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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Adverse effect of sub-chronic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene and protective effect of butylated hydroxyanisole on learning and memory ability in male Sprague-Dawley rat.
J Toxicol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Previous studies demonstrate that benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) can affect hippocampal function and cause spatial cognition impairment. However, the mechanism is incomplete. Some evidence implies that B(a)P may cause an oxidative damage linking to the function of the hippocampus and antioxidant can prevent the oxidative damage in rats, but the ATPase and Ca(2+) in the hippocampus and the protective effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have not been studied. This study aimed to investigate the damage of toxicity further induced by B(a)P in hippocampus and the protective effect of BHA. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (solvent control group, BHA-group, B(a)P-exposed group and B(a)P-BHA-combination group), with daily administration for 90 days. Morris water maze (MWM) was employed to evaluate the learning and memory ability. The levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)ATPase activity in hippocampus were measured by commercial kits. The concentration of Ca(2+) in rat hippocampus was detected by fluorescent labeling. In behavior test it showed that there was an adverse effect on rats in the B(a)P -group. The levels of MDA content and Ca(2+) content were significantly increased in the B(a)P group, while the activities of SOD and ATPase were significantly decreased. In the B(a)P-BHA group, the change of each index diminished significantly. The results suggested that the neurobehavioral toxicity of B(a)P might have a close relationship with oxidative damage, resulted in decreasing of ATPase activities and increasing of Ca(2+) concentration in the hippocampus. Furthermore, BHA can prevent these damages.
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Resistive-pulse analysis of nanoparticles.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif)
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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The development of nanopore fabrication methods during the past decade has led to the resurgence of resistive-pulse analysis of nanoparticles. The newly developed resistive-pulse methods enable researchers to simultaneously study properties of a single nanoparticle and statistics of a large ensemble of nanoparticles. This review covers the basic theory and recent advances in applying resistive-pulse analysis and extends to more complex transport motion (e.g., stochastic thermal motion of a single nanoparticle) and unusual electrical responses (e.g., resistive-pulse response sensitive to surface charge), followed by a brief summary of numerical simulations performed in this field. We emphasize the forces within a nanopore governing translocation of low-aspect-ratio, nondeformable particles but conclude by also considering soft materials such as liposomes and microgels.
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The complex jujube genome provides insights into fruit tree biology.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), a member of family Rhamnaceae, is a major dry fruit and a traditional herbal medicine for more than one billion people. Here we present a high-quality sequence for the complex jujube genome, the first genome sequence of Rhamnaceae, using an integrated strategy. The final assembly spans 437.65?Mb (98.6% of the estimated) with 321.45?Mb anchored to the 12 pseudo-chromosomes and contains 32,808 genes. The jujube genome has undergone frequent inter-chromosome fusions and segmental duplications, but no recent whole-genome duplication. Further analyses of the jujube-specific genes and transcriptome data from 15 tissues reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying some specific properties of the jujube. Its high vitamin C content can be attributed to a unique high level expression of genes involved in both biosynthesis and regeneration. Our study provides insights into jujube-specific biology and valuable genomic resources for the improvement of Rhamnaceae plants and other fruit trees.
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Negative differential electrolyte resistance in a solid-state nanopore resulting from electroosmotic flow bistability.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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A solid-state nanopore separating two aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of KCl is demonstrated to exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) when a constant pressure is applied across the nanopore. NDR refers to a decrease in electrical current when the voltage applied across the nanopore is increased. NDR results from the interdependence of solution flow (electroosmotic and pressure-engendered) with the distributions of K+ and Cl- within the nanopore. A switch from a high-conductivity state to a low-conductivity state occurs over a very narrow voltage window (<2 mV) that depends on the nanopore geometry, electrolyte concentration, and nanopore surface charge density. Finite element simulations based on a simultaneous solution of the Navier-Stokes, Poisson, and Nernst-Planck equations demonstrate that NDR results from a positive feedback mechanism between the ion distributions and electroosmotic flow, yielding a true bistability in fluid flow and electrical current at a critical applied voltage, i.e., the NDR "switching potential". Solution pH and Ca2+ were separately employed as chemical stimuli to investigate the dependence of the NDR on the surface charge density. The NDR switching potential is remarkably sensitive to the surface charge density, and thus to pH and the presence of Ca2+, suggesting possible applications in chemical sensing.
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Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge) and lower (hair bulb) segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC) in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT) in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.
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Ni-catalyzed reductive homocoupling of unactivated alkyl bromides at room temperature and its synthetic application.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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A room-temperature Ni-catalyzed reductive approach to homocoupling of unactivated primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl bromides is described. The catalytic system can be easily generated from air-stable and cheap materials and demonstrates broad functional group tolerance, thus allowing facile access to useful dimeric triterpene and lignan-like molecules. Moreover, the dimerization of tertiary bromide 6 efficiently establishes sterically hindered vicinal quaternary carbons (C3a and C3a), which is a key linkage of intriguing bispyrrolo[2,3-b]indoline alkaloids, thereby enabling us to complete the total syntheses of racemic chimonanthine (9) and folicanthine (10). In addition, this dimerization method can be expanded to the highly stereoselective synthesis of bisperhydrofuro[2,3-b]furan (5a) and the dimeric spiroketal 5b, signifying the involvement of possible radical species.
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Collective synthesis of several 2,7-cyclolignans and their correlation by chemical transformations.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Collective synthesis of anti-malarial 2,7-cyclolignans has been stereoselectively achieved employing (±)-cyclogalgravin (2) as a linchpin through a series of functional group conversions, including redox reactions. Interestingly, 2 can be correlated with the neolignan (±)-kadangustin J (1) isolated from a different plant source, through a highly efficient dehydrative cyclization reaction with excellent diastereotopic differentiation of the veratryl group and concomitant construction of the C1–C7 bond. It is noteworthy that the first total synthesis of stereodivergent (±)-8,8-epi-aristoligone (5), (±)-8-epi-aristoligone (7), (±)-8-epi-8-OH-aristoligone (8) and (±)-8-epi-aristoligol (9) was demonstrated.
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Electrogeneration of single nanobubbles at sub-50-nm-radius platinum nanodisk electrodes.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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The electrochemical generation of individual H(2) nanobubbles at Pt nanodisk electrodes immersed in a 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) solution is reported. A sudden drop in current associated with the transport-limited reduction of protons is observed in the i–V response at Pt nanodisk electrodes with radii of less than 50 nm. This decrease in current (~95% blockage) corresponds to the formation of a single H(2) nanobubble attached to the nanoelectrode that blocks proton transport to the surface. The current at which nanobubble formation occurs, i(nb)(p), is independent of scan rate and H(2)SO(4) concentration (for [H(2)SO(4)] > 0.1 M), indicating a critical concentration profile of electrogenerated H(2) required to nucleate a nanobubble. Finite element simulation based on Fick’s first law, combined with the Young–Laplace equation and Henry’s law, indicates that the concentration of H(2) near the nanoelectrode surface at i(nb)(p) exceeds the saturation concentration necessary to generate a nanobubble with a size comparable to the electrode size. The rapid dissolution of the nanobubble due to the high inner Laplace pressure is precisely balanced by the electrogeneration of H(2) at the partially exposed Pt surface, resulting in a dynamically stabilized nanobubble. Preliminary measurements of the i–t response during nanobubble formation indicate a two-step nucleation and growth mechanism with time scales on the order of 100 ?s (or less) and ~1 ms, respectively.
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[Research advances of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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CD40 and its receptor CD40L are a very important pair of co-stimulating molecule in immune response, which have extensive biological effects. After stimulating CD40 signal, it can exert corresponding function through MAPK (JNK, ERK, p38) pathway, PI3K cascade, as well as NF-?B and STAT. The CD40 signal is closely related to tumor immunity, this moleculer has already become targeted-molecule for cancer treatment. Recently, there have been many anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies displaying good anti-cancer effect, among which CHIR-12.12, SGN-40 and CP-870, 893 developed rapidly and successively have entered clinical research stage. This review focuses the status of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, including distribution of CD40, physiological function of CD40, CD40 and tumor immunity, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies and so on.
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Effects of four antitussives on airway neurogenic inflammation in a guinea pig model of chronic cough induced by cigarette smoke exposure.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The effects of four antitussives, including codeine phosphate (CP), moguisteine, levodropropizine (LVDP) and naringin, on airway neurogenic inflammation and enhanced cough were investigated in guinea pig model of chronic cough.
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Experimental research on treatment of injured facial nerves induced by hepatocyte growth factor mediated by ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The purpose of our study was to explore the regeneration effect of the ultrasound (US)-targeted microbubble destruction-mediated eukaryotic coexpression vector (pIRES2-enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]/hepatocyte growth factor [HGF]) with EGFP and HGF gene system on facial nerve injury in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups after the models of facial nerve injury were established: A, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group; B, HGF and microbubble (HGF + MB) group; C, HGF and US (HGF + US) group; and D, HGF + US + microbubble (HGF + MB/US) group. Gene and protein levels of HGF were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The expression of pEGFP in facial nerve trunks was examined by laser scanning confocal microscope; HGF gene and protein expression were significantly higher in D group compared with those of the other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of pEGFP was the strongest in D group (P < 0.05). These data indicate that US-targeted microbubble destruction effectively transfects the HGF gene into target tissues and has a significant effect on an injured facial nerve, thus providing a new strategy for gene therapy in facial nerve injury.
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Commensal bacteria-dependent select expression of CXCL2 contributes to periodontal tissue homeostasis.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The oral and intestinal host tissues both carry a heavy microbial burden. Although commensal bacteria contribute to healthy intestinal tissue structure and function, their contribution to oral health is poorly understood. A crucial component of periodontal health is the recruitment of neutrophils to periodontal tissue. To elucidate this process, gingival tissues of specific-pathogen-free and germ-free wild-type mice and CXCR2KO and MyD88KO mice were examined for quantitative analysis of neutrophils and CXCR2 chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL2). We show that the recruitment of neutrophils to the gingival tissue does not require commensal bacterial colonization but is entirely dependent on CXCR2 expression. Strikingly, however, commensal bacteria selectively upregulate the expression of CXCL2, but not CXCL1, in a MyD88-dependent way that correlates with increased neutrophil recruitment as compared with germ-free conditions. This is the first evidence that the selective use of chemokine receptor ligands contributes to neutrophil homing to healthy periodontal tissue.
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Protective effects of naringin against paraquat-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The present study evaluates protective effects of naringin against paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Survival probability against PQ intoxication was tested by a single intraperitoneal injection of PQ. Results showed that survival rates of mice exposed to PQ only (50 mg/kg within 7 days) were much lower than that in mice daily treatment with NAC or naringin. Moreover, protection against PQ-induced ALI was tested by daily pretreatment mice with saline, NAC or naringin for 3 days before PQ (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Results showed that increase in leukocytes infiltration and overexpressions of TNF-? and TGF-?1 caused by 8h of PQ exposure were dose-dependently ameliorated by naringin. Furthermore, protection against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis was tested by pretreatment mice with PQ (20 mg/kg, i.p.), and then daily administration with saline, NAC or naringin for prolonged 21 days. Results showed that naringin of 60 and 120 mg/kg significantly reduced PQ-induced upregulations of TNF-?, TGF-?1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1, levels of pulmonary malonaldehyde and hydroxyproline, as well as pulmonary fibrosis deposition, while increased activities of SOD, GSH-Px and HO-1. These results indicated that naringin had effective protection against PQ-induced ALI and pulmonary fibrosis.
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[Application of chemiluminescence immunoassay method in detection of serum index for liver fibrosis in patients with advanced schistosomiasis].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The method of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was adopted to detect the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), III procollagen (CP III), IV collagen (IV-C) in the sera of 102 cases of advanced schistosomiasis. The results showed that the levels of the 4 indexes of advanced schistosomiasis patients were significantly higher than those of healthy people. It is suggested that the application of CLIA to detect the related serum indexes in patients with advanced schistosomiasis is useful in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis.
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A facile Cu(I)/BINAP-catalyzed asymmetric approach to functionalized pyroglutamate derivatives bearing a unique quaternary stereogenic center.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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A direct and facile access to enantioenriched pyroglutamate derivatives bearing a unique quaternary stereogenic center has been developed via Cu(I)/BINAP-catalyzed tandem Michael addition-elimination of ?-substituted aldimino esters with Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates followed by a deprotection/lactamization protocol, which performs well over a broad scope of substrates and provides biologically active pyroglutamate derivatives in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities.
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A wireless blood pressure monitoring system for personal health management.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
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In this paper, we developed a wireless blood pressure monitoring system which provides a useful tool for users to measure and manage their daily blood pressure values. This system includes an ARM-based blood pressure monitor with a ZigBee wireless transmission module and a PC-based management unit with graphic user interface and database. The wireless blood pressure monitor can measure the blood pressure and heart rate and then store and forward the measuring information to the management unit through the ZigBee wireless transmission. On the management unit, user can easy to see their blood pressure variation in the past using a line chart. Accuracy of blood pressure measurement has been verified by a commercial blood pressure simulator and shown the bias of systolic blood pressure is ? 1 mmHg and the bias of diastolic blood pressure is ? 1.4 mmHg.
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Pregnancy estrogen drives the changes of T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines and prolongs the survival of H-Y skin graft in murine model.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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Estrogen as well as CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were shown to have a protective role not only in maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance but also against autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the pregnancy levels of estrogen are enough to induce transplant tolerance as to maintain fetal-maternal tolerance.
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[Study on the bactericidal antibody against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains after immunization with a divalent polysaccharide (A plus C) vaccine].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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To optimize the serum bactericidal assay (SBA), detect and analyze the bactericidal antibody level against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains after divalent polysaccharide (A plus C) vaccine immunization.
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Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate attenuates angiotensin II-induced collagen type I expression in cardiac fibroblasts in vitro.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Cardiac fibrosis occurs after pathological stimuli to the cardiovascular system. One of the most important factors that contribute to cardiac fibrosis is angiotensin II (AngII). Accumulating studies have suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in cardiac fibrosis and sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) possesses antioxidant action. We therefore examined whether STS depresses Ang II-induced collagen type I expression in cardiac fibroblasts. In this study, Ang II significantly enhanced collagen type I expression and collagen synthesis. Meanwhile, Ang II depressed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression and activity. These responses were attenuated by STS. Furthermore, STS depressed the intracellular generation of ROS, NADPH oxidase activity and subunit p47(phox) expression. In addition, N-acetylcysteine the ROS scavenger, depressed effects of Ang II in a manner similar to STS. In conclusion, the current studies demonstrate that anti-fibrotic effects of STS are mediated by interfering with the modulation of ROS.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of naringin in chronic pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed rats.
J Med Food
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Naringin, a well-known flavanone glycoside of grapefruit and citrus fruits, was found to be as an effective anti-inflammatory compound in our previous lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury mouse model via blockading activity of nuclear factor ?B. The current study sought to explore the anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on chronic pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced rats. Seventy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups to study the effects of CS with or without various concentrations of naringin or saline for 8 weeks. The results revealed that naringin supplementation at 20, 40, and 80?mg/kg significantly increased body weight of CS-induced rats as compared to that in the CS group. Moreover, naringin of 20, 40, and 80?mg/kg prevented CS-induced infiltration of neutrophils and activation of myeloperoxidase and matrix metalloproteinase-9, in parallel with suppression of the release of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly suppressed after CS exposure, but dose dependently elevated by naringin. The results from hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that naringin dose dependently reduced CS-induced infiltration of inflammatory cells, thickening of the bronchial wall, and expansion of average alveolar airspace. In conclusion, our data suggest that naringin is an effective anti-inflammatory compound for attenuating chronic pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation in CS-induced rats.
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Naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs-AP-1 and IKKs-I?B-NF-?B signaling pathways.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
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Naringenin, the aglycone of naringin, has been reported to attenuate MUC5AC secretion by inhibiting activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) via EGFR-PI3K-Akt/ERK MAPKinase signaling pathways. However, previous studies demonstrated that the MUC5AC promoter was located in two different regions: an activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site and a NF-?B binding site. The current study comprehensively determined the involvement of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/I?B/NF-?B in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced A549 cells, and sought to ascertain the signaling pathways of naringin imparted in suppression of EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion. The results showed that naringin of 100 ?M not only significantly decreased EGF-induced overexpressions of both MUC5AC mucin and mRNA in A549 cells, but also suppressed the phosphorylation of EGF receptor, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as nucleus NF-?B p65 and AP-1. Moreover, any of three MAPKs inhibitors (PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125) significantly inhibited EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion. And as compared to MG132, the inhibitor ?B (I?B) phosphorylation inhibitor of SN50 was more effective in reducing EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion because of suppression of nucleus AP-1. Meanwhile, as compared to naringin, both SP600125 and azithromycin were less effective in suppressing EGF-induced secretion of MUC5AC because of the unchanged nucleus NF-?B p65. These results indicated that naringin attenuates EGF-induced MUC5AC secretion in A549 cells by suppressing the cooperative activities of MAPKs/AP-1 and IKKs/I?B/NF-?B signaling pathways.
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Characteristic comparison of three rat models induced by cigarette smoke or combined with LPS: to establish a suitable model for study of airway mucus hypersecretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
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There is a need of in vivo COPD models for mucus hypersecretion study. The current study compared three rat models induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure alone or combined with pre- or post-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Forty rats were randomly divided into the four following groups: control group, LPS + CS group (CS exposure for 4-wk combined with LPS pretreatment), CS group (CS exposure for 6-wk), CS + LPS group (CS exposure for 6-wk combined with LPS post-treatment). The results showed that both CS and CS + LPS groups had more severe pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, inflammatory cells infiltration, and emphysema as compared to that in LPS + CS group animals. From the PAS staining sections, we found a remarkable hyperplasia of goblet-cell in epitheliums of trachea, bronchi, and bronchiole of all of three modeling groups, especially in CS and CS + LPS groups. From the western-blotting results, there were significant increase in the activities of NF-?B, AP-1, EGFR, TLR4, and MAPKs in all of three modeling groups, while HDAC2 activity was remarkably repressed in CS group only. Moreover, the expression and secretion of MUC5AC were exhibited significant increase in all of three modeling groups, which correlated well with the total transcription activity integration of NF-?B, AP-1, and HDAC2 (r = 0.946, p < 0.01). These results indicated that MUC5AC hypersecretion is consistent with activation of EGFR-AP-1/NF-?B and TLR4-AP-1/NF-?B signaling pathways, as well as repression of HDAC2 activity. Based on these results, we speculated that the 6-wk CS exposure rat model is a reliable COPD rat model, while the 6-wk CS exposure combined with LPS post-treatment rat model is a suitable COPD exacerbation model for mucus hypersecretion study.
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Tunable negative differential electrolyte resistance in a conical nanopore in glass.
ACS Nano
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Liquid-phase negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in the i-V behavior of a conical nanopore (~300 nm orifice radius) in a glass membrane that separates an external low-conductivity 5 mM KCl solution of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)/water (v/v 3:1) from an internal high-conductivity 5 mM KCl aqueous solution. NDR appears in the i-V curve of the negatively charged nanopore as the voltage-dependent electro-osmotic force opposes an externally applied pressure force, continuously moving the location of the interfacial zone between the two miscible solutions to a position just inside the nanopore orifice. An ~80% decrease in the ionic current occurs over less that a ~10 mV increase in applied voltage. The NDR turn-on voltage was found to be tunable over a ~1 V window by adjusting the applied external pressure from 0 to 50 mmHg. Finite-element simulations based on solution of Navier-Stokes, Poisson, and convective Nernst-Planck equations for mixed solvent electrolytes within a negatively charged nanopore yield predictions of the NDR behavior that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Applications in chemical sensing of a tunable, solution-based electrical switch based on the NDR effect are discussed.
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Naringin attenuates enhanced cough, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of chronic bronchitis induced by cigarette smoke.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
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Naringin is a flavanone with various bioactivities including expectorant effect, antitussive effect and inhibitory effects on asthma and acute lung injury. In present study we examined the effects of naringin on enhanced cough, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation in chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure-induced chronic bronchitis in guinea pigs. To achieve this, guinea pigs were exposed to CS for 8weeks (10cigarettes/day, 6days/week). Oral administration of naringin (9.2, 18.4 and 36.8mg/kg) significantly attenuated the enhanced cough and AHR in smoke-exposed guinea pigs, reduced the concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in both BALF and lung tissue, but did not significantly decrease the leukocytes in BALF. Naringin also improved superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity in lung tissue and increased the content of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in BALF in this guinea pig model of chronic bronchitis. These results suggested that naringin exhibited antitussive, anti-AHR and anti-inflammation effects on chronic CS exposure-induced chronic bronchitis in guinea pigs, and may possess novel therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic bronchitis.
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Endothelialization and in-stent restenosis on the surface of glycoprotein IIIa monoclonal antibody eluting stent.
J Biomed Mater Res A
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Since the percutaneous transtuminal coronary angioplasty was introduced into China in 1984, this procedure has become widely accepted as an important step in coronary revascularization. This study shows the effect of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the platelet glycoprotein IIIa receptor during endothelialization and in-stent restenosis by implanting the mAb-eluting stents into iliac arteries of rabbits. The hard tissue cross sections of the stent-implanted arterial segments were made by polymethylmethacrylate embedding. Arterial intima proliferation was observed and analyzed. The endothelialization of the stent surface was observed using scanning electron microscope, whereas the ultrastructure of the neointima was observed using transmission electron microscope. After one month of stent implantation, the surfaces of both groups were covered by intact endothelial layers, but the neointimal areas and the ratio of stenosis were significantly lesser in the mAb-eluting stent group (p < 0.01). After 3 months, the ratio of stenosis in the mAb-eluting stent group was 14.67 ± 0.79, whereas that of the bare stent group was 21.58 ± 1.76 (p < 0.01). Therefore, the mAb eluting from the stent surface has the potential to accelerate endothelialization, prevent thrombosis formation due to the interaction of stent with blood, and decrease the stenosis ratio by inhibiting neointima proliferation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.