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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neonatal overfeeding alters hypothalamic microglial profiles and central responses to immune challenge long-term.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The early life period is one of significant vulnerability to programming effects from the environment. Given the sensitivity of microglial cells to early life programming and to adult diet, we hypothesized overfeeding during the neonatal period would acutely alter microglial profiles within the developing brain, predisposing the individual to a lasting central pro-inflammatory profile that contributes to overactive immune responses long-term. We tested this idea by manipulating litter sizes in which Wistar rat pups were raised, so the pups were suckled in litters of 4 (neonatally overfed) or 12 (control). This manipulation induces obesity and susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) long-term. We then examined microglial and central pro-inflammatory profiles during development and in adulthood as well as susceptibility to neuroimmune challenge with LPS. Neonatally overfed rats have evidence of microgliosis in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) as early as postnatal day 14. They also show changes in hypothalamic gene expression at this time, with suppressed hypothalamic interleukin 1? mRNA. These effects persist into adulthood, with basal PVN microgliosis and increased hypothalamic toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor ?B, and interleukin 6 gene expression. These neonatally overfed rats also have dramatically exacerbated microglial activation in the PVN 24h after an adult LPS challenge, coupled with changes in inflammatory gene expression. Thus, it appears neonatal overfeeding sensitizes PVN microglia, contributing to a basal pro-inflammatory profile and an altered response to a neuroimmune challenge throughout life. It remains to be seen if these effects can be reversed with early interventions.
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Plasma IL-12 levels are suppressed in vivo by stress and surgery through endogenous release of glucocorticoids and prostaglandins but not catecholamines or opioids.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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IL-12 is a prominent Th1 differentiator and leukocyte activator. Ample studies showed suppression of IL-12 production by numerous stress factors, including prostaglandins, catecholamines, glucocorticoids, and opioids, but did so in vitro and in the context of artificial leukocyte activation, not simulating the in vivo setting. In a recent study we reported in vivo suppression of plasma IL-12 levels by behavioral stress and surgery. The current study aims to elucidate neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in naïve F344 rats. To this end, both adrenalectomy and administration of specific antagonists were used, targeting the aforementioned stress factors. The results indicated that corticosterone and prostaglandins are prominent mediators of the IL-12-suppressing effects of stress and surgery, apparently through directly suppressing leukocyte IL-12 production. Following surgery, endogenous prostaglandins exerted their effects mainly through elevating corticosterone levels. Importantly, stress-induced release of epinephrine or opioids had no impact on plasma IL-12 levels, while pharmacological administration of epinephrine reduced plasma IL-12 levels by elevating corticosterone levels. Last, a whole blood in vitro study indicated that prostaglandins and corticosterone, but not epinephrine, suppressed IL-12 production in non-stimulated leukocytes, and only corticosterone did so in the context of CpG-C-induced IL-12 production. Overall, the findings reiterate the notion that results from in vitro or pharmacological in vivo studies cannot indicate the effects of endogenously released stress hormones under stress/surgery conditions. Herein, corticosterone and prostaglandins, but not catecholamines or opioids, were key mediators of the suppressive effect of stress and surgery on in vivo plasma IL-12 levels in otherwise naïve animals.
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Eating behavior and stress: a pathway to obesity.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body's resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hours following this, however, there is a glucocorticoid-mediated stimulation of hunger and eating behavior. In the case of an acute stress that requires a physical response, such as a predator-prey interaction, this hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation of food intake allows the stressful event to be dealt with and the energy used to be replaced afterward. In the case of ongoing psychological stress, however, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can lead to chronically stimulated eating behavior and excessive weight gain. In particular, stress can enhance the propensity to eat high calorie "palatable" food via its interaction with central reward pathways. Activation of this circuitry can also interact with the HPA axis to suppress its further activation, meaning not only can stress encourage eating behavior, but eating can suppress the HPA axis and the feeling of stress. In this review we will explore the theme of eating behavior and stress and how these can modulate one another. We will address the interactions between the HPA axis and eating, introducing a potential integrative role for the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We will also examine early life and epigenetic modulation of the HPA axis and how this can influence eating behavior. Finally, we will investigate the clinical implications of changes to HPA axis function and how this may be contributing to obesity in our society.
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Neonatal lipopolysaccharide treatment has long-term effects on monoaminergic and cannabinoid receptors in the rat.
Synapse
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Brain inflammation in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of anxiety and psychosis-related behaviors in adulthood, behaviors that rely on the integrity of dopamine and/or serotonin systems. Moreover recent behavioral and anatomical evidence suggests involvement of CB1 receptors in the control of emotion and mood. In this study, we determined the effects of neonatal LPS treatment on dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid receptor binding in adulthood. Rats were treated with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5. Dopamine D1, D2, serotonin 5HT1A, 5HT2A, and serotonin transporter and cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding across several brain regions were measured autoradiographically in adulthood (PND 85). Neonatal LPS treatment caused a significant increase in dopamine D2 in the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, a decrease in 5HT1A receptor binding in the hippocampus CA1 and ventromedial hypothalamus. A decrease in CB1 receptor binding after neonatal LPS was observed in the amygdala. Neonatal LPS had no significant impact on dopamine D1, serotonin 5HT2A or serotonin transporter binding in any of the brain regions examined. Our results suggest long lasting, region specific effects and differential impact on dopamine, serotonin and cannabinoid receptor systems following neonatal inflammation, that may form the basis for compromised anxiety and psychosis related behaviors.
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Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor ?2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.
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Immune regulation of ovarian development: programming by neonatal immune challenge.
Front Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Neonatal immune challenge by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces enduring alterations in the development and activity of neuroendocrine, immune and other physiological systems. We have recently reported that neonatal exposure to an immune challenge by administration of LPS results in altered reproductive development in the female Wistar rat. Specifically, LPS-treated animals exhibited diminished ovarian reserve and altered reproductive lifespan. In the current study, we examined the cellular mechanisms that lead to the previously documented impaired ovulation and reduced follicular pool. Rats were administered intraperitoneally either 0.05 mg/kg of LPS (Salmonella Enteritidis) or an equivalent volume of non-pyrogenic saline on postnatal days (PNDs) 3 and 5, and ovaries were obtained on PND 7. Microarray analysis revealed a significant upregulation in transcript expression (2-fold change; p < 0.05) for a substantial number of genes in the ovaries of LPS-treated animals, implicated in immune cell signaling, inflammatory responses, reproductive system development and disease. Several canonical pathways involved in immune recognition were affected by LPS treatment, such as nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation and LPS-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis supported the microarray results. Protein expression analysis of several components of the MAPK signaling pathway revealed a significant upregulation in the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the neonatal ovary of LPS-treated animals. These results indicate that neonatal immune challenge by administration of LPS has a direct effect on the ovary during the sensitive period of follicular formation. Given the pivotal role of inflammatory processes in the regulation of reproductive health, our findings suggest that early life immune activation via TLR signaling may have significant implications for the programming of ovarian development and fertility.
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Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure impairs sexual development and reproductive success in the Wistar rat.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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We investigated, in rats, whether neonatal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs sexual development, sexual decline, and reproductive behaviour in later life. Rats were administered either LPS (Salmonella enterica, serotype enteritidis, 0.05 mg/kg, ip) or saline (equivolume) on days 3 and 5 postpartum. The immediate and long-term effect of treatment on HPA and HPG hormones, testicular morphology, and mating behaviour was assessed. Neonatal LPS exposure induced a significant increase in corticosterone compared to controls, as well as reduced testosterone and LH in males and LH in females immediately following neonatal drug exposure. Neonatal LPS exposure disrupted the normal weight-to-age ratio of puberty onset in males and females, and impaired sexual performance in adulthood. Reproductive function was reflected in significantly diminished sperm presence in rats that had received neonatal LPS. LPS-treated females exhibited LH suppression during puberty, and males demonstrated testosterone suppression in late adulthood. Testosterone and LH surges during mating were significantly reduced in adult offspring treated with LPS as neonates. Furthermore, animals exposed to neonatal LPS and subsequent stress in adulthood, exhibited significantly blunted corticosterone responses. Morphometric assessment of testes taken from neonates revealed reduced gonocyte genesis immediately following LPS exposure and increased seminiferous disorganisation of the epithelium in these animals in adulthood. This research demonstrates the long-term impact of neonatal bacterial exposure on reproductive success given that early life exposure to bacteria disrupted puberty onset and sexual performance. Associated changes in neuroendocrine functioning suggest a possible mechanism through which a subfertile phenotype may arise.
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Reducing resistance to diabetes treatment using short narrative interventions.
Fam Pract
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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This article presents a narrative-based technique, which allows medical personnel to empower patients with diabetes and improve adherence.
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Metastatic-promoting effects of LPS: sexual dimorphism and mediation by catecholamines and prostaglandins.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Inflammation is implicated in several medical conditions that are sexually dimorphic, including depression, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmunity, and presumably cancer progression. Here we studied the effects of the proinflammatory agent, LPS, on MADB106 lung tumor retention (LTR), and sought to elucidate underlying mechanisms and sexual dimorphism. F344 male and female rats were administered with LPS (0.001-1mg/kg i.v.) simultaneously with tumor cell inoculation, and treated with a beta-blocker (nadolol, 0.2-0.3mg/kg s.c.), a COX inhibitor (indomethacin, 4mg/kg s.c.) or both drugs. To study the role of NK cells, numbers and cytotoxicity of marginating-pulmonary NK cells were studied, and selective in vivo NK-depletion was employed. Serum levels of corticosterone, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were also assessed. The findings indicated that LPS increased LTR in both sexes, but 10-fold higher doses were needed in females to reach the increase evident in males. Additionally, nadolol and indomethacin reduced the effects of LPS, more so in males. In vivo NK-depletion and ex vivo NK activity studies suggested that LPS affected LTR through both NK-independent and NK-dependent mechanisms, the latter mediated through prostaglandin release in males. Corticosterone, IL-6, and TNF-alpha responses to LPS were sexually dimorphic, but were not associated with LPS or drugs impacts on LTR. Overall, our findings demonstrate sexual dimorphism in LPS-induced elevated susceptibility to MADB106 experimental metastasis, and in potential humoral underlying mechanisms. Further studies are needed to elucidate additional immunological and non-immunological mediators of these dimorphisms, as well as to assess their involvement in other sexually dimorphic pathologies that are associated with inflammation.
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The sustained phase of tyrosine hydroxylase activation in vivo.
Neurochem. Res.
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Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for catecholamine synthesis. Stress triggers an increase in TH activity, resulting in increased release of catecholamines from both neurons and the adrenal medulla. In response to stress three phases of TH activation have been identified (acute, sustained and chronic) and each phase has a unique mechanism. The acute and chronic phases have been studied in vivo in a number of animal models, but to date the sustained phase has only been characterised in vitro. We aimed to investigate the effects of dual exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in neonatal rats on TH protein, TH phosphorylation at serine residues 19, 31 and 40 and TH activity in the adrenal gland over the sustained phase. Wistar rats were administered LPS (0.05 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivolume of non-pyrogenic saline on days 3 and 5 postpartum. Adrenal glands were collected at 4, 24 and 48 h after the drug exposure on day 5. Neonatal LPS treatment resulted in increases in TH phosphorylation of Ser40 at 4 and 24 h, TH phosphorylation of Ser31 at 24 h, TH activity at 4 and 24 h and TH protein at 48 h. We therefore have provided evidence for the first time that TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 occurs for up to 24 h in vivo and leads to TH activation independent of TH protein synthesis, suggesting that the sustained phase of TH activation occurs in vivo.
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Neonatal immune challenge alters reproductive development in the female rat.
Horm Behav
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Neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure alters neuroendocrine, immune and behavioural responses in adult rats. Recent findings indicate that neonatal LPS treatment may have a more pronounced effect on the mating behaviours of females compared to males. The current study further explored the impact of neonatal inflammation on reproductive development in the female rat. Wistar rats were administered LPS (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (equivolume) on postnatal days (PNDs) 3 and 5. The immediate effect of treatment was assessed on plasma corticosterone and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation in the adrenal medulla. Weight gain and vaginal opening were recorded, and oestrous cyclicity was monitored post-puberty and in late adulthood. Blood and ovaries were collected throughout development to assess HPA and HPG hormones and to examine ovarian morphology. Reproductive success in the first (F1) generation and reproductive development in the second (F2) generation were also assessed. Neonatal LPS exposure resulted in increased TH phosphorylation in the neonatal adrenals. LPS treatment increased the corticosterone concentrations of females as juveniles, adolescents and adults, and reduced FSH in adolescence. Increased catch-up growth was evident in LPS-treated females, prompting earlier onset of puberty. Diminished follicular reserve was observed in neonatally LPS-treated females along with the advanced reproductive senescence. While fertility rates were not compromised, higher mortality and morbidity were observed in litters born to LPS-treated mothers. Female offspring of LPS-treated mothers displayed increased corticosterone on PND 14, increased catch-up growth and delayed emergence of the first oestrous cycle. No differences in any of the parameters assessed were observed in F2 males. These data suggest that neonatal immunological challenge has a profound impact on the female reproductive development, via the alteration of metabolic and neuroendocrine factors which regulate sexual maturation. Evidence of altered development in the female, but not male offspring of LPS-treated dams suggests increased susceptibility of females to the deleterious effects of neonatal immunological stress and its possible transferability to a subsequent generation.
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Transgenerational transmission of anxiety induced by neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide: implications for male and female germ lines.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
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Neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure increases anxiety-like behaviour and alters neuroendocrine responses to stress in adult rats. The current study assessed whether this anxiety-related phenotype observed in rats neonatally exposed to LPS is transferable to subsequent generations. Wistar rats were exposed to LPS (0.05 mg/kg, Salmonella enteritidis) or non-pyrogenic saline (equivolume) on postnatal days 3 and 5. In adulthood, animals were subjected to restraint and isolation stress or no stress, and subsequently evaluated for anxiety-like behaviours on the elevated plus maze, acoustic startle response, and holeboard apparatus. Blood was collected to examine corticosterone responses to stress and behavioural testing in adulthood. Animals from both treatment groups which exhibited the anxiety-like phenotype were bred with untreated partners. Maternal care of the second generation (F2) was monitored over the first week of life. In adulthood, the F2 generation underwent identical testing procedures as the parental (F1) generation. The F2 offspring of females exposed to LPS as neonates exhibited an anxiety-like phenotype in adulthood and a potentiated corticosterone response to stress (p<.05). F2 offspring of males exposed to LPS as neonates also exhibited an anxiety-like phenotype (p<.05), however, no differences in corticosterone responses were observed. To determine the impact of maternal care on the anxiety-like phenotype, a cross-fostering study was conducted in which offspring of LPS-treated females were fostered to saline-treated mothers and vice versa, which was found to reverse the behavioural and endocrine phenotypes of the F2 generation. These data indicate that a neonatally bacterially induced anxiety phenotype is transferable across generations in both sexes. Maternal care is the mediating mechanism along the maternal line. We suggest that transmission may be dependent upon heritable epigenetic phenomena for the paternal line. The implications of this study apply to potential neuroimmune pathways through which psychopathology may be transmitted along filial lines.
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