Anchoring proteins sequester kinases with their substrates to locally disseminate intracellular signals and avert indiscriminate transmission of these responses throughout the cell. Mechanistic understanding of this process is hampered by limited structural information on these macromolecular complexes. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) spatially constrain phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA). Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions of type-II PKA-AKAP18? complexes reveal hetero-pentameric assemblies that adopt a range of flexible tripartite configurations. Intrinsically disordered regions within each PKA regulatory subunit impart the molecular plasticity that affords an ?16 nanometer radius of motion to the associated catalytic subunits. Manipulating flexibility within the PKA holoenzyme augmented basal and cAMP responsive phosphorylation of AKAP-associated substrates. Cell-based analyses suggest that the catalytic subunit remains within type-II PKA-AKAP18? complexes upon cAMP elevation. We propose that the dynamic movement of kinase sub-structures, in concert with the static AKAP-regulatory subunit interface, generates a solid-state signaling microenvironment for substrate phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01319.001.
Clearance of invading pathogens is essential to preventing overwhelming inflammation and sepsis that are symptomatic of bacterial peritonitis. Macrophages participate in this innate immune response by engulfing and digesting pathogens, a process called phagocytosis. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) are danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) generated in response to infection that can prevent the phagocytic clearance of bacteria. We investigated the mechanism underlying OxPL action in macrophages. Exposure to OxPL induced alterations in actin polymerization, resulting in spreading of peritoneal macrophages and diminished uptake of E. coli. Pharmacological and cell-based studies showed that an anchored pool of PKA mediates the effects of OxPL. Gene silencing approaches identified the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) WAVE1 as an effector of OxPL action in vitro. Chimeric Wave1(-/-) mice survived significantly longer after infection with E. coli and OxPL treatment in vivo. Moreover, we found that endogenously generated OxPL in human peritoneal dialysis fluid from end-stage renal failure patients inhibited phagocytosis via WAVE1. Collectively, these data uncover an unanticipated role for WAVE1 as a critical modulator of the innate immune response to severe bacterial infections.
PKA is retained within distinct subcellular environments by the association of its regulatory type II (RII) subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Conventional reagents that universally disrupt PKA anchoring are patterned after a conserved AKAP motif. We introduce a phage selection procedure that exploits high-resolution structural information to engineer RII mutants that are selective for a particular AKAP. Selective RII (RSelect) sequences were obtained for eight AKAPs following competitive selection screening. Biochemical and cell-based experiments validated the efficacy of RSelect proteins for AKAP2 and AKAP18. These engineered proteins represent a new class of reagents that can be used to dissect the contributions of different AKAP-targeted pools of PKA. Molecular modeling and high-throughput sequencing analyses revealed the molecular basis of AKAP-selective interactions and shed new light on native RII-AKAP interactions. We propose that this structure-directed evolution strategy might be generally applicable for the investigation of other protein interaction surfaces.
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) tether the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to intracellular sites where they preferentially phosphorylate target substrates. Most AKAPs exhibit nanomolar affinity for the regulatory (RII) subunit of the type II PKA holoenzyme, whereas dual-specificity anchoring proteins also bind the type I (RI) regulatory subunit of PKA with 10-100-fold lower affinity. A range of cellular, biochemical, biophysical, and genetic approaches comprehensively establish that sphingosine kinase interacting protein (SKIP) is a truly type I-specific AKAP. Mapping studies located anchoring sites between residues 925-949 and 1,140-1,175 of SKIP that bind RI with dissociation constants of 73 and 774 nM, respectively. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis approaches identify Phe 929 and Tyr 1,151 as RI-selective binding determinants in each anchoring site. SKIP complexes exist in different states of RI-occupancy as single-molecule pull-down photobleaching experiments show that 41 ± 10% of SKIP sequesters two YFP-RI dimers, whereas 59 ± 10% of the anchoring protein binds a single YFP-RI dimer. Imaging, proteomic analysis, and subcellular fractionation experiments reveal that SKIP is enriched at the inner mitochondrial membrane where it associates with a prominent PKA substrate, the coiled-coil helix protein ChChd3.
Cell movement requires the coordinated reception, integration, and processing of intracellular signals. We have discovered that the protein kinase A anchoring protein AKAP220 interacts with the cytoskeletal scaffolding protein IQGAP1 to influence cell motility. AKAP220/IQGAP1 networks receive and integrate calcium and cAMP second messenger signals and position signaling enzymes near their intended substrates at leading edges of migrating cells. IQGAP1 supports calcium/calmodulin-dependent association of factors that modulate microtubule dynamics. AKAP220 suppresses GSK-3? and positions this kinase to allow recruitment of the plus-end microtubule tracking protein CLASP2. Gene silencing of AKAP220 alters the rate of microtubule polymerization and the lateral tracking of growing microtubules and retards cell migration in metastatic human cancer cells. This reveals an unappreciated role for this anchored kinase/microtubule effector protein network in the propagation of cell motility.
A decline in ocular lens transparency known as cataract afflicts 90% of individuals by the age 70. Chronic deterioration of lens tissue occurs as a pathophysiological consequence of defective water and nutrient circulation through channel and transporter proteins. A key component is the aquaporin-0 (AQP0) water channel whose permeability is tightly regulated in healthy lenses. Using a variety of cellular and biochemical approaches we have discovered that products of the A-kinase anchoring protein 2 gene (AKAP2/AKAP-KL) form a stable complex with AQP0 to sequester protein kinase A (PKA) with the channel. This permits PKA phosphorylation of serine 235 within a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of AQP0. The additional negative charge introduced by phosphoserine 235 perturbs electrostatic interactions between AQP0 and CaM to favour water influx through the channel. In isolated mouse lenses, displacement of PKA from the AKAP2-AQP0 channel complex promotes cortical cataracts as characterized by severe opacities and cellular damage. Thus, anchored PKA modulation of AQP0 is a homeostatic mechanism that must be physically intact to preserve lens transparency.
Protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) influence fundamental cellular processes by directing the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) toward its intended substrates. In this report we describe the identification and characterization of a ternary complex of AKAP220, the PKA holoenzyme, and the IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 2 isoform (IQGAP2) that is enriched at cortical regions of the cell. Formation of an IQGAP2-AKAP220 core complex initiates a subsequent phase of protein recruitment that includes the small GTPase Rac. Biochemical and molecular biology approaches reveal that PKA phosphorylation of Thr-716 on IQGAP2 enhances association with the active form of the Rac GTPase. Cell-based experiments indicate that overexpression of an IQGAP2 phosphomimetic mutant (IQGAP2 T716D) enhances the formation of actin-rich membrane ruffles at the periphery of HEK 293 cells. In contrast, expression of a nonphosphorylatable IQGAP2 T716A mutant or gene silencing of AKAP220 suppresses formation of membrane ruffles. These findings imply that IQGAP2 and AKAP220 act synergistically to sustain PKA-mediated recruitment of effectors such as Rac GTPases that impact the actin cytoskeleton.
Cancers often arise in part through derangements in protein kinase signaling. A striking example of this is the finding that approximately 30% of human tumors have mutations in Ras or B-Raf, leading to aberrant ERK kinase activation. Kinase signaling networks are often organized by scaffolding and anchoring proteins that help shape the dynamics of signal processing. AKAP-Lbc associates with the ERK scaffold protein KSR-1 to organize a growth factor and cAMP responsive signaling network. AKAP-Lbc also directs PKA phosphorylation of KSR-1 on a critical residue to ensure maximal signaling efficiency.
Adrenergic stimulation of the heart engages cAMP and phosphoinositide second messenger signaling cascades. Cardiac phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110? participates in these processes by sustaining ?-adrenergic receptor internalization through its catalytic function and by controlling phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) activity via an unknown kinase-independent mechanism. We have discovered that p110? anchors protein kinase A (PKA) through a site in its N-terminal region. Anchored PKA activates PDE3B to enhance cAMP degradation and phosphorylates p110? to inhibit PIP(3) production. This provides local feedback control of PIP(3) and cAMP signaling events. In congestive heart failure, p110? is upregulated and escapes PKA-mediated inhibition, contributing to a reduction in ?-adrenergic receptor density. Pharmacological inhibition of p110? normalizes ?-adrenergic receptor density and improves contractility in failing hearts.
?(1D)-Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are key regulators of cardiovascular system function that increase blood pressure and promote vascular remodeling. Unfortunately, little information exists about the signaling pathways used by this important G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). We recently discovered that ?(1D)-ARs form a "signalosome" with multiple members of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) to become functionally expressed at the plasma membrane and bind ligands. However, the molecular mechanism by which the DAPC imparts functionality to the ?(1D)-AR signalosome remains a mystery. To test the hypothesis that previously unidentified molecules are recruited to the ?(1D)-AR signalosome, we performed an extensive proteomic analysis on each member of the DAPC. Bioinformatic analysis of our proteomic data sets detected a common interacting protein of relatively unknown function, ?-catulin. Coimmunoprecipitation and blot overlay assays indicate that ?-catulin is directly recruited to the ?(1D)-AR signalosome by the C-terminal domain of ?-dystrobrevin-1 and not the closely related splice variant ?-dystrobrevin-2. Proteomic and biochemical analysis revealed that ?-catulin supersensitizes ?(1D)-AR functional responses by recruiting effector molecules to the signalosome. Taken together, our study implicates ?-catulin as a unique regulator of GPCR signaling and represents a unique expansion of the intricate and continually evolving array of GPCR signaling networks.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades propagate a variety of cellular activities. Processive relay of signals through RAF-MEK-ERK modulates cell growth and proliferation. Signalling through this ERK cascade is frequently amplified in cancers, and drugs such as sorafenib (which is prescribed to treat renal and hepatic carcinomas) and PLX4720 (which targets melanomas) inhibit RAF kinases. Natural factors that influence ERK1/2 signalling include the second messenger cyclic AMP. However, the mechanisms underlying this cascade have been difficult to elucidate. We demonstrate that the A-kinase-anchoring protein AKAP-Lbc and the scaffolding protein kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR-1) form the core of a signalling network that efficiently relay signals from RAF, through MEK, and on to ERK1/2. AKAP-Lbc functions as an enhancer of ERK signalling by securing RAF in the vicinity of MEK1 and synchronizing protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of Ser 838 on KSR-1. This offers mechanistic insight into cAMP-responsive control of ERK signalling events.
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) coordinate cell signaling events. AKAP79 brings together different combinations of enzyme binding partners to customize the regulation of effector proteins. In neurons, muscarinic agonists mobilize an AKAP79-anchored pool of PKC that phosphorylates the KCNQ2 subunit of the M channel. This inhibits potassium permeability to enhance neuronal excitability. Using a dual fluorescent imaging/patch-clamp technique, we visualized AKAP79-anchored PKC phosphorylation of the kinase activity reporter CKAR concurrently with electrophysiological changes in KCNQ2 channels to show that AKAP79 synchronizes both signaling events to optimize the attenuation of M currents. AKAP79 also protects PKC from certain ATP-competitive inhibitors. Related studies suggest that context-dependent protein-protein interactions alter the susceptibility of another protein kinase, PDK1, to ATP analog inhibitors. This implies that intracellular binding partners not only couple individual molecular events in a cell signaling process but can also change the pharmacological profile of certain protein kinases.
The mitogenic and second-messenger signals that promote cell proliferation often proceed through multienzyme complexes. The kinase-anchoring protein Gravin integrates cAMP and calcium/phospholipid signals at the plasma membrane by sequestering protein kinases A and C with G protein-coupled receptors. In this report we define a role for Gravin as a temporal organizer of phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions during mitosis. Mass spectrometry, molecular, and cellular approaches show that CDK1/Cyclin B1 phosphorylates Gravin on threonine 766 to prime the recruitment of the polo-like kinase Plk1 at defined phases of mitosis. Fluorescent live-cell imaging reveals that cells depleted of Gravin exhibit mitotic defects that include protracted prometaphase and misalignment of chromosomes. Moreover, a Gravin T766A phosphosite mutant that is unable to interact with Plk1 negatively impacts cell proliferation. In situ detection of phospho-T766 Gravin in biopsy sections of human glioblastomas suggests that this phosphorylation event might identify malignant neoplasms.
Endocrine release of insulin principally controls glucose homeostasis. Nutrient-induced exocytosis of insulin granules from pancreatic ?-cells involves ion channels and mobilization of Ca(2+) and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathways. Whole-animal physiology, islet studies and live-?-cell imaging approaches reveal that ablation of the kinase/phosphatase anchoring protein AKAP150 impairs insulin secretion in mice. Loss of AKAP150 impacts L-type Ca(2+) currents, and attenuates cytoplasmic accumulation of Ca(2+) and cAMP in ?-cells. Yet surprisingly AKAP150 null animals display improved glucose handling and heightened insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. More refined analyses of AKAP150 knock-in mice unable to anchor protein kinase A or protein phosphatase 2B uncover an unexpected observation that tethering of phosphatases to a seven-residue sequence of the anchoring protein is the predominant molecular event underlying these metabolic phenotypes. Thus anchored signalling events that facilitate insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis may be set by AKAP150 associated phosphatase activity.
Several neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, regulate neuronal tone by suppressing a non-inactivating low-threshold voltage-gated potassium current generated by the M-channel. Agonist dependent control of the M-channel is mediated by calmodulin, activation of anchored protein kinase C (PKC), and depletion of the phospholipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). In this report, we show how this trio of second messenger responsive events acts synergistically and in a stepwise manner to suppress activity of the M-current. PKC phosphorylation of the KCNQ2 channel subunit induces dissociation of calmodulin from the M-channel complex. The calmodulin-deficient channel has a reduced affinity towards PIP2. This pathway enhances the effect of concomitant reduction of PIP2, which leads to disruption of the M-channel function. These findings clarify how a common lipid cofactor, such as PIP2, can selectively regulate ion channels.
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