During compatible virus infections, plants respond by reprogramming gene expression and metabolite accumulation. While gene expression studies are profuse, our knowledge of the metabolic changes that occur in the presence of the virus is limited. Here we combine gene expression and metabolite profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana infected with Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) in order to investigate the influence of primary metabolism on virus infection. Our results revealed that primary metabolism is reconfigured in many ways during TRV infection, as reflected by significant changes in the levels of sugars and amino acids. Multivariate data analysis revealed that these alterations were particularly conspicuous at the time points of maximal accumulation of TRV although infection time was the dominant source of variance during the process. Furthermore, TRV caused changes in lipid and fatty acid (FA) composition in infected leaves. We found that several Arabidopsis mutants deficient in branched-chain amino acid catabolism or fatty acid metabolism possessed altered susceptibility to TRV. Finally, we showed that increments in the putrescine content in TRV-infected plants correlated with enhanced tolerance to freezing stress in TRV-infected plants, and that impairment of putrescine biosynthesis promoted virus multiplication. Our results thus provide an interesting overview for a better understanding of the relationship between primary metabolism and virus infection.
The role that parents' involvement may play in improving their child's social anxiety is still under debate. This paper aimed to investigate whether training parents with high expressed emotion (EE) could improve outcomes for adolescent social anxiety intervention. Fifty-two socially anxious adolescents (aged 13-18 years), whose parents exhibited high levels of expressed emotion, were assigned to either (a) a school-based intervention with an added parent training component, or (b) a school-based program focused solely on intervening with the adolescent (no parental involvement). Post-treatment and 12-month follow-up findings showed that school-based intervention with parent training was superior to the adolescent-specific program, yielding significant reductions in diagnosis remission, social and depressive symptomatology, particularly when the EE status of parents changed. Overall, the findings suggest that high-EE parents of children with social anxiety need to be involved in their child's therapy.
The technical gestures characteristic of certain sports may lead to one type of foot being more prevalent than the others. The Foot Posture Index (FPI) has been used as a diagnostic tool for support postures in various sports, but the differences in these postures between sports of distinct gestures in their actions are far from completely understood.
The idea of developing a new multiplex STR amplification system was conceived in 2011 as an effective way to implement the new European standard set (ESS) of 12 STR markers adopted by The Council of the European Union in 2009 while maintaining an effective compatibility and information exchange with the historical DNA profiles contained in the Spanish national DNA database (around 200,000 DNA profiles) mainly based on the 13 CODIS core STR loci plus D19S433 and D2S1338 markers. With this goal in mind we proposed to test and validate a single STR amplification system for simultaneous analysis of 21 STR markers covering both CODIS and ESS core STR loci plus three additional markers (D19S433, D2S1338, and SE33) also contained in commonly used STR kits and national DNA databases. In 2012, we started the first beta-testing with a 6-dye STR kit prototype containing 24 loci (now known as the GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit) developed by Life Technologies in response to the CODIS Core Loci Working Group's recommendation to expand the CODIS Core Loci. This prototype included our proposal of 21 autosomal STR markers and two Y-chromosome markers (DYS391 and Y-indel) and maximizes concordance with established databases and previously analyzed samples by maintaining primer sequences of previous Identifiler(®)/NGM SElect™ kits for the 21 STR markers except for TPOX. This paper describes the validation studies conducted with the first commercial available 6-dye STR kit for casework using a 3500 genetic analyzer for fragment detection that included the analysis of the following parameters and aspects: analytical threshold, sensitivity & stochastic threshold, heterozygous balance, stutter threshold, precision and accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility, genotype concordance, DNA mixtures, species specificity, and stability studies with case type samples. The studies demonstrated that the GlobalFiler™ system provided equivalent overall performance to previous forensic STR PCR kits, but with enhanced discrimination power for a better match efficiency that would reduce the chance of adventitious matches during DNA data exchange among national DNA databases.
The aim of this work was to study the relationship of torsional and rotational parameters of the lower limb with a specific angular position of the cleat to establish whether these variables affect the adjustment of the cleat.
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is impaired in schizophrenic patients and in an animal model of schizophrenia. Amongst a plethora of regulators, the immune system has been shown repeatedly to strongly modulate neurogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. It is well accepted, that schizophrenic patients have an aberrant peripheral immune status, which is also reflected in the animal model. The microglia as the intrinsic immune competent cells of the brain have recently come into focus as possible therapeutic targets in schizophrenia. We here used a maternal immune stimulation rodent model of schizophrenia in which polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly I:C) was injected into pregnant rats to mimic an anti-viral immune response. We identified microglia IL-1? and TNF-? increase constituting the factors correlating best with decreases in net-neurogenesis and impairment in pre-pulse inhibition of a startle response in the Poly I:C model. Treatment with the antibiotic minocycline (3mg/kg/day) normalized microglial cytokine production in the hippocampus and rescued neurogenesis and behavior. We could also show that enhanced microglial TNF-? and IL-1? production in the hippocampus was accompanied by a decrease in the pro-proliferative TNFR2 receptor expression on neuronal progenitor cells, which could be attenuated by minocycline. These findings strongly support the idea to use anti-inflammatory drugs to target microglia activation as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenic patients.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a multifactorial disorder associated with the HLA region. Recently, the ERAP1 gene has been proposed as a susceptibility locus with a recessive model and with epistatic interaction with HLA-B51. ERAP1 trims peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum to optimize their length for MHC-I binding. Polymorphisms in this gene have been related with the susceptibility to other immune-mediated diseases associated to HLA class I. Our aim was, the replication in the Spanish population of the association described in the Turkish population between ERAP1 (rs17482078) and BD. Additionally, in order to improve the understanding of this association we analyzed four additional SNPs (rs27044, rs10050860, rs30187 and rs2287987) associated with other diseases related to HLA class I and the haplotype blocks in this gene region. According to our results, frequencies of the homozygous genotypes for the minor alleles of all the SNPs were increased among patients and the OR values were higher in the subgroup of patients with the HLA-B risk factors, although differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, the presence of the same mutation in both chromosomes increased the OR values from 4.51 to 10.72 in individuals carrying the HLA-B risk factors. Therefore, although they were not statistically significant, our data were consistent with an association between ERAP1 and BD as well as with an epistatic interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B in the Spanish population.
According to genome wide association (GWA) studies as well as candidate gene approaches, Behçets disease (BD) is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and HLA-B gene regions. The HLA-B51 has been consistently associated with the disease, but the role of other HLA class I molecules remains controversial. Recently, variants in non-HLA genes have also been associated with BD. The aims of this study were to further investigate the influence of the HLA region in BD and to explore the relationship with non-HLA genes recently described to be associated in other populations.
Socially anxious and healthy Spanish adolescents were studied in order to test the psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Confirmatory factor analyses were employed to test measurement invariance between these two populations, Cronbachs alphas were calculated to determine the reliabilities of the scales, and partial eta-square tests calculated the effect size of the differences between socially anxious and healthy adolescents and between the adolescent boys and girls. The psychometric properties of the SCARED were good, as demonstrated by having acceptable reliabilities (ranging from .75 - .41) and a moderate multivariate effect size (? p 2 = .08) between the adolescent boys and girls. Most importantly, it was demonstrated that the SCARED could differentiate between socially anxious and healthy Spanish adolescents as demonstrated by measurement invariance (? 2 = 254.27, df = 1343, GFI = .884, AGFI = .872, RMR = .031) and the large effect size (? p 2 = .22) between the samples.
Pes cavus is a structural deformity in which the increased plantar arch can lead to greater metatarsal verticality with the consequent excess of pressure under the forefoot zone (especially the metatarsal zone), causing pain and significant loss of functional capacity. We sought to determine whether neuromuscular stretching with symmetrical rectangular biphasic currents can reduce the pressure supported by this zone.
Fatigue due to running has been shown to contribute to changes in plantar pressure distribution. However, little is known about changes in foot posture after running. We sought to compare the foot posture index before and after moderate exercise and to relate any changes to plantar pressure patterns.
In pes cavus, the medial longitudinal arch elevation reduces the contact surface area and consequently increases the corresponding plantar pressure measurements. This poor distribution of loads may produce associated pathology and pain in this or other areas of the body. Normal reference values need to be established in order to determine which patterns are prone to pathology.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: AIRE is a transcriptional regulator playing a functional role in thymocyte education and negative selection by controlling the expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus. Recently, the AIRE gene was identified as a genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in genome wide association (GWA) studies performed in the Japanese population. According to the available data this association is restricted to the Asian population. However, different facts could influence the lack of association in Caucasian populations. The aim of this study was to further investigate the possible role of the AIRE gene in susceptibility to RA in a Caucasian population. METHODS: A total of 472 Spanish Caucasian RA patients and 475 ethnically matched controls were included in the study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2776377, rs878081 and rs1055311) with a minor allele frequency >0.05 in the Caucasian population which were not included in the high-throughput platforms used in the GWA studies performed in susceptibility to RA, and two SNPs (rs2075876 and rs1800520) associated with RA in the Japanese population, were selected and genotyped using TaqMan assays. RESULTS: No significant differences in the distribution of the alleles of rs2776377, rs2075876, rs1055311 and rs1800520 SNPs between RA patients and controls were observed. Nevertheless, the frequency of the C allele of rs878081 was significantly higher among RA patients (80.5% vs. 74.6% in the control group, pc = 0.012, OR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.13-1.75). Regarding the distribution of the rs878081 genotypes, a higher frequency of CC homozygous individuals was found in the RA patient group (65.56% vs. 56.47% in the control group, pc = 0.013, OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.12-1.93). The in silico analysis predicted lower affinity to the binding-site of a motif of the transcription NF-?B family and lower transcription levels of AIRE gene for the rs878081C risk variant CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the AIRE gene is associated with susceptibility to RA in the Spanish population. Probably, this association has not been detected in the European population in the GWA studies because the earliest high-throughput platforms did not include SNP suitable markers (e.g. rs878081).
Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimers and Parkinsons diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L?¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level).
Although dietary fat and its role in cardiovascular prevention has been one of the most extensively studied nutritional topics, it continues to be an ever-expanding research area. Particularly thanks to studies on Mediterranean diet, we now know that fat quality is more relevant than the amount of fat we eat in the diet. Thus, saturated and trans fats have been found to increase the risk of atherogenic disease. This is why it is recommended to substitute complex carbohydrates or unsaturated fat for unsaturated and trans fats with the aim of reducing saturated and trans fat intake to <10% and <1%, respectively, of the total calorie intake. Recent population studies, particularly that conducted in Kuopio, Finland, and those on Mediterranean diet, stress the important role of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats as key nutrients in preventing cardiovascular disease in modern societies. Furthermore, a special type of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. those of the omega-3 (n-3) series, is increasingly becoming essential nutrients for a healthy diet, especially in the case of children. Therefore, there is a rationale for four the Scientific Societies that are strongly committed to disseminate the benefits of a healthy diet in preventing cardiovascular disease, and to prepare a joint statement with the purpose of spreading improved knowledge on the importance of changing to a healthy diet with a well-balanced fat intake for industrialized populations. Accordingly, a multidisciplinary panel of experts from the following institutions has developed the present joint statement targeted at both adults and children of different ages: Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis, Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine, Spanish Association of Paediatrics, Spanish Society of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Paediatric Nutrition and Dietetics, and Spanish Society for Food Sciences.
The multicellular nature of plants requires that cells should communicate in order to coordinate essential functions. This is achieved in part by molecular flux through pores in the cell wall, called plasmodesmata. We describe the proteomic analysis of plasmodesmata purified from the walls of Arabidopsis suspension cells. Isolated plasmodesmata were seen as membrane-rich structures largely devoid of immunoreactive markers for the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic components. Using nano-liquid chromatography and an Orbitrap ion-trap tandem mass spectrometer, 1341 proteins were identified. We refer to this list as the plasmodesmata- or PD-proteome. Relative to other cell wall proteomes, the PD-proteome is depleted in wall proteins and enriched for membrane proteins, but still has a significant number (35%) of putative cytoplasmic contaminants, probably reflecting the sensitivity of the proteomic detection system. To validate the PD-proteome we searched for known plasmodesmal proteins and used molecular and cell biological techniques to identify novel putative plasmodesmal proteins from a small subset of candidates. The PD-proteome contained known plasmodesmal proteins and some inferred plasmodesmal proteins, based upon sequence or functional homology with examples identified in different plant systems. Many of these had a membrane association reflecting the membranous nature of isolated structures. Exploiting this connection we analysed a sample of the abundant receptor-like class of membrane proteins and a small random selection of other membrane proteins for their ability to target plasmodesmata as fluorescently-tagged fusion proteins. From 15 candidates we identified three receptor-like kinases, a tetraspanin and a protein of unknown function as novel potential plasmodesmal proteins. Together with published work, these data suggest that the membranous elements in plasmodesmata may be rich in receptor-like functions, and they validate the content of the PD-proteome as a valuable resource for the further uncovering of the structure and function of plasmodesmata as key components in cell-to-cell communication in plants.
There is a current debate about the ecological validity of executive function (EF) tests. Consistent with the verisimilitude approach, this research proposes the ballet executive scale (BES), a self-rating questionnaire that assimilates idiosyncratic executive behaviors of classical dance community. The BES was administrated to 149 adolescents, students of the Cuban Ballet School. Results present a Cronbachs alpha coefficient of .80 and a split-half Spearman-Brown coefficient r (SB) = .81. An exploratory factor analysis describes a bifactorial pattern of EF dimensions, with a self-regulation component, which explains more than 40% of variance, and a Developmental component, which accounts for more than 20% of variance. The questionnaires total scores fit linear regression models with two external criteria of academic records, confirming concurrent validity. These findings support the hypothesis that the internalization of specific contextual cultural meanings has a mediating influence in the development of EF.
Potyviruses are plant pathogens transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. During transmission, the virus-encoded factor helper-component protease (HCPro) is presumed to act as a molecular bridge, mediating the reversible retention of virions to uncharacterized binding sites in the vector mouthparts. Whilst the predicted interaction between HCPro and the coat protein (CP) of virions has been confirmed experimentally, the characterization of putative HCPro-specific receptors in aphids has remained elusive, with the exception of a report that described binding of HCPro of zucchini yellow mosaic virus to several cuticle proteins. To identify other aphid components that could play a role during transmission, this study used purified HCPro of tobacco etch virus (TEV) in far-Western blotting assays as bait to select interactors among proteins extracted from aphid heads. With this approach, new HCPro-interacting proteins were found, and several were identified after mass spectrometry analysis and searches in databases dedicated to aphid sequences. Among these interactors, a ribosomal protein S2 (RPS2) was chosen for further investigation due to its homology with the laminin receptor precursor, known to act as the receptor of several viruses. The specific interaction between RPS2 and TEV HCPro was confirmed after cloning and heterologous expression of the corresponding Myzus persicae gene. The possible involvement of RPS2 in the transmission process was further suggested by testing a variant of HCPro that was non-functional for transmission due to a mutation in the conserved KITC motif (EITC variant). This variant retained its ability to bind CP but failed to interact with RPS2.
Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and pathogenesis. Viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that modify these tightly regulated pores to facilitate their spread from cell to cell. The most striking of these modifications is observed for groups of viruses whose MPs form tubules that assemble in PDs and through which virions are transported to neighbouring cells. The nature of the molecular interactions between viral MPs and PD components and their role in viral movement has remained essentially unknown. Here, we show that the family of PD-located proteins (PDLPs) promotes the movement of viruses that use tubule-guided movement by interacting redundantly with tubule-forming MPs within PDs. Genetic disruption of this interaction leads to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Our results implicate PDLPs as PD proteins with receptor-like properties involved the assembly of viral MPs into tubules to promote viral movement.
Diabetes health disparities among Hispanic populations have been countered with federally funded health promotion and disease prevention programs. Dissemination has focused on program adaptation to local cultural contexts for greater acceptability and sustainability. Taking a broader approach and drawing on our experience in Mexican American communities at the U.S.-Mexico Border, we demonstrate how interventions are adapted at the intersection of multiple cultural contexts: the populations targeted, the community- and university-based entities designing and implementing interventions, and the field team delivering the materials. Program adaptation involves negotiations between representatives of all contexts and is imperative in promoting local ownership and program sustainability.
The impact of size and diversity on group process and outputs. This study has analyzed the impact of size and diversity on group processes (group cohesion, effective management of conflicts, and group norms) and outputs (work satisfaction and group effectiveness) in a sample (N= 407) of Mexican workers. It considered two types of diversity: functional and social diversity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed main effects for size and functional diversity. Size is negatively associated with group norms, effective management of conflicts and job satisfaction. Functional diversity is positively related to group norms and cohesion. However, social diversity was not related to group process and outcomes. The analysis revealed a moderating effect of functional diversity on the relationship between size and job satisfaction. The practical implications of these results are analyzed.
The role that the involvement of parents may play in the treatment outcome of their children with anxiety disorders is still under debate. Some studies dealing with other disorders have examined the role that the expressed emotion (EE) construct (parental overinvolvement, criticism and hostility) may play in treatment outcome and relapse. Given that some of these aspects have been associated with social anxiety for a long time, it was hypothesized that EE may be associated with lower treatment outcome. The sample was composed of 16 adolescents who benefited from a school-based, cognitive-behavioural intervention aimed at overcoming social anxiety. Then, parents were classified with high or low EE. The results revealed that the adolescents whose parents had low EE showed a statistically significant reduction of their social anxiety scores at posttest, as opposed to adolescents of parents with high expressed emotion. These findings suggest that parental psychopathology (parents with high EE) should be taken into consideration to prevent poor adolescent treatment outcome.
Anxiety in young adults has recently been linked to reduced capacities to inhibit the processing of non-affective perceptual distractors. However, no previous research has addressed the relationship between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and the ability to intentionally inhibit no longer relevant memories. In an experimental study with adolescents diagnosed with SAD and matched nonclinical controls, a selective directed forgetting procedure was used to assess the extent to which anxious individuals showed lower memory impairment for to-be-forgotten information than their non-anxious counterparts. The results revealed that while the nonclinical sample group demonstrated the ability to selectively forget when instructed, the anxious adolescents demonstrated good memory for to-be-forgotten material and therefore failed to forget. Interestingly, more severe SAD symptomatology inversely predicted a degree of forgetting. We conclude that the main difference between socially anxious and non-anxious participants is specifically related to the ability to intentionally forget and could reflect cognitive functioning that is associated with vulnerability to anxiety. Impairment of the ability to make unwanted memories less retrievable could prompt some individuals to initiate or maintain anxiety disorders. Future psychological treatments could benefit from including modules on memory control training.
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