acquired SAA between 1995 and 2006 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The prevalence and cumulative incidence estimates of late effects are reported for 1-year HCT survivors with SAA. Of the HCT recipients, 1176 (68.5%) and 542 (31.5%) patients underwent a matched sibling donor (MSD) or unrelated donor (URD) HCT, respectively. The median age at the time of HCT was 20 years. The median interval from diagnosis to transplantation was 3 months for MSD HCT and 14 months for URD HCT. The median follow-up was 70 months and 67 months for MSD and URD HCT survivors, respectively. Overall survival at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years for the entire cohort was 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74-78), 73% (95% CI: 71-75), and 70% (95% CI: 68-72). Among 1-year survivors of MSD HCT, 6% had 1 late effect and 1% had multiple late effects. For 1-year survivors of URD HCT, 13% had 1 late effect and 2% had multiple late effects. Among survivors of MSD HCT, the cumulative incidence estimates of developing late effects were all <3% and did not increase over time. In contrast, for recipients of URD HCT, the cumulative incidence of developing several late effects exceeded 3% by 5 years: gonadal dysfunction 10.5% (95% CI: 7.3-14.3), growth disturbance 7.2% (95% CI: 4.4-10.7), avascular necrosis 6.3% (95% CI: 3.6-9.7), hypothyroidism 5.5% (95% CI: 2.8-9.0), and cataracts 5.1% (95% CI: 2.9-8.0). Our results indicated that all patients undergoing HCT for SAA remain at risk for late effects, must be counseled about, and should be monitored for late effects for the remainder of their lives.
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A facile, branched DNA assay to quantitatively measure glucocorticoid receptor auto-regulation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Chin J Cancer
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Glucocorticoid (GC) steroid hormones are used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) because of their pro-apoptotic effects in hematopoietic cells. However, not all leukemia cells are sensitive to GC, and no assay to stratify patients is available. In the GC-sensitive T-cell ALL cell line CEM-C7, auto-up-regulation of RNA transcripts for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) correlates with increased apoptotic response. This study aimed to determine if a facile assay of GR transcript levels might be promising for stratifying ALL patients into hormone-sensitive and hormone-resistant populations. The GR transcript profiles of various lymphoid cell lines and 4 bone marrow samples from patients with T-cell ALL were analyzed using both an optimized branched DNA (bDNA) assay and a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. There were significant correlations between both assay platforms when measuring total GR (exon 5/6) transcripts in various cell lines and patient samples, but not for a probe set that detects a specific, low abundance GR transcript (exon 1A3). Our results suggest that the bDNA platform is reproducible and precise when measuring total GR transcripts and, with further development, may ultimately offer a simple clinical assay to aid in the prediction of GC-sensitivity in ALL patients.
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Iron deficiency reduces serum and in vitro secretion of interleukin-4 in mice independent of altered spleen cell proliferation.
Nutr Res
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Iron deficiency, a worldwide public health problem in children and adult women, impairs innate and cell-mediated immunity including interferon-? secretion. Its effects on interleukin (IL)-4 have not been well investigated. Interleukin-4, a cytokine primarily secreted by TH2 lymphocytes, regulates B-cell proliferation and the switching of immunoglobulin (Ig)M to IgE subtypes; the latter is involved in the defense against helminth infection. Considering the fact that interferon-? is a potent inhibitor of IL-4, we hypothesize that iron deficiency would increase the secretion of IL-4 and IgE. We measured IL-4 in serum and supernatant of concanavalin A and anti-CD3 antibody-treated spleen cells from iron-deficient, control, pair-fed DBA and C57BL/6 mice (20-24/group) and iron-replete mice for 3, 7, and 14 days (8-13/group). Feeding the low-iron diet (5 ppm vs 50 ppm for the control diet) for 2 months significantly reduced the mean levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver iron stores, thymus weight, and induced splenomegaly in both strains of mice (P < .001). Iron deficiency, and not pair-feeding, reduced plasma IL-4 levels (P < .05), although it did not significantly affect IgE levels. Iron deficiency, especially when associated with thymus atrophy, reduced in vitro IL-4 secretion by activated spleen cells, cell proliferation, and percentage of CD4?IL-4? cells (P < .05). Impaired cell proliferation did not fully explain reduced in vitro IL-4 secretion because iron-deficient mice with a normal thymus weight had a normal (3)H-thymidine uptake but decreased supernatant IL-4. It was likely due to low percentage of CD4?IL-4?. Iron repletion improved IL-4 measurements. Data suggest that iron deficiency has generalized negative effects on T-cell function. Unaltered plasma IgE may be due to other cytokines (ie, IL-13) that also modulate its secretion.
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