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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sensitive detection of aggregated prion protein via proximity ligation.
Prion
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The DNA assisted solid-phase proximity ligation assay (SP-PLA) provides a unique opportunity to specifically detect prion protein (PrP) aggregates by investigating the collocation of three or more copies of the specific protein. We have developed a SP-PLA that can detect PrP aggregates in brain homogenates from infected hamsters even after a 10 (7)-fold dilution. In contrast, brain homogenate from uninfected animals did not generate a detectable signal at hundred-fold higher concentration. Using either of the two monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies 3F4 and 6H4 we successfully detected low concentrations of aggregated PrP. The presented results provide a proof of concept that this method might be an interesting tool in the development of diagnostic approaches of prion diseases.
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Conflict between reproductive gene trees and species phylogeny among heterothallic and pseudohomothallic members of the filamentous ascomycete genus Neurospora.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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In this study, we investigated the genealogies of genes important for sexual identity, i.e. mating-type (mat) and pheromone-receptor (pre) genes, among heterothallic and peudohomothallic taxa of Neurospora. The resulting genealogies were compared with the species phylogeny derived from non-coding sequences. We found conflicting topologies between the reproductive genealogies and the species phylogeny, and these conflicts were supported by both node support analyses and likelihood tests on the relative fit of datasets to alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. We argue that reproductive genes are more permeable to gene flow, i.e. are more often introgressed between species of Neurospora, than other parts of the genome. Certain conflicts between the species phylogeny and both mat genealogies were observed, suggesting that the two mating-type idiomorphs were selectively introgressed into a species from a single ancestral source. Taken together, the results presented here highlight complex evolutionary trajectories of reproductive genes in the fungal kingdom, which may be of importance for reproductive behavior in natural populations.
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Separate mechanisms act concurrently to shed and release the prion protein from the cell.
Prion
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The cellular prion protein (PrP (C) ) is attached to the cell membrane via its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor and is constitutively shed into the extracellular space. Here, three different mechanisms are presented that concurrently shed PrP (C) from the cell. The fast ?-cleavage released a N-terminal fragment (N1) into the medium and the extreme C-terminal cleavage shed soluble full-length (FL-S) PrP and C-terminally cleaved (C1-S) fragments outside the cell. Also, a slow exosomal release of full-length (FL) and C1-fragment (C1) was demonstrated. The three separate mechanisms acting simultaneously, but with different kinetics, have to be taken into consideration when elucidating functional roles of PrP (C) and also when processing of PrP (C) is considered as a target for intervention in prion diseases. Further, in this study it was shown that metalloprotease inhibitors affected the extreme C-terminal cleavage and shedding of PrP (C) . The metalloprotease inhibitors did not influence the ?-cleavage or the exosomal release. Taken together, these results are important for understanding the different mechanisms acting in parallel in the shedding and cleavage of PrP (C) .
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Polymorphisms and variants in the prion protein sequence of European moose (Alces alces), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in Scandinavia.
Prion
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The prion protein (PrP) sequence of European moose, reindeer, roe deer and fallow deer in Scandinavia has high homology to the PrP sequence of North American cervids. Variants in the European moose PrP sequence were found at amino acid position 109 as K or Q. The 109Q variant is unique in the PrP sequence of vertebrates. During the 1980s a wasting syndrome in Swedish moose, Moose Wasting Syndrome (MWS), was described. SNP analysis demonstrated a difference in the observed genotype proportions of the heterozygous Q/K and homozygous Q/Q variants in the MWS animals compared with the healthy animals. In MWS moose the allele frequencies for 109K and 109Q were 0.73 and 0.27, respectively, and for healthy animals 0.69 and 0.31. Both alleles were seen as heterozygotes and homozygotes. In reindeer, PrP sequence variation was demonstrated at codon 176 as D or N and codon 225 as S or Y. The PrP sequences in roe deer and fallow deer were identical with published GenBank sequences.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.