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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Case report: postradiation chondrosarcoma with a short latency period of 6 months.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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We describe a case of postradiation chondrosarcoma after basal cell carcinoma treatment. At the time he presented, the patient was a 35-year-old man who had received radiotherapy at a dose of 70 Gy for 8 weeks. Six months after radiation treatment, a rapidly growing mass at the upper right alveolar ridge of the gums, where radiation had been given, was diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Generally, chondrosarcoma occurs after a latency period of several years following radiation. However, there are a few relevant reports indicating that maxillofacial chondrosarcoma can develop after radiotherapy for basal cell carcinoma, with a short latency of 6 months. We hypothesize that the dosage and treatment time of radiation may have played a role in the opening/closing of the Hh-signaling pathway in the case of this patient.
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Outcomes of adjuvant endocrine therapy and hormone receptor status change following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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This retrospective study investigated the therapeutic benefit of adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) in breast cancer patients with hormone receptor (HR) status change from positive to negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
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Suppression of C6 gliomas via application of rat hyperplasia gene.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Among all neurological tumors, tumor incidence of the neuroepithelial tissue is the highest, where 50% are gliomas. Treatment for gliomas has traditionally included surgery and adjuvant therapy. With advancements in medicine, gene therapy has entered the clinical setting, in which control of tumor growth, tumor volume and decrease of supply of blood to the tumor have been observed. Rat hyperplasia suppressor gene (rHSG) has been proven to inhibit the injury-mediated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
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Epigenetic changes of TIMP-3, GSTP-1 and 14-3-3 sigma genes as indication of status of chronic inflammation and cancer.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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This study aimed to compare the epigenetic changes via hypermethylation status of TIMP-3, GSTP-1 and 14-3-3? genes, between healthy subjects and patients with reversible chronic inflammatory disease, and between healthy subjects and patients with irreversible malignant disease, to highlight the genetic changes that occur in the progression from an inflammatory condition to irreversible genetic changes commonly observed in cancer patients.
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Preliminary results from a family-based HIV prevention intervention for South African youth.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Approximately 5.6 million South Africans are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; UNAIDS, 2010). Prevalence among Black adolescents and young adults is particularly alarming. This pilot study of an HIV preventive intervention targeting South African youth contributes to the growing body of research on culturally competent family-based interventions.
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Femur chondrosarcoma misdiagnosed as acute knee arthritis and osteomyelitis-Further developing a hitherto unreported complication of tumor embolic ischemic ileal perforation after arthroscopic lavage.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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The differentiation between osteomyelitis and bone tumor may be difficult due to their overlapping clinical and radiological features. A 25-year-old lady presented with left knee pain and joint effusion associated with redness and hotness. A sub-optimally taken plain radiograph showed mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesion in the left lower femur with surrounding soft tissue swelling. Since the clinical diagnosis was acute osteomyelitis and arthritis, arthroscopic lavage was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. The removed loose bodies and fibrinous tissue showed pathological features suspicious of chondrosarcoma. Subsequent MRI revealed an infiltrative tumor eroding through the cortex and joint cartilage. En bloc excision of the left lower femur, upper tibia including the knee joint and patella was performed, and the final diagnosis was grade 2 chondrosarcoma. The patient developed bilateral pulmonary metastasis 33 months after operation. Five months later, she suffered from a hitherto undescribed complication of ischemic perforation of the terminal ileum secondary to tumor embolic arterial obstruction with no macroscopic intestinal or peritoneal tumor deposit. The patient developed multiple brain metastases and died 43 months after initial presentation. Our case illustrates that malignant bone tumor as a differential diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis and arthritis merits recognition and exclusion before arthroscopic lavage, which may enhance tumor dissemination and in our patient results in embolic ischemic ileal perforation.
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Correlation of tumor-infiltrative lymphocyte subtypes alteration with neoangiogenesis before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The two most important factors in tumor-stromal interactions are tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and neoangiogenesis (NAng). While changes of these parameters in responders of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCTx) have been reported, their correlation with pathological response in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with NCTx have not been described. We therefore evaluated alterations of the TIL subtypes ratio and alterations of NAng using the vasohibin-1-positive ratio (VPR) in BC patients during the course of NCTx. To this aim we used: (i) double immunohistochemistry of CD8 cytotoxic T cells and T regulatory cells (Treg) with Foxp3, determining the CD8+/Foxp3 ratio; (ii) immunostaining of CD31 and vasohibin-1, yielding the VPR, which reflects the NAng status. Changes between the CD8+/Foxp3 ratio and VPR before and after therapy were then correlated with the pathological response of the patients. A concomitant significant decrement of Foxp3 and NAng, represented by VPR, were detected only in NCTx pathological responders (p<0.001 and p=0.044, respectively). The CD8+/Foxp3 ratio increased in both responders and non-responders, but to greater extent in responders (p=0.02). The changes of VPR in the NCTx-treated group differed from those recorded for the patients treated with aromatase inhibitors and shown in our earlier study; this indicates that the reactions of the tumor-stromal interaction to therapy were different among different treatments in BC patients. Changes in Foxp3 and VPR in responders may reflect the dynamic activity of tumor stroma and host immune response to tumor antigens in the tumor microenvironment in response to the NCTx. VPR can be a potential surrogate marker in BC specimens for predicting the response to NCTx, incorporating both features of carcinoma and stromal cells.
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Epiphyseal osteosarcoma revisited: four illustrative cases with unusual histopathology and literature review.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Osteosarcomas arising in the epiphysis are extremely rare and easily missed in the diagnostic consideration of epiphyseal tumors. It is the purpose of this study to delineate the clinical pathological characteristics of 'epiphyseal osteosarcoma' under the definition of 'a solitary long bone osteosarcoma radiographically considered an epiphyseal tumor for which the main radiologic differential diagnosis would encompass giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma'. Four such cases with unusual histopathology were retrieved among 110 cases of osteosarcoma. Their clinical, radiological and pathological features, together with all 10 reported cases, were analyzed. The radiographic diagnoses of our four cases include two giant cell tumors, one chondroblastoma and one clear cell chondrosarcoma but turn out to be fibroblastic, giant cell rich, telangiectatic and epithelioid variant of epiphyseal osteosarcoma. Including our patients, the 14 reported epiphyseal osteosarcomas comprise 8 males and 6 females, the age at presentation ranges from 11 to 39 years, two-third in the second decade, 71.4% affect the femur. Due to their epiphyseal locations, many carry benign radiological diagnoses notably giant cell tumor and chondroblastoma. Epiphyseal osteosarcomas may not only masquerade as benign radiological bony lesions but also assume many histological patterns; orthopedic surgeons, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of such possibility. Their behavior and prognosis are dictated by the histologic types, grading and staging rather than location.
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Challenges to effective cancer control in China, India, and Russia.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Cancer is one of the major non-communicable diseases posing a threat to world health. Unfortunately, improvements in socioeconomic conditions are usually associated with increased cancer incidence. In this Commission, we focus on China, India, and Russia, which share rapidly rising cancer incidence and have cancer mortality rates that are nearly twice as high as in the UK or the USA, vast geographies, growing economies, ageing populations, increasingly westernised lifestyles, relatively disenfranchised subpopulations, serious contamination of the environment, and uncontrolled cancer-causing communicable infections. We describe the overall state of health and cancer control in each country and additional specific issues for consideration: for China, access to care, contamination of the environment, and cancer fatalism and traditional medicine; for India, affordability of care, provision of adequate health personnel, and sociocultural barriers to cancer control; and for Russia, monitoring of the burden of cancer, societal attitudes towards cancer prevention, effects of inequitable treatment and access to medicine, and a need for improved international engagement.
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Bosutinib in combination with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole: a phase II trial in postmenopausal women evaluating first-line endocrine therapy in locally advanced or metastatic hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Endocrine therapy resistance in hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) may involve crosstalk between HRs and growth factor signaling pathways. We evaluated bosutinib, a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has previously demonstrated some antitumor activity in BC, plus letrozole as first-line endocrine therapy in locally advanced or metastatic HR+/HER2- BC. METHODS; Sixteen postmenopausal women were enrolled in a phase II study evaluating the safety/efficacy of bosutinib plus letrozole. In the single-arm safety/dose-confirming lead-in (part 1), patients received oral bosutinib at 400 mg/day plus letrozole at 2.5 mg/day; adverse events (AEs) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were monitored, and initial efficacy was assessed. A randomized efficacy/safety phase (part 2) was planned to evaluate the combination versus letrozole monotherapy.
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Bosutinib in combination with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane: a phase II trial in postmenopausal women with previously treated locally advanced or metastatic hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Bosutinib is an oral, selective Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity in breast cancer (BC). We evaluated bosutinib plus exemestane as second-line therapy in previously treated hormone receptor-positive (HR+) locally advanced or metastatic BC.
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Malignant schwannoma of the radial nerve with unusual presentation: a case report.
Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Malignant schwannoma (MPNST) is a rare tumor. Many of these cases occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1) and they usually present as a mass lesion which rapidly increase in size with or without neurological symptoms. Here we present an unusual case of MPNST along the radial nerve in which the patient has no underlying neurofibromatosis type I.
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Angiotensin II induces mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes apoptosis via JNK signalling pathway in primary mouse calvaria osteoblast.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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This present study was designed to investigate the effects of Angiotensin II on mitochondrial functions, ROS generation and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signalling pathway-mediated cell apoptosis in mouse calvaria osteoblasts.
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Primary osseous inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma masquerading as chronic osteomyelitis.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma, in addition to a mass lesion, may present with fever and other constitutional symptoms, mimicking an infectious process. This article presents an extremely rare and unique case of primary osseous inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma, highlighting retrospectively the subtle clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features that can suggest this diagnosis. A 63-year-old woman with a history of nephrectomy for right kidney tuberculosis 20 years ago presented with slowly increasing left hip pain for 6 months. The relatively benign-appearing radiograph and biopsy report of chronic inflammation resulted in curettage and nailing of the lesion. The pathologic diagnosis was chronic osteomyelitis, but culture findings for bacteria and tuberculosis were negative. The patient remained well until 4 months later, when left thigh pain returned with fever and leukocytosis (white blood cell count as high as 20.7×10(9)/L, 80% neutrophils). No source of infection was localized. The patient showed no response to broad-spectrum antibiotics and antituberculous drugs. Radiographs showed substantial enlargement of the femoral lesion and extraosseous extension; biopsy results and review of previous histopathologic findings led to a diagnosis of inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma. The fever gradually resolved and the white blood cell count returned to normal within a few days after segmental resection of the proximal femur tumor and its soft tissue extension. However, deep venous thrombosis developed, resulting in left foot ischemia and toe gangrene, necessitating left below-the-knee amputation. Disseminated metastasis occurred 3 months after tumor resection. The patient declined further aggressive treatment and died 13 months after initial presentation.
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A pilot study: Application of hemoglobin and cortisol levels, and a memory test to evaluate the quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Background:Short-term memory (STM) decline in breast cancer patients resulting from chemotherapy was evaluated by means of blood biomarkers, a questionnaire, and a computerized STM test. Methods:This study was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013, recruiting 90 subjects: 30 breast cancer patients beginning the 3rd of 4th cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, 30 recovered patients (who completed 4 cycles of docetaxel for a minimum of 6 months), and 30 healthy subjects (disease-free females). The levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, and cortisol in serum, and a computerized STM test were analyzed to estimate the effects of chemotherapy on STM. A questionnaire was given to all subjects to assess quality of life. Results:Statistically significant differences were observed for the blood parameters (hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, and cortisol levels) between healthy and on-treatment subjects (respectively 13.47±0.96 g/dL vs 5.37±0.38 g/dL, 4.58±0.41 1012/L vs 2.07±0.13 1012/L, and 6.15±1.03 109/L vs 0.86±0.41 109/L). Scores of the STM test were significantly lower for patients compared to healthy subjects. As indicated by the results of the questionnaire, breast cancer patients had a higher tendency to forget than healthy controls (X2=3.15; p<0.0001) and recovered subjects (X2=3.15; p<0.0001). Conclusion:We found depleted levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells as a result of chemotherapy, and elevated levels of stress correlated with poor performances in the computerized STM test. A higher cortisol level might be an important precursor of STM deterioration. Monitoring cortisol would be beneficial for evaluating the quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.
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Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 ?m for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 ?m for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.
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New developments in breast cancer prognosis: molecular predictors of treatment response and survival.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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This study aimed to assess the molecular subtypes of breast cancer for patients attending a dedicated breast care center and examine the association with clinicopathological features, treatment and survival outcomes.
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Status of oral ulcerative mucositis and biomarkers to monitor posttraumatic stress disorder effects in breast cancer patients.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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This study was designed to assess oral ulcerative mucositis, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, heart rate and thyroid function in breast cancer patients in relation to the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder ?(PTSD).
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Acceptable cardiac safety profile of neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and celecoxib (FEC-C) for breast cancer: a subanalysis of biomarkers for cardiac injury.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This substudy aimed to examine the changes in biomarkers for cardiac injury in patients who received neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide with concurrent celecoxib (FEC-C).
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Application of interleukin-1 genes and proteins to monitor the status of chronic periodontitis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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It has been widely reported that periodontitis may lead to bone tissue and teeth loss and result in failure of prosthodontics or implants. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays an essential role during the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, the gene polymorphisms of IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-1RN and the relationship between these protein expressions in healthy people and patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) in China have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the gene polymorphisms and protein expression of IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-1RN in healthy subjects and CP patients, and our data suggest that these gene polymorphisms are associated with CP. The frequency of the C/C genotype of IL-1? was 55% in CP patients, while in the control group it was 20% (p<0.0001). The C/C genotype of IL-1? was also higher in CP patients (51%) than in controls (21%) (p<0.0001). For the 2/2 genotype of IL-1RN, CP patients showed a 30% frequency, while in controls this was 15% (p<0.0001). Protein levels evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant difference in secretion between patients and controls for IL-1? and IL-1?. These results indicate that genotype and protein production of IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-1RN are associated with CP in a Chinese population, and might be putative risk indicators for chronic periodontitis.
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Comparative evaluation of cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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This study aims to evaluate and compare cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) before and after treatment.
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Association of cytokines, high sensitive C-reactive protein, VEGF and beta-defensin-1 gene polymorphisms and their protein expressions with chronic periodontitis in the Chinese population.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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This study aimed at investigating the association between interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ?-defensin-1 polymorphisms and the susceptibility to periodontitis in the Chinese population.
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Concurrent celecoxib with 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel for stages II - III invasive breast cancer: the OOTR-N001 study.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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This prospective study aimed at investigating the efficacy and safety of the concurrent use of celecoxib (CXB) with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC), followed by docetaxel (T) in the neoadjuvant setting.
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Translational research to realize the full potential of novel agents--an opportunity for vinflunine?
Expert Opin Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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In the past few years, innumerable novel anti-cancer agents have been developed. Some of them have successfully entered into clinical practice while some of them have failed for different reasons. Although, nowadays, cancer treatment still relies heavily on conventional chemotherapy and surgery, with increasing evidence of novel biologic agents which demonstrate its higher anti-cancer activity and fewer side effects, more and more efforts have been spent on development of different types of novel agents. Vinflunine, a novel fluorinated vinca alkaloid, carries mitotic-arresting and tubulin-interacting properties and was just approved for treating transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelial tract (TCCU) in Europe. It, however, took quite a long time to get an approval. Needless to say, TCCU, similar to other types of cancer, is a very complex and heterogeneous disease and therefore, a single drug can hardly eradicate a cancer. Translational research, a new scientific research method, creates a link between clinical and laboratory studies. The link helps us to investigate the change in tumor environment in response to treatment, select patients who are more responsive to a particular treatment and predict prognosis of a group of patients with similar tumor characteristics. It can not only improve the success of a treatment, but also maximize the potential of novel anti-cancer agents.
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Increased 5?-reductase type 2 expression in human breast carcinoma following aromatase inhibitor therapy: the correlation with decreased tumor cell proliferation.
Horm Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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Tumor cell proliferation and progression of breast cancer are influenced by female sex steroids. However, not all breast cancer patients respond to aromatase inhibitors (AI), and many patients become unresponsive or relapse. Recent studies demonstrate that not only estrogens but also androgens may serve as regulators of estrogen-responsive as well as estrogen-unresponsive human breast cancers. However, the mechanism underlying these androgenic actions has remained relatively unknown. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of AI upon the expression of enzymes involved in intratumoral androgen production including 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17?HSD5), 5?-reductase types 1 and 2 (5?Red1 and 5?Red2) as well as androgen receptor (AR) levels and correlated the findings with therapeutic responses including Ki67 labeling index (Ki67). Eighty-two postmenopausal invasive ductal carcinoma patients were enrolled in CAAN study from November 2001 to April 2004. Pre- and post-treatment specimens of 29 cases were available for this study. The status of 17?HSD5, 5?Red1, 5?Red2, and Ki67 in pre- and post-treatment specimens were evaluated. The significant increments of 5?Red2 as well as AR were detected in biological response group whose Ki67 LI decreased by more than 40% of the pre-treatment level. This is the first study demonstrating an increment of 5?Red2 and AR in the group of the patients associated with Ki67 decrement following AI treatment. These results suggest that increased 5?Red2 and AR following AI treatment may partly contribute to reduce the tumor cell proliferation through increasing intratumoral androgen concentrations and its receptor.
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Novel nonsense CDC73 mutations in Chinese patients with parathyroid tumors.
Fam. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the occurrences of parathyroid tumors and ossifying fibroma of maxilla/mandible. It is caused by mutations in CDC73 gene and mutation carriers are at increased risk of parathyroid carcinoma. Hyperparathyroidism could be the sole manifestation. We reported two Chinese patients having parathyroid neoplasm with equivocal malignant potential and parathyroid carcinoma respectively with both germline and somatic CDC73 mutations detected. Both of them presented with severe hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism with no other HPT-JT associated tumors and negative family history. We identified one novel germline mutation CDC73 NM_024529.4: c.1475G > A; NP_078805.3: p.Trp492X and one novel somatic mutation CDC73 NM_024529.4: c.142G > T; NP_078805.3: p.Glu48X. The other germline mutation CDC73 NM_024529.4: c.226C > T; NP_078805.3: p.Arg76X and somatic mutation CDC73 NM_024529.4: c.85delG; NP_078805.3: p.Glu29SerfsX8 were previously reported. This is the first report of CDC73 mutations in the Chinese population. Genetic analysis is reliable to confirm the underlying hereditary basis of hyperparathyroidism. By identification of mutations, the patient and the family members could benefit from regular surveillance for early detection of tumors.
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Racial differences in acute toxicities of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes are attributed to differences in baseline tumour characteristics and biology, stage, age, ethnic background and socioeconomic factors. However, little is known about racial differences in treatment-related toxicities. We hypothesised that racial/ethnic differences result in differential tolerance to chemotherapy potentially, leading to compromised dose intensity/density of chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer.
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Primary pleomorphic liposarcoma of bone in an adolescent: imaging features of a rare entity.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2011
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We report a rare case of a primary osseous pleomorphic liposarcoma of the distal femur in a 13-year-old boy. Primary liposarcoma of bone is a very rare malignant tumour originating from primitive mesenchymal cells rather than mature adipose tissue. Pleomorphic liposarcoma is the least common of the eight known histological subtypes in the WHO classification. The entity is not previously reported in children. This is the third reported case of pleomorphic liposarcoma of the bone, and the first reported case presenting in adolescence. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of this rare bony tumour.
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Bone metabolism and quality-of-life of postmenopausal women with invasive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant hormonal therapy: sub-analyses from celecoxib anti-aromatase neoadjuvant (CAAN) trial.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Anti-aromatase therapy is important in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women but they have effects on the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been shown to be effective in chemoprevention in animal and clinical studies. A proof of principle study was performed to investigate the efficacy of combing anti-aromatase therapy (exemestane) and COX-2 inhibitors neoadjuvantly. The changes in the BMD, bone turnover proteins and quality-of-life (QoL) were analyzed and presented here.
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Down-regulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) correlated with responsiveness to neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy in breast cancer patients.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Aromatase inhibitor (AI) has been established as an effective endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Our recent proteomic analysis demonstrated that ten proteins were significantly altered in their expression levels before and after the therapy in the patients receiving neoadjuvant AI. Among these newly identified proteins, heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) was the most significantly correlated with both clinical and pathological responses. Therefore, in this study, we further evaluated the significance of this HSP-70 alteration using immunohistochemistry.
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The Breast Cancer Working Group presentation was divided into three sections: the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of breast cancer.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BREAST CANCER: The incidence and mortality of breast cancer are lower in Asia than in the West, particularly in post-menopausal women, but they are increasing. The age patterns of the incidence of breast cancer in Asia differ from in the West: in most Asian countries the peak incidence of breast cancer is at about age 45-50, whereas in western countries the incidence continues to increase even at older ages. Mortality is decreasing in western countries, whereas it is still increasing in Asian nations. There are many epidemiological factors involved in breast cancer, and important known risk factors include diet, obesity and diabetes. Asian studies found that high intake of isoflavones reduced the risk of breast cancer. PATHOLOGY OF BREAST CANCER: With regard to the pathology of breast cancer, for the molecular subtype, luminal A and luminal B are being used, while HER2 expression and rapid proliferation are also employed. Study results showed a somewhat higher prevalence of luminal A in Japanese compared with Americans. Ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer is less frequent in Asian breast cancer patients than in Americans. The Working Group resolved to establish an international committee for pathological assessment of breast cancer in Asia. TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER: Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics studies are needed between ethnic backgrounds, investigating aromatase inhibitors and tamoxifen (endoxifen), as well as the effects of demographic factors such as diet, medical care, body mass index, etc. Correlations between adverse events and the clinical outcome also need to be studied.
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Spatholobus suberectus inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M checkpoint.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Although herbs have long been alternatively applied for cancer treatment in China, its treatment effects and their potential mechanisms have not been sufficiently investigated. The chinese herb Spatholobus suberectus (SS) is commonly prescribed to cancer patients. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of SS and its molecular mechanisms have been investigated.
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Epigenetic change in E-cadherin and COX-2 to predict chronic periodontitis.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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DNA methylation of certain genes frequently occurs in neoplastic cells. Although the cause remains unknown, many genes have been identified with such atypical methylation in neoplastic cells. The hypermethylation of E-Cadherin and Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in chronic inflammation such as chronic periodontitis may demonstrate mild lesion/mutation epigenetic level. This study compares the hypermethylation status of E-Cadherin and COX-2 genes which are often found in breast cancer patients with that in chronic periodontitis.
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Enhancing heat capacity of colloidal suspension using nanoscale encapsulated phase-change materials for heat transfer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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This paper describes a new method to enhance the heat-transfer property of a single-phase liquid by adding encapsulated phase-change nanoparticles (nano-PCMs), which absorb thermal energy during solid-liquid phase changes. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and polymer-encapsulated paraffin (wax) nanoparticles have been made using colloid method, and suspended into poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and water for potential high- and low-temperature applications, respectively. The shells prevent leakage and agglomeration of molten phase-change materials, and enhance the dielectric properties of indium nanoparticles. The heat-transfer coefficients of PAO containing indium nanoparticles (30% by mass) and water containing paraffin nanoparticles (10% by mass) are 1.6 and 1.75 times higher than those of corresponding single-phase fluids. The structural integrity of encapsulation allows repeated use of such nanoparticles for many cycles in high heat generating devices.
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Rhodiola algida improves chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in breast cancer patients.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Oral ulcerative mucositis, a common adverse effect due to mainstream cytotoxic drugs, limits the nutritional intake of cancer patients. Rhodiola algida is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to stimulate the immune system. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this herbal extract on healthy human lymphocytes in vitro, the homeostasis of cancer patients and the healing time of oral ulcers.
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Changes in protein expression after neoadjuvant use of aromatase inhibitors in primary breast cancer: a proteomic approach to search for potential biomarkers to predict response or resistance.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Aromatase inhibitors (AI) have been established as a useful hormonal therapy in hormone receptor-expressing breast carcinoma. However, changes in tumor protein expression after exposure to AIs are not necessarily well understood. These changes may provide insight into how breast carcinomas respond or develop into a state of resistance towards AIs, and lead to the discovery of potential biomarkers to predict treatment responses.
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Gene expression profiles as an additional tool to conventional predictive factors to assist in management of early endocrine responsive breast cancer.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Cancer treatment has revolutionized from a "one size fits all" approach to a more individualized approach with the advancement of medicine and molecular biology. Several predictive and prognostic factors have been studied and applied to clinical practice to assist clinicians in cancer management. In breast cancer therapeutics, the appearance of biomarkers such as expressions of hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor (HER) receptors has modified treatment strategies from chemotherapy to molecular-targeted therapy including endocrine therapy and anti-HER therapy. With better understanding of the molecular level of tumorigenesis, cancer pathogenesis and metastases, several novel biomarkers such as cyclo-oxygennase-2 enzyme and tyrosine kinases have been discovered and new anti-cancer agents have been introduced into the currently available treatments. The change has also modified pre-operative treatment for locally advanced and early breast cancers. The neo-adjuvant treatment indeed provides an excellent platform for translational research which is a widely used research method in clinical research. The study of gene and protein expressions from tissue and blood samples collected before, during and after neo-adjuvant treatment provides a lot of keys to decipher the signaling pathways and discover novel biomarkers which are essential for development of new drugs and prediction of the clinical outcome of therapy. The addition of gene expression profiling to conventional predictive factors will give more prognostic information to clinicians for better management of the disease.
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Combination of radiological and biochemical methods to assess bone mineral density of mandible in fully edentulous patients after chemotherapy: a 5-year prospective study.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Osteoporosis is of concern in breast cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. This study compared the bone mineral density (BMD) index of the mandible and hip hinge between patients who were undergoing chemotherapy or breast cancer, and fully edentulous Chinese patients without cancer over a period of 5 years.
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Expression of CD44V6 in parotid pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Change in expression of CD44 variant (CD44v) has been observed in several types of aggressive carcinomas. This pattern of expression might be associated with carcinogenesis of parotid pleomorphic adenoma (PPA) which is not widely studied. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of CD44v6 in the PPA before and after recurrence, between non-recurrent PPA, recurrent PPA, and PPA with carcinogenesis so as to identify whether the expression differences have existed before the recurrence and its significance for predicting the recurrence.
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Survival benefits from lapatinib therapy in women with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer: a systematic review.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer mortality worldwide and there is an unmet need for novel anticancer agents. Lapatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of breast cancer with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification. Given promising results in clinical studies, we investigated the survival benefits of lapatinib use in patients with HER2-overexpressing advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting proceedings, San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposia proceedings, and the Cochrane Library between 2000 and 2008 for randomized controlled trials where lapatinib was used as single agent or in combination with or following other therapies. Three trials (n=704) met the inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed by two independent reviewers and meta-analyses were conducted. Significant differences were observed between lapatinib-containing treatments to those without lapatinib in terms of survival. Pooled estimates suggested the hazard ratios of 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50-0.74] for progression-free survival and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.60-0.97) for overall survival. Objective response rate and clinical benefit rate also showed significant differences in favoring the use of lapatinib with odds ratios of 2.15 (95% CI: 1.48-3.11) and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.59-3.12), respectively. Heterogeneity between studies was not observed. In conclusion, addition of lapatinib to conventional anticancer treatment might offer superior survival benefit to patients with advanced metastatic HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Further investigations on the use of lapatinib in combination with anticancer agents are warranted.
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Expression of thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in human breast carcinoma cells and tissues.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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The therapeutic effects of oral capecitabine are proposed to be determined by the equilibrium of two intratumoral metabolizing enzymes, namely thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). The present study aims to evaluate this hypothesis by in vivo experiments and immunohistochemical analysis in 31 cases of human breast carcinoma.
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Presence of extensive intraductal component in patients undergoing breast conservative surgery predicts presence of residual disease in subsequent completion mastectomy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Local recurrence remains a serious problem among patients undergoing breast conservative surgery. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for residual disease after breast conservative surgery.
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Increased expression of annexin I is associated with drug-resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other solid tumors.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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Adjuvant chemotherapy alongside radiotherapy is one of the effective therapies in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment. However, the appearance of drug resistance is a major obstacle for anti-cancer chemotherapy and often causes failure of the chemotherapy. In this study, a drug-resistant gene annexin I (ANX-I) was identified by comparing differentially expressed proteins between a cisplatin (CDDP)-resistant NPC cell line CNE2-CDDP and parental CNE2 cells using 2-DE. When ANX-I was transfected into CNE2 cells, the CDDP resistance of CNE2 cells was dramatically increased. The drug-resistant ability of ANX-I was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays. The association of ANX-I expression with clinical features was also investigated. Increased expression of ANX-I was significantly associated with disease relapse in NPC (p<0.05). In breast and gastric cancer, increased expression of ANX-I was significantly associated with drug resistance (p<0.001) and poor prognosis (p<0.001), respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that ANX-I plays an important role in drug resistance.
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Novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer: mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition.
Expert Opin Drug Discov
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Background: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in regulating cellular protein synthesis. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling pathway is strongly associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, tumor progression and drug resistance. Inhibition of mTOR might not only promote cell cycle arrest, but also sensitize resistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic and other targeted agents. Objective: To review and summarize the mechanism of mTOR on regulation of protein synthesis and latest clinical data, and to discuss the novel therapeutic strategy for the use of mTOR inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods: A review of published literatures and conference abstracts obtained from MEDLINE, American Society of Clinical Oncology Meeting and San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposia proceedings for results of previous preclinical and latest clinical studies of mTOR inhibition in breast cancer was performed. Conclusions: mTOR inhibitors seemed to be potentially useful for the treatment of breast cancer with acceptable safety profile. The challenge remains the identification of suitable candidates with different phenotypes. More structured studies incorporating molecular, clinical and translational research need to be initiated. Future research on mTOR inhibitors for breast cancer should focus on the evaluation of optimal schedule, patient selection and combination strategies to maximize the use of this new class of targeted agents.
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Intraosseous glomus tumor treated by toe-to-finger transfer: case report.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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We report a case of intraosseous glomus tumor that developed in the right ring finger distal phalanx of a 19-year-old man. Clinical and radiographic findings were atypical. The tumor was excised en bloc because of the extensive involvement. The left second toe was transferred to the right ring finger to reconstruct the excised finger part. Symptom relief, function, and cosmetic outcome were satisfactory during 2-year follow-up.
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Changes of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte subtypes before and after neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients--an immunohistochemical study of Cd8+ and Foxp3+ using double immunostaining with correlation to the path
Int. J. Biol. Markers
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Tumor-stromal interactions involve continuous crosstalk and interactions among different cell types and play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis, tumor development, disease progression, subsequent metastasis, and also tumor response to therapeutic agents. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are important components of these tumor-stromal interactions. Specific TIL subtypes are known to be involved in the clinical course of individual patients. However, the status of TILs following endocrine therapy has not been studied in breast cancer patients. We evaluated the alterations of TIL subtypes in a cohort of East Asian patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer during the course of neoadjuvant steroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, using double immunohistochemical staining of CD8+ and T regulatory cells (Treg) or Foxp3+, yielding the CD8+/Treg ratio in individual patients. Changes in CD8+/Treg ratio before and after therapy were then correlated with pathobiological responses of individual patients based upon alterations of the Ki-67 labeling index (LI). A significant increase in the CD8+/Treg ratio was detected in responders (p=0.028) but not in non-responders, which may reflect the dynamic process in which the host immune response to tumor antigens changed in consequence of an interaction between tumor and stromal cells in its microenvironment following estrogen depletion caused by the AI. The CD8+/Treg ratio in breast cancer tissue can be a potential surrogate marker in surgical pathology specimens for predicting responses to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy, not only incorporating features of carcinoma cells as in Ki-67 LI but also those of adjacent stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment, especially in the early stage of treatment prior to any detectable clinical and/or histopathological changes.
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Correlation of epigenetic change and identification of risk factors for oral submucous fibrosis.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
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DNA methylation of certain genes is an epigenetic change that is essential for tumorigenesis. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition of oral mucosa with inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the lamina propria and deeper connective tissue. The hypermethylation of E-cadherin and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in chronic inflammation may demonstrate a mild lesion/mutation at epigenetic levels. This study compares the hypermethylation status of E-cadherin and COX-2 genes in patients with oral cancer and patients with OSF and also aims to identify risk factors for the development of OSF.
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The clinical trials of the Organisation for Oncology and Translational Research (OOTR).
Int. J. Biol. Markers
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The Organisation for Oncology and Translational Research (OOTR) was established in 2002 by Dr Louis WC Chow and Dr Masakazu Toi to gather medical professionals from different countries to work together in translational research as one of the missions of the organisation. Therefore, we seek to create networking among oncologists and develop effective interaction among the most advanced academic institutions throughout the world in order to conduct clinical trials and translational research together. Several clinical trials evaluating the use of neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer have been designed and conducted for the past 10 years in the OOTR. The design of these studies has shifted from evaluating the efficacy and safety of new anticancer therapies and exploring new predictive and prognostic biomarkers to overcoming and unveiling the mechanism of tumor resistance as well as compiling predictive models for treatment response. This article briefly summarizes the concept and development of the OOTR clinical trial designs.
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Prevention of oncological diseases: primary and secondary prevention.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
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Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Because there is presently no cure for cancer, the best strategy to combat oncological diseases is through early detection and prevention. The methods currently available are vaccines to target specific viruses (primary prevention), in combination with screening (secondary prevention), use of biomarkers, and administration of adjuvant therapy (tertiary prevention). Modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors are also important in cancer prevention. Vaccination has been proven to be highly effective against targeted diseases leading to the development of cancer, particularly if the vaccination is given in the early years of life. The need for regular screening (for breast cancer, cervical cancer, etc.) should not be neglected and should be followed to detect unusual changes or abnormalities in the body. With discoveries as targeted therapies, adjuvant treatment becomes a secure component of tertiary prevention in the betterment of disease management. The discovery of biomarkers and subsequent targeted therapies has led to personalized medicine as the current trend in cancer care.
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Evaluation of the psychological and biological changes of patients diagnosed with benign and malignant breast tumors.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder developed by exposure to any incident or circumstance that results in psychological trauma. In this study we compared the psychological and physiological changes between patients with malignant and benign breast tumors.
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Randomized phase III placebo-controlled trial of letrozole plus oral temsirolimus as first-line endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Recent data showed improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) when adding everolimus to exemestane in patients with advanced breast cancer experiencing recurrence/progression after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Here, we report clinical outcomes of combining the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor temsirolimus with letrozole in AI-naive patients.
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Preoperative systemic therapy in locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Data reviewed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC) showed that preoperative systemic therapy (PST) could optimize surgery through the utilization of information relating to pre- and post-PST tumor stage, therapeutic sensitivity, and treatment-induced changes in the biological characteristics of the tumor. As such, it was noted that the biological characteristics of the tumor, such as hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, histological grade, cell proliferative activity, mainly defined by the Ki67 labeling index, and the tumors multi-gene signature, should be considered in the planning of both systemic and local therapy. Furthermore, the timing of axillary sentinel lymph node diagnosis (i.e., before or after the PST) was also noted to be critical in that it may influence the likelihood of axillary preservation, even in node positive cases. In addition, axillary diagnosis with ultrasound and concomitant fine needle aspiration cytology or core needle biopsy (CNB) was reported to contribute to the construction of a treatment algorithm for patient-specific or individualized axillary surgery. Following PST, planning for breast surgery should therefore be based on tumor subtype, tumor volume and extent, therapeutic response to PST, and patient preference. Nomograms for predicting nodal status and drug sensitivity were also recognized as a tool to support decision-making in the selection of surgical treatment. Overall, review of data at the KBCCC showed that PST increases the likelihood of patients receiving localized surgery and individualized treatment regimens.
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Clinical application of human ?-defensin and CD14 gene polymorphism in evaluating the status of chronic inflammation.
J Transl Med
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Periodontitis is a common disease that affects the periodontal tissue supporting the teeth. This disease is attributed to multiple risk factors, including diabetes, cigarette smoking, alcohol, pathogenic microorganisms, genetics and others. Human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide with cysteine-rich ß-sheets and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. CD14 is a protein involved in the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has also been associated with periodontitis. This study investigates the single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) region, -1654(V38I), of the human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) gene as well as the -159 region of the CD14 gene in subjects with chronic periodontitis.
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Gene polymorphism and protein of human pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Chinese healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients.
J Transl Med
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Periodontal disease is thought to arise from the interaction of various factors, including the susceptibility of the host, the presence of pathogenic organisms, and the absence of beneficial species. The genetic factors may play a significant role in the risk of periodontal diseases. Cytokines initiate, mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study is to compare genotypes and soluble protein of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-10, TNF-? and IL-4) in subjects with or free of chronic periodontitis.
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Emodin affects ERCC1 expression in breast cancer cells.
J Transl Med
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Multi-drug resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is a major cause of treatment failure in breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of emodin on reversing the multi-drug resistance, examined the ERCC1 protein expression in breast cancer cell line, and explored the relationship between reversal of multi-drug resistance and ERCC1 protein expression.
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Relationship of CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer stem cells and axillary lymph node metastasis.
J Transl Med
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Axillary node staging plays an important role in the prognostic evaluation and planning of adjuvant treatment. Breast cancer stem cells, identified on the basis of CD44+CD24-/low expression, are associated with metastases and drug resistance. It is therefore important to investigate the proportion of CD44+CD24-/low breast cancer stem cells for the diagnosis of metastases in axillary nodes.
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Comparing serum levels of cardiac biomarkers in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and subjects with chronic periodontitis.
J Transl Med
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Chronic periodontitis (CP) is a chronic inflammation associated with elevations of several inflammatory and cardiac markers. Studies implicated CP as one of the etiologies in coronary heart disease (CHD). Cardiotoxicity is a major complication of anticancer drugs, including anthracyclines and 5-fluorouracil (5FU). The most severe cardiac complications are heart failure, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we compared the level of inflammatory factors and cardiac markers between chronic periodontitis patients and cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
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Overexpression of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) predicts better response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
J Transl Med
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Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in approximately 10% to 25% of all patients with breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has been reported to produce a higher pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in TNBC. If pCR is achieved, patients with TNBC had a similar survival with non-TNBC patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the protein expression of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and clinical outcome in patients with TNBC compared with non-TNBC.
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Decreased expression of C-erbB-2 and CXCR4 in breast cancer after primary chemotherapy.
J Transl Med
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Biological molecular markers such as proto-oncogene erbB-2 (HER-2/neu, c-erbB-2), the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), estrogen receptor (ER), Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), DNA topoisomerase II (topo II), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed for changes after administration of neochemotherapy and whether these protein expression changes were correlated with response to chemotherapy.
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Application of a nanotechnology antimicrobial spray to prevent lower urinary tract infection: a multicenter urology trial.
J Transl Med
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Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is a common nosocomial device-associated infection. It is now recognized that the high infection rates were caused by the formation of biofilm on the surface of the catheters that decreases the susceptibility to antibiotics and results in anti-microbial resistance.In this study, we performed an in vitro test to explore the mechanism of biofilm formation and subsequently conducted a multi-center clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of CAUTI prevention with the application of JUC, a nanotechnology antimicrobial spray.
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Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy for the early-stage differential thyroid carcinoma.
J Transl Med
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Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), the modified Miccolis thyroid surgery, is the most widespread minimally invasive technique and has been widely used for treatment of thyroid disease. This study aimed to verify the potential benefits of the modified Miccolis thyroid surgery, determine the feasibility of the MIVAT for early-stage differential thyroid carcinoma and evaluate the likelihood of the surgical method as a standard operation for early malignant thyroid carcinoma.
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Using association rules mining to explore pattern of Chinese medicinal formulae (prescription) in treating and preventing breast cancer recurrence and metastasis.
J Transl Med
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Chinese herbal medicine is increasingly widely used as a complementary approach for control of breast cancer recurrence and metastasis. In this paper, we examined the implicit prescription patterns behind the Chinese medicinal formulae, so as to explore the Chinese medicinal compatibility patterns or rules in the treatment or control of breast cancer recurrence and metastasis.
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Mouse model of plasma cell mastitis.
J Transl Med
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Plasma cell mastitis is distinct from the common form of mastitis and clinically resembles breast carcinoma. The lesion occurs in non-lactating young women, and the incidence rate is rising. Surgical resection is the main treatment, but cannot prevent recurrence of the disease. Disfigurement or removal of breast after the operations can cause marked physical and psychological distress. The etiology of plasma cell mastitis is unclear up till now. It is therefore necessary to investigate further the underlying immunological changes of the disease.
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US assessment of medial arterial calcification: a sensitive marker of diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular complications.
Radiology
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To examine the sensitivity of ultrasonography (US) compared with conventional radiography in detection of lower limb (thigh) medial arterial calcification (MAC) in type 2 diabetic patients and evaluate its association with diabetes-related complications.
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Association of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 3, 9, interleukin (IL)-2, 8 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene polymorphisms with chronic periodontitis in a Chinese population.
Cytokine
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Chronic periodontitis (CPs) could result in damage of periodontal tissues, loss of teeth and impose troublesome hindrance to restore teeth satisfyingly as well. Functional gene polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases, cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 have been found to play important roles in periodontitis. This study was to investigate the association between MMP-1-1067, MMP-3-1171, MMP-9-1562, IL-2-330, IL-8-251, COX-2-765 polymorphisms, and the susceptibility to CP in a Chinese population. A total of 122 patients with CP were evaluated for MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, IL-2, IL-8 and COX-2 genetic polymorphisms and were compared with 532 healthy control subjects using PCR-RFLP analysis. Clinical periodontal parameters were recorded. Serum levels of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, IL-2, IL-8 and COX-2 were measured by ELISA. The data were analyzed by chi-square, logistic regression and Mann-Whitney-U-tests and t test. There were significant differences between CP patients and healthy subjects in the genotype distribution and allele frequency of MMP-3-1171, MMP-9-1562, IL-2-330, IL-8-251 and COX-2-765 genetic polymorphisms. Significant difference between patients and controls were also observed for MMP-1-1067 genotype frequency, but not for allele frequency. Differences between rare allele carriage rates of CP and healthy groups regarding all the genetic polymorphisms in our study were significant (p<0.05). Serum levels of all the cytokines were higher in the CP patients compared to healthy subjects. These data show that MMP-1-1067, MMP-3-1171, MMP-9-1562 and IL-8-251 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to CP. MMP-1-1067 2G, MMP-3-1171 6A, MMP-9-1562 T and IL-8-251 A allele are associated with decreased susceptibility to CP in Chinese population.
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Aromatase inhibitor treatment of breast cancer cells increases the expression of let-7f, a microRNA targeting CYP19A1.
J. Pathol.
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Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are considered the gold standard of endocrine therapy for oestrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients. AI treatment was reported to result in marked alterations of genetic profiles in cancer tissues but its detailed molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Therefore, we profiled miRNA expression before and after treatment with letrozole in MCF-7 co-cultured with primary breast cancer stromal cells. Letrozole significantly altered the expression profiles of cancer miRNAs in vitro. Among the elevated miRNAs following letrozole treatment, computational analysis identified let-7f, a tumour-suppressor miRNA which targeted the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) expression. Quantitative real-time PCR assay using MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells as well as clinical specimens of a neoadjuvant study demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between aromatase mRNA and let-7f expression. In addition, high let-7f expression was significantly correlated with low aromatase protein levels evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and the western blotting method in breast cancer cases. Results of 3UTR luciferase assay also demonstrated the actual let-7f binding sites in CYP19A1, indicating that let-7f directly targets the aromatase gene. Subsequent WST-8 and migration assays performed in let-7f-transfected MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells revealed a significant decrement of their proliferation and migration. These findings all demonstrated that let-7f, a tumour suppressor miRNA in breast cancer, directly targeted the aromatase gene and was restored by AI treatment. Therefore, AIs may exert tumour-suppressing effects upon breast cancer cells by suppressing aromatase gene expression via restoration of let-7f.
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Effect of Sanguisorba officinalis L on breast cancer growth and angiogenesis.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
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Sanguisorba officinalis L. (SA) has shown anti-inflammation, hematopoiesis and immunity enhancing properties. No detailed studies have been reported on its anti-cancer effects. This study therefore was undertaken to analyze its effects on human breast cancer utilizing in vitro and in vivo methodologies.
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Effects of estrogen depletion on angiogenesis in estrogen-receptor-positive breast carcinoma--an immunohistochemical study of vasohibin-1 and CD31 with correlation to pathobiological response of the patients in neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
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Tumor-stroma interactions, including angiogenesis, are pivotal in breast cancer. Changes of angiogenesis during endocrine therapy have not been reported in breast cancer patients. Vasohibin-1 (VASH-1) is a recently identified endothelium-derived negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis. Vasohibin-1 positive ratio (VPR) is proposed as an indicator of neovascularization of the tissues.
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New therapies in HER2-positive breast cancer: a major step towards a cure of the disease?
Cancer Treat. Rev.
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Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) predicts a poor prognosis in metastatic breast cancer. While the introduction of HER2-targeted therapies, such as the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib, has significantly improved outcomes in HER2+ breast cancer compared with previously available therapies, use of these targeted therapies is often limited by the development of drug resistance and tolerability issues. These limitations create the need for further development and investigation of new targeted therapies that show potent and selective inhibition of these targets or closely connected molecular pathways. Recently, several agents have demonstrated promising activity in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer, either as monotherapy or in combination therapy, including the tyrosine-kinase inhibitors neratinib (HKI-272) and afatinib (BIBW-2992) and the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies pertuzumab and trastuzumab-DM1 (T-DM1). Agents that target other molecular pathways, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin, PI3-kinases, insulin-like growth factor (IGFR), HSP-90, and other kinases also have potential, in combination with anti-HER2 and/or other systemic therapies, to be active in this subtype of breast cancer. Innovative clinical studies are required in well-characterized patient populations to define the true clinical value of these emerging new approaches.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.