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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
eButton: A Wearable Computer for Health Monitoring and Personal Assistance.
Proc Des Autom Conf
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Recent advances in mobile devices have made profound changes in people's daily lives. In particular, the impact of easy access of information by the smartphone has been tremendous. However, the impact of mobile devices on healthcare has been limited. Diagnosis and treatment of diseases are still initiated by occurrences of symptoms, and technologies and devices that emphasize on disease prevention and early detection outside hospitals are under-developed. Besides healthcare, mobile devices have not yet been designed to fully benefit people with special needs, such as the elderly and those suffering from certain disabilities, such blindness. In this paper, an overview of our research on a new wearable computer called eButton is presented. The concepts of its design and electronic implementation are described. Several applications of the eButton are described, including evaluating diet and physical activity, studying sedentary behavior, assisting the blind and visually impaired people, and monitoring older adults suffering from dementia.
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The Obesity Epidemic: The United States as a Cautionary Tale for the Rest of the World.
Curr Epidemiol Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Obesity is a global epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase in many developed and developing countries. This brief review provides an update on the prevalence of obesity in the United States (US) and globally, reviews the underlying mechanism of several comorbidities associated with obesity, and discusses the economic burden of obesity. Although the overall prevalence of obesity in the US is not increasing, racial and ethnic minorities continue to struggle with rising obesity rates. Globally, the largest increases are being observed in developing continues. Given the comorbidities associated with obesity and its immense economic burden, nearly every country will soon struggle with the financial and healthcare implications of the epidemic.
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Effects of weight management by exercise modes on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic profile among women with abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Few studies have examined the differential effects of weight management by exercise mode on subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that 3 modes of aerobic, resistance, and combination exercises have differential effects on the flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as cardiometabolic profile in weight management.
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Daughters and Mothers Against Breast Cancer (DAMES): main outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in overweight mothers with breast cancer and their overweight daughters.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Few studies to date have used the cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to promote healthy behavior changes in survivors of cancer and their family members. Given the role of obesity in the primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer, the authors explored the feasibility of a mother-daughter weight loss intervention.
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Sleep, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Functional Outcomes in Adults With Diabetes.
Appl Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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This study explored the association of sleep quality with physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional outcomes in 116 participants with type 2 diabetes.
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Adherence to hemodialysis dietary sodium recommendations: influence of patient characteristics, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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To identify characteristics of hemodialysis patients most likely to experience difficulty adhering to sodium restrictions associated with their dietary regimen.
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The Use of mHealth to Deliver Tailored Messages Reduces Reported Energy and Fat Intake.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Evidence supports the role of feedback in reinforcing motivation for behavior change. Feedback that provides reinforcement has the potential to increase dietary self-monitoring and enhance attainment of recommended dietary intake.
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An exploratory investigation of links between changes in adipokines and quality of life in individuals undergoing weight loss interventions: possible implications for cancer research.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Obesity has been linked to a wide spectrum of malignancies, with the strongest association demonstrated for endometrial cancer. Although the mechanisms are not yet entirely clear, a number of risk biomarkers have been proposed, including altered adipokines. Systemic levels of these adipose derived molecules have also been linked in prior research to self-reported quality of life (QOL). The study objective was to examine the hypothesis that adipokine changes during intentional weight loss may be associated with changes in QOL.
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Self-Monitoring as a Mediator of Weight Loss in the SMART Randomized Clinical Trial.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Integral components of behavioral weight-loss treatment include self-monitoring of diet and physical activity along with feedback to participants regarding their behaviors. While providing feedback has been associated with weight loss, no studies have examined the impact of feedback frequency on weight loss or the mediating role of self-monitoring adherence in this relationship.
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Weight loss is more important than the diet type in improving adiponectin levels among overweight/obese adults.
J Am Coll Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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The study objective was to compare the effect of a standard calorie- and fat-restricted diet (STD-D) and a calorie- and fat-restricted lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (LOV-D) on total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels after 6 months of behavioral intervention.
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Improving Activity in Adults With Diabetes and Coexisting Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
West J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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This study in participants with type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea evaluated changes in activity, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness after 4 weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This pilot study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Sleep apnea was quantified with an overnight sleep study. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, vigor and fatigue with the Profiles of Mood States, subjective activity with the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and objective activity with the Bodymedia SenseWear Armband™. Subjects were randomized to either CPAP (n = 12) or sham-devices (n = 11). The intervention group had reduced apneas and hypopneas, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue; they also had improved sleep quality and increased objective activity and vigor. The study suggested that treatment of obstructive sleep apnea results in a modest improvement of activity in persons with type 2 diabetes.
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Mobile applications for weight management: theory-based content analysis.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The use of smartphone applications (apps) to assist with weight management is increasingly prevalent, but the quality of these apps is not well characterized.
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Longitudinal effects of weight loss and regain on cytokine concentration of obese adults.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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To describe patterns of weight loss and regain and their effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-?, and anti-inflammatory cytokines adiponectin and IL-10 during a 24-month weight loss trial.
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Factors associated with health-related quality of life among overweight or obese adults.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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To identify factors associated with health-related quality of life among overweight or obese adults.
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Treatment strategies for overweight and obesity.
J Nurs Scholarsh
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To review the health problem of overweight and obesity in adults, the available treatment options, and clinical implications for nursing.
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Value of primordial and primary prevention for cardiovascular disease: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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The process of atherosclerosis may begin in youth and continue for decades, leading to both nonfatal and fatal cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death. With primordial and primary prevention, cardiovascular disease is largely preventable. Clinical trial evidence has shown convincingly that pharmacological treatment of risk factors can prevent events. The data are less definitive but also highly suggestive that appropriate public policy and lifestyle interventions aimed at eliminating tobacco use, limiting salt consumption, encouraging physical exercise, and improving diet can prevent events. There has been concern about whether efforts aimed at primordial and primary prevention provide value (ie, whether such interventions are worth what we pay for them). Although questions about the value of therapeutics for acute disease may be addressed by cost-effectiveness analysis, the long time frames involved in evaluating preventive interventions make cost-effectiveness analysis difficult and necessarily flawed. Nonetheless, cost-effectiveness analyses reviewed in this policy statement largely suggest that public policy, community efforts, and pharmacological intervention are all likely to be cost-effective and often cost saving compared with common benchmarks. The high direct medical care and indirect costs of cardiovascular disease-approaching $450 billion a year in 2010 and projected to rise to over $1 trillion a year by 2030-make this a critical medical and societal issue. Prevention of cardiovascular disease will also provide great value in developing a healthier, more productive society.
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Global cardiovascular disease prevention: a call to action for nursing: multilevel policies.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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This section, multilevel policies, reviews the impact that has been and can be made by health policy changes at multiple levels, strategies and resources for increasing adherence to population prevention recommendations, and how changes at the microlevel and macrolevel of the environment can provide opportunities and rewards for healthy behaviors and disincentives for unhealthy behaviors. Policies that support primary prevention of cardiovascular disease require the participation of numerous stakeholders at multiple levels, such as governmental and regulatory agencies. Such policy changes support a healthy lifestyle, as in designated smoke-free areas; laws that mandate that food purveyors reduce sodium and fat content or, eliminate trans-fats; and availability of safe parks and bike and walking trails; and also provide a supportive environment that in turn reinforces adherence to primary prevention. Health-related policies have a major impact at the societal level in both developed and developing countries; thus, it is important to understand the role that policy plays in promoting a healthier lifestyle and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. This section discusses how health policies can impact primary prevention and adherence to healthful recommendations, with examples focused on physical activity and diet.
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Global cardiovascular disease prevention: a call to action for nursing: multilevel policies.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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This section, multilevel policies, reviews the impact that has been and can be made by health policy changes at multiple levels, strategies and resources for increasing adherence to population prevention recommendations, and how changes at the microlevel and macrolevel of the environment can provide opportunities and rewards for healthy behaviors and disincentives for unhealthy behaviors. Policies that support primary prevention of cardiovascular disease require the participation of numerous stakeholders at multiple levels, such as governmental and regulatory agencies. Such policy changes support a healthy lifestyle, as in designated smoke-free areas; laws that mandate that food purveyors reduce sodium and fat content or, eliminate trans-fats; and availability of safe parks and bike and walking trails; and also provide a supportive environment that in turn reinforces adherence to primary prevention. Health-related policies have a major impact at the societal level in both developed and developing countries; thus, it is important to understand the role that policy plays in promoting a healthier lifestyle and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. This section discusses how health policies can impact primary prevention and adherence to healthful recommendations, with examples focused on physical activity and diet.
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Health-related quality of life among participants in the SMART weight loss trial.
Appl Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Obesity has been associated with a decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL); however, the association between weight change and HRQoL is unclear. This secondary analysis of the SMART (Self Monitoring And Recording using Technology) trial, a clinical trial of behavioral weight loss treatment, provides evidence that quality of life improves with weight loss.
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Using a personal digital assistant for self-monitoring influences diet quality in comparison to a standard paper record among overweight/obese adults.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Self-monitoring has traditionally been done using a paper record, which can be tedious and burdensome. A personal digital assistant (PDA) with dietary software can provide an alternative to a paper record. The study aimed to describe the differences in dietary changes at 6 months between participants randomly assigned to use a paper record or PDA for self-monitoring in a clinical trial of weight-loss treatment. Self-monitoring adherence and changes in weight and diet were assessed between 2006 and 2009. The sample (n=192) was 84% female and 78% white, with a mean age of 49 years and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 34.1. At baseline, the groups did not differ in energy intake, percent calories from fat, and number of servings of the examined food groups. At 6 months, both groups had significant reductions in weight, energy intake, and percent calories from total fat and saturated fatty acids (P<0.001); no between-group differences were found. Compared to the paper record group, the PDA group significantly increased consumption of fruit (P=0.02) and vegetables (P=0.04) and decreased consumption of refined grains (P=0.02). Interactions among self-monitoring and the two groups were found in relation to changes in percent calories from total fat (P=0.02), monounsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002), and trans-fatty acids (P=0.04). Frequent self-monitoring was significantly associated with total sugar (P=0.02) and added sugar (P=0.01) intake in both groups. Our findings suggest that use of a PDA for self-monitoring might improve self-awareness of behavior and dietary changes.
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Impact of addressing reasons for weight loss on behavioral weight-control outcome.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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One way to improve weight control may be to place greater emphasis on the main reasons why individuals want to lose weight.
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Personal digital assistant-based self-monitoring adherence rates in 2 dialysis dietary intervention pilot studies: BalanceWise-HD and BalanceWise-PD.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The dialysis dietary regimen is complicated, and computer-based dietary self-monitoring may be useful for helping dialysis patients manage their dietary regimen. In this report, we describe dietary self-monitoring rates among study participants randomized to the intervention arms of 2 pilot studies.
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Self-monitoring in weight loss: a systematic review of the literature.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Self-monitoring is the centerpiece of behavioral weight loss intervention programs. This article presents a systematic review of the literature on three components of self-monitoring in behavioral weight loss studies: diet, exercise, and self-weighing. This review included articles that were published between 1993 and 2009 that reported on the relationship between weight loss and these self-monitoring strategies. Of the 22 studies identified, 15 focused on dietary self-monitoring, one on self-monitoring exercise, and six on self-weighing. A wide array of methods was used to perform self-monitoring; the paper diary was used most often. Adherence to self-monitoring was reported most frequently as the number of diaries completed or the frequency of log-ins or reported weights. The use of technology, which included the Internet, personal digital assistants, and electronic digital scales were reported in five studies. Descriptive designs were used in the earlier studies whereas more recent reports involved prospective studies and randomized trials that examined the effect of self-monitoring on weight loss. A significant association between self-monitoring and weight loss was consistently found; however, the level of evidence was weak because of methodologic limitations. The most significant limitations of the reviewed studies were the homogenous samples and reliance on self-report. In all but two studies, the samples were predominantly white and women. This review highlights the need for studies in more diverse populations, for objective measures of adherence to self-monitoring, and for studies that establish the required dose of self-monitoring for successful outcomes.
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Physical activity self-monitoring and weight loss: 6-month results of the SMART trial.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Weight loss has been associated with higher physical activity (PA) levels and frequent dietary self-monitoring. Less is known about how PA self-monitoring affects adherence to PA goals, PA levels, and weight change.
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The effect of electronic self-monitoring on weight loss and dietary intake: a randomized behavioral weight loss trial.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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Technology may improve self-monitoring adherence and dietary changes in weight loss treatment. Our study aimed to investigate whether using a personal digital assistant (PDA) with dietary and exercise software, with and without a feedback message, compared to using a paper diary/record (PR), results in greater weight loss and improved self-monitoring adherence. Healthy adults (N = 210) with a mean BMI of 34.01 kg/m(2) were randomized to one of three self-monitoring approaches: PR (n = 72), PDA with self-monitoring software (n = 68), or PDA with self-monitoring software and daily feedback messages (PDA+FB, n = 70). All participants received standard behavioral treatment. Self-monitoring adherence and change in body weight, waist circumference, and diet were assessed at 6 months; retention was 91%. All participants had a significant weight loss (P < 0.01) but weight loss did not differ among groups. A higher proportion of PDA+FB participants (63%) achieved ? 5% weight loss in comparison to the PR group (46%) (P < 0.05) and PDA group (49%) (P = 0.09). Median percent self-monitoring adherence over the 6 months was higher in the PDA groups (PDA 80%; PDA+FB 90%) than in the PR group (55%) (P < 0.01). Waist circumference decreased more in the PDA groups than the PR group (P = 0.02). Similarly, the PDA groups reduced energy and saturated fat intake more than the PR group (P < 0.05). Self-monitoring adherence was greater in the PDA groups with the greatest weight change observed in the PDA+FB group.
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Development and use of a tool to guide junior faculty in their progression toward promotion and tenure.
J Prof Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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Junior faculty have multiple roles and need to participate in a variety of activities that increase their likelihood of achieving promotion and tenure. Yet, these faculty often struggle when deciding how and when to expend effort along their career trajectory. In response to the need for structured guidance when setting priorities and making decisions about time management, faculty from a school of nursing at a research university have developed and begun to use a faculty progression tool. Introduced during orientation, this tool helps junior faculty weigh the relative importance of engaging in specific activities by offering a time frame and suggestions for prioritizing and pacing efforts to accomplish critical milestones. Although primarily aimed at tenure stream faculty in a research-intensive environment, this faculty progression tool serves as a model that may be modified for environments with less focus on research. Likewise, it may provide a foundation for development of a similar tool for nontenure stream faculty.
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Factors associated with probability of personal digital assistant-based dietary self-monitoring in those with type 2 diabetes.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Knowledge of factors associated with the use of technology could inform the design of technology-based behavioral interventions. This study examined modifiable and nonmodifiable factors associated with technology-based self-monitoring. 123 participants with type 2 diabetes self-monitored diet using a personal digital assistant in a 6-month behavioral intervention. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine probability of nonadherent and suboptimally adherent behavior relative to adherent behavior. Sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with probability of self-monitoring. Probability of adherence generally was greater in the weeks preceding no group session, and lower in the weeks following no group session or following skipped sessions. Non-modifiable factors suggested by the literature to be associated with poorer access to technology (lower income, older age, minority race, and lower education) were not associated with probability of self-monitoring in this population.
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Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese college students in Korea.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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This study examined the prevalence of metabolic risk factors among overweight and obese college students aged 18 to 29 years in Korea.
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Longitudinal relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic factors in overweight and obese adults.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Few studies have reported longitudinal relationships between physical activity (PA) and cardiometabolic risk factors over time using repeated assessments in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a longitudinal study in 127 participants (81% with body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) who completed a 12-month behavioral intervention for weight loss between 2003 and 2005 in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Using absolute change scores from baseline to each time point (i.e., 6 and 12 months) for all studied variables (Delta = time point - baseline), we performed mixed effects modeling to examine relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors, after adjusting for body weight, energy intake and other covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity). PA was assessed as energy expenditure (kcal/week) using the Paffenbarger activity questionnaire. Over the 12-month period, energy expenditure increased (Delta1,370 kcal/week at 6 months vs. Delta886 kcal/week at 12 months); body weight decreased (Delta8.9 kg at 6 months vs. Delta8.4 kg at 12 months). The average increase in energy expenditure over 12 months was significantly and independently related to reductions in total cholesterol (F = 6.25, p = 0.013), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (F = 5.08, p = 0.025) and fasting blood glucose (F = 5.10, p = 0.025), but not to other risk factors (i.e., fasting insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and waist circumference). In conclusion, among overweight and obese adults undergoing a weight loss intervention, increased energy expenditure over 12 months may improve total cholesterol and LDL-C, important coronary risk factors, and fasting blood glucose, a metabolic risk factor.
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Cardiac health: primary prevention of heart disease in women.
Nurs. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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Heart disease is the number one cause of death among women. Although 450,000 women die annually from heart disease, this fact is unknown to many women. Because heart disease is frequently preventable, increasing awareness of personal risk and preventative measures is a key element of health care for women. Nurse clinicians can evaluate, educate, and counsel women regarding their risk for this pervasive disease and promote behavior changes that will decrease that risk. Research evidence supports that lifestyle behaviors are the cornerstone of heart disease prevention. This article presents current evidence for the prevention of heart disease related to dietary intake, physical activity, weight management, smoking cessation, blood pressure control, and lipid management. Guidelines for implementing findings in clinical practice are discussed.
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Revisiting the association between cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes: data from a large population-based study.
Diabetes Educ
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the presence of diabetes in a large population-level dataset.
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Cardiovascular evaluation and management of severely obese patients undergoing surgery: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Obesity is associated with comorbidities that may lead to disability and death. During the past 20 years, the number of individuals with a body mass index >30, 40, and 50 kg/m(2), respectively, has doubled, quadrupled, and quintupled in the United States. The risk of developing comorbid conditions rises with increasing body mass index. Possible cardiac symptoms such as exertional dyspnea and lower-extremity edema occur commonly and are nonspecific in obesity. The physical examination and electrocardiogram often underestimate cardiac dysfunction in obese patients. The risk of an adverse perioperative cardiac event in obese patients is related to the nature and severity of their underlying heart disease, associated comorbidities, and the type of surgery. Severe obesity has not been associated with increased mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery but has been associated with an increased length of hospital stay and with a greater likelihood of renal failure and prolonged assisted ventilation. Comorbidities that influence the preoperative cardiac risk assessment of severely obese patients include the presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension related to sleep apnea and hypoventilation, cardiac arrhythmias (primarily atrial fibrillation), and deep vein thrombosis. When preoperatively evaluating risk for surgery, the clinician should consider age, gender, cardiorespiratory fitness, electrolyte disorders, and heart failure as independent predictors for surgical morbidity and mortality. An obesity surgery mortality score for gastric bypass has also been proposed. Given the high prevalence of severely obese patients, this scientific advisory was developed to provide cardiologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other healthcare professionals with recommendations for the preoperative cardiovascular evaluation, intraoperative and perioperative management, and postoperative cardiovascular care of this increasingly prevalent patient population.
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Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers.
Patient Prefer Adherence
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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To describe participants adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases.
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Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program: a comprehensive model for prevention training and program delivery.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) demonstrated that lifestyle intervention reduces risk for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. A universal framework for translation of multiple aspects of the DPP intervention, including training, support, and evaluation is needed to enhance treatment fidelity in a variety of settings.
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Daytime sleepiness and functional outcomes in older adults with diabetes.
Diabetes Educ
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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This secondary analysis examined the effect of excessive sleepiness on daytime function in older adults with diabetes from the National Sleep Foundations Sleep and Aging poll.
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Experiences of self-monitoring: successes and struggles during treatment for weight loss.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2009
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We interviewed 15 individuals who completed a behavioral weight loss treatment study with the aim of exploring participants reflections on their feelings, attitudes, and behaviors while using a paper diary to self-monitor their diet. Constant comparative and matrix analysis procedures were used to analyze interview data; the qualitative results were then interfaced with descriptive numerical data on individuals adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss. Three categories of self-monitoring experience were identified: (a) well-disciplined-those who had high adherence to self-monitoring, high weight loss, and a "can do" positive approach, (b) missing the connection-those who had moderate adherence, moderate- to low weight loss, and an "its an assignment" approach, without integrating self-monitoring into everyday life, and (c) diminished support-those who had poor adherence, poor weight control, and were adversely affected by coexisting negative factors. Given the variations in how individuals integrated the process of self-monitoring, we need to consider individualizing self-monitoring strategies to improve adherence.
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Randomized clinical trials of weight loss maintenance: a review.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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The problem of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and globally, and the high prevalence is due in part to the recidivism associated with weight loss treatment. Approximately one-third of lost weight is often regained in the first year after treatment and, at times, continues. Because a plethora of comorbid diseases are associated with obesity, in particular, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, clinicians and researchers have attempted to find useful strategies for maintaining weight loss. This review presents the findings from 42 randomized clinical trials of weight loss maintenance from 1984 through 2007 using interventions that include (1) the Internet, (2) strategies after a very low calorie diet, (3) pharmacotherapy, (4) behavioral strategies, (5) physical activity, and (6) alternative strategies. The results of the reviewed trials revealed that treatment with orlistat or sibutramine combined with dietary modification, caffeine or protein supplementation, consuming a diet lower in fat, adherence to physical activity routines, prolonged contact with participants, problem-solving therapy, and the alternative treatment of acupressure were efficacious in reducing weight regain after weight loss treatment. The limitations of some studies may reduce the robustness of their findings, and future studies are necessary to replicate and support these results so that individuals are able to maintain weight loss and retain the health benefits associated with a lower weight.
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SMART trial: A randomized clinical trial of self-monitoring in behavioral weight management-design and baseline findings.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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The primary form of treatment for obesity today is behavioral therapy. Self-monitoring diet and physical activity plays an important role in interventions targeting behavior and weight change. The SMART weight loss trial examined the impact of replacing the standard paper record used for self-monitoring with a personal digital assistant (PDA). This paper describes the design, methods, intervention, and baseline sample characteristics of the SMART trial.
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Effect of poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness on factors associated with diabetes self-management.
Diabetes Educ
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of impaired sleep quality and daytime sleepiness on self-reported diabetes control and psychological and social factors that affect diabetes self-management.
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Biophysiologic outcomes of the Enhancing Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes (ENHANCE) trial.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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Behavioral research to improve lifestyle in broadly defined populations of patients with type 2 diabetes is limited.
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Using mHealth technology to enhance self-monitoring for weight loss: a randomized trial.
Am J Prev Med
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Self-monitoring for weight loss has traditionally been performed with paper diaries. Technologic advances could reduce the burden of self-monitoring and provide feedback to enhance adherence.
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Effect of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a technology-supported behavioral intervention.
Patient Prefer Adherence
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Examination of mediating behavioral factors could explain how an intervention works and thus provide guidance to optimize behavioral weight-loss programs. This study examined the mediating role of adherence to self-monitoring of diet and physical activity on weight loss in a behavioral weight-loss trial testing the use of personal digital assistants (PDA) for self-monitoring.
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Psychosocial correlates of weight maintenance among black & white adults.
Am J Health Behav
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To investigate (1) weight maintenance among black and white participants and (2) psychosocial correlates (eg, healthy eating barriers, self-efficacy, stress) of weight maintenance 18 months after behavioral weight-loss treatment.
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Evaluating parents and adult caregivers as "agents of change" for treating obese children: evidence for parent behavior change strategies and research gaps: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
Circulation
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This scientific statement addresses parents and adult caregivers (PACs) as "agents of change" for obese children, evaluating the strength of evidence that particular parenting strategies can leverage behavior change and reduce positive energy balance in obese youth. The statement has 3 specific aims. The first is to review core behavior change strategies for PACs as used in family-based treatment programs and to provide a resource list. The second is to evaluate the strength of evidence that greater parental "involvement" in treatment is associated with better reductions in child overweight. The third is to identify research gaps and new opportunities for the field. This review yielded limited and inconsistent evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials that greater PAC involvement necessarily is associated with better child outcomes. For example, only 17% of the intervention studies reported differential improvements in child overweight as a function of parental involvement in treatment. On the other hand, greater parental adherence with core behavior change strategies predicted better child weight outcomes after 2 and 5 years in some studies. Thus, the literature lacks conclusive evidence that one particular parenting strategy or approach causally is superior to others in which children have a greater focus in treatment. A number of research gaps were identified, including the assessment of refined parenting phenotypes, cultural tailoring of interventions, examination of family relationships, and incorporation of new technologies. A conceptual model is proposed to stimulate research identifying the determinants of PAC feeding and physical activity parenting practices, the results of which may inform new treatments. The statement addresses the need for innovative research to advance the scope and potency of PAC treatments for childhood obesity.
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Psychometric Properties of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale for Adhering to a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
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BACKGROUND:: Outcome expectancy may play an important role in behavior change. Previous studies tested the validity and the reliability of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale (PTES), a scale that measures outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet. Further study was needed to examine its psychometric properties in a larger sample. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the 10-item PTES in a large sample. METHODS:: The PTES and the Connor Diet Habit Survey were administered to adults enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program. RESULTS:: The final sample for the analysis (N = 224) was, on average, 69.35 years old and was predominantly men (66.50%) and white (92.40%); nearly all (96.00%) completed high school. The inter-item correlation matrix revealed that correlation coefficients were greater than 0.80 between 4 pairs of items, suggesting that the 4 items were redundant. After consulting with a content expert and an examination of item content, we removed the 4 redundant items (items 2, 3, 4, and 10) and reduced the scale to 6 items. Principal component analysis revealed a 1-factor scale with high loadings for the 6 items, each greater than 0.70. The reliability of the scale, measured by Cronbachs ?, was 0.91. The total PTES score had a moderate correlation with self-reported behaviors of adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet, as measured by the Connor Diet Habit Survey subscale for cholesterol and fat intake (r = 0.36, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:: This study demonstrated that the revised and shortened PTES scale is reliable and valid to measure outcome expectancy related to adhering to a cholesterol-lowering diet.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.