JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Surface Water Near Cattle Feedlots.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Between April 2009 and July 2011, 311 surface water samples in 48 cattle feedlots distributed in an area of about 67,000?km(2) were analyzed to examine the environmental dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were taken inside and outside the pens, exposed and not exposed to runoff from corrals, near the feedlots. Two types of samples were defined: (1) exposed surface waters (ESW; n=251), downstream from cattle pens; and (2) nonexposed surface waters (NESW; n=60), upstream from cattle pens. By multiplex PCR, 177 (70.5%) ESW samples were rfbO157-positive, and 62 (24.7%) E. coli O157, and 32 (12.7%) Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated. In the NESW samples, 36 (60.0%) were rfbO157- positive, and 9 (15.0%) E. coli O157, and 6 (10.0%) STEC O157:H7 strains were isolated. These results showed that the environmental surface waters exposed to liquid discharges from intensive livestock operations tended to be contaminated with more STEC O157:H7 than NESW. However, no significant difference was found. This fact emphasizes the relevance of other horizontal routes of transmission, as the persistence of E. coli in the environment resulting from extensive livestock farming. By XbaI-PFGE, some patterns identified are included in the Argentine Database of E. coli O157, corresponding to strains isolated from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrhea cases, food, and animals, such as AREXHX01.0022, second prevalent pattern in Argentina, representing 5.5% of the total database. In the study area, characterized by the abundance of waterways, pathogens contained in feedlot runoff could reach recreational waters and also contaminate produce through irrigation, increasing the potential dissemination of STEC O157:H7 and the risk of human infections. The control of runoff systems from intensive livestock is necessary, but other alternatives should be explored to solve the problem of the presence of E. coli O157 in the aquatic rural environment.
Related JoVE Video
A mutation in the CASQ1 gene causes a vacuolar myopathy with accumulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum protein aggregates.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A missense mutation in the calsequestrin-1 gene (CASQ1) was found in a group of patients with a myopathy characterized by weakness, fatigue, and the presence of large vacuoles containing characteristic inclusions resulting from the aggregation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) proteins. The mutation affects a conserved aspartic acid in position 244 (p.Asp244Gly) located in one of the high-affinity Ca(2+) -binding sites of CASQ1 and alters the kinetics of Ca(2+) release in muscle fibers. Expression of the mutated CASQ1 protein in COS-7 cells showed a markedly reduced ability in forming elongated polymers, whereas both in cultured myotubes and in in vivo mouse fibers induced the formation of electron-dense SR vacuoles containing aggregates of the mutant CASQ1 protein that resemble those observed in muscle biopsies of patients. Altogether, these results support the view that a single missense mutation in the CASQ1 gene causes the formation of abnormal SR vacuoles containing aggregates of CASQ1, and other SR proteins, results in altered Ca(2+) release in skeletal muscle fibers, and, hence, is responsible for the clinical phenotype observed in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM) and cortical gray matter (GM) in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.
Related JoVE Video
Early detection of central visual function decline in cone-rod dystrophy by the use of macular focal cone electroretinogram.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate macular focal cone ERG (fERG) as a tool for reliable and early detection of central retinal function decay in cone-rod dystrophy (CRD).
Related JoVE Video
The long polar fimbriae operon and its flanking regions in bovine Escherichia coli O157:H43 and STEC O136:H12 strains.
Pathog Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) are intestinal adhesins and important virulence factors of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. We cloned and sequenced the lpf2-1 operon (lpf2ABCD) and its flanking regions of an intimin- and Shiga toxin-negative atypical E. coli O157:H43 strain of bovine origin and also sequenced the lpf2-1 operon of six additional atypical O157 bovine E. coli strains of various serotypes. Nucleotide sequence comparison of these lpf operons showed sequence conservation as they contained only four polymorphic nucleotide positions. Investigation of these O157 strains as well as 13 E. coli Reference Collection (ECOR) strains carrying the lpf2-1 allele revealed high degree of sequence conservation in the lpf2 flanking regions. The lpf2-1 allele is also present in a bovine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli STEC O136:H12 strain, and in vitro adherence assays revealed that the absence of lpf2-1 in this strain did not affect its host cell-binding properties. Our data indicate that lpf2 loci are highly conserved in E. coli isolates; however, its role in adherence might be masked by other uncharacterized adhesins.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of the long polar fimbriae gene variants in the locus of enterocyte effacement-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from humans and cattle in Argentina.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The long polar fimbriae (Lpf) is one of few adhesive factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and it is associated with colonization of the intestine. Studies have demonstrated the presence of lpf genes in several pathogenic E. coli strains, and classification of variants based on polymorphisms in the lpfA1 and lpfA2 genes has been adopted. Using a collection of Argentinean locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-negative STEC strains, we determined that the different lpfA types were present in a wide variety of serotypes with no apparent association between the types of lpfA1 or lpfA2 genes and the severity of human disease. The lpfA2-1 was the most prevalent variant identified, which was present in 95.8% of the isolates, and lpfA1-3 and lpfA2-2, proposed as specific biomarkers of E. coli O157:H7, were not found in any of the serotypes studied. The prevalence of lpf genes in a large number of strains is useful to understand the genetic diversity of LEE-negative STEC and to define the association of some of these isolates carrying specific lpf-variants with disease.
Related JoVE Video
Escherichia coli O157 in bovine feces and surface water streams in a beef cattle farm of Argentina.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen, and ruminants are recognized as the main natural reservoir. The purposes of this study were to detect E. coli O157 in bovine feces and surface water in a beef cattle farm of Gualeguaychú, Argentina; to characterize the isolates; and to establish the clonal relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Between September 2005 and November 2006, 288 samples of bovine feces and 79 samples of water troughs were studied. E. coli O157 was detected by immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction as screening techniques. The rfb(O157) gene was detected in 3.8% of the 288 fecal samples and in 17.7% of the 79 water samples. The stx gene was detected in all rfb(O157)-positive fecal samples and in 5.1% of water samples. Eleven E. coli O157 strains isolated from bovine fecal samples and eight from water samples were characterized. The most frequent stx genotype identified was stx(1) and stx(2c(vh-a)). Twelve (63.2%) strains harbored fliC(H7), eae, and ehxA genes. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with the enzyme XbaI, a total of eight patterns with at least 72.1% similarity were identified among the 19 strains. The patterns of 15 strains were grouped into four clusters: two of them included only bovine strains and the other two only aquatic strains. No genetic correlation was established between the bovine and water STEC strains detected. The prevalence of STEC O157:H7 established in the herd studied was higher than that previously reported for Argentine grazed cattle.
Related JoVE Video
Virulence profile comparison between LEE-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from cattle and humans.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For comparison purposes, the prevalence of 8 virulence markers was investigated, by PCR, in 153 cattle and 47 human Locus for Enterocyte Effacement (LEE)-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated in Argentina. Also, their correlation with severe disease was established. The virulence markers studied comprises 5 fimbrial and nonfimbrial adhesin-encoding genes (fimA, iha, efa1, lpfA(O113), and saa) and 3 toxin genes (cdt-V, subAB and astA) in addition to the Shiga toxins. The most prevalent virulence marker found was that encoded by the lpfA(O113) gene (199/200, 99%). Comparatively, the lpfA(O113), fimA, iha, saa, subAB, cdt-V and astA genes were detected in 100%, 92.8%, 85%, 52.9%, 36%, 11.8% and 9.8% of the cattle strains and in 97.9%, 95.7%, 89.4%, 40.4%, 32%, 17% and 10.6% of the human strains, respectively. All STEC strains were efa1 negative. The most prevalent profile observed among cattle and human STEC strains was lpfA(O113)iha fimA. These results show that bovine LEE-negative STEC strains possessed genes encoding virulence factors present in human LEE-negative STEC strains that are associated with disease. Despite a great diversity of virulence profiles observed, further studies comparing wild type strains and their allelic mutants are needed to evaluate the role of each factor in the pathogenesis of LEE-negative STEC strains during human infections.
Related JoVE Video
Loss of retinal capillary vasoconstrictor response to Endothelin-1 following pressure increments in living isolated rat retinas.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucoma, and its contribution to neuronal damage appears multi-factorial. An open issue is whether pressure effects on blood vessels contribute to neuronal damage. In particular, little is known about pressure effects on capillaries, which are the site of most metabolic exchange in the retina, but cannot be easily visualized in vivo. To address this issue, here we have imaged retinal capillaries in acutely isolated living rat retinas, and measured alterations in capillary viability, caliber and response to vasoactive stimuli after controlled pressure stimuli. We found that capillary viability, diameter and response to vasodilator stimulation are not affected after pressure increments; yet, a prolonged lack of capillary response to the vasoconstrictor Endothelin-1 (Et-1) is observed. Considering that Et-1 is a major component of the endogenous control of retinal blood flow the present data lead to the hypothesis that prolonged or repeated IOP elevation could induce capillary disregulation contributing to neuronal damage over time.
Related JoVE Video
Late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in a patient with 15q11.2-q13.1 duplication.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 4 Mb 15q11-q13 region is prone to structural rearrangements. Deletions have been identified among the leading causes for genetic diseases such as the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, while duplications, occurring preferentially on the maternal chromosome, produce a typical phenotype that includes mental retardation, language delay, seizures and autism. Although a number of such patients have been reported, however, there is a paucity of information about their clinical outcomes in adult age. We report on a 33-year-old female with a microduplication of 15q11-q13 detected by array-CGH analysis, with particular reference to the epilepsy phenotype, characterized as a late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef retail markets from Argentina.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens that cause mild or serious diseases and can lead to people death. This study reports the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 and non-O157 in commercial ground beef and environmental samples, including meat table, knife, meat mincing machine, and manipulator hands (n = 450) obtained from 90 retail markets over a nine-month period. The STEC isolates were serotyped and virulence genes as stx (Shiga toxin), rfb(O157)] (O157 lipopolysaccharide), fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin) and saa (STEC autoagglutinating adhesin), were determined. STEC O157 were identified in 23 (25.5%) beef samples and 16 (4.4%) environmental samples, while STEC non-O157 were present in 47 (52.2%) and 182 (50.5%), respectively. Among 54 strains isolated, 17 were STEC O157:H7 and 37 were STEC non-O157. The prevalent genotype for O157 was stx(2)/eae/ehxA/fliC(H7) (83.4%), and for STEC non-O157 the most frequent ones were stx(1)/stx(2)/saa/ehxA (29.7%); stx(2) (29.7%); and stx(2)/saa/ehxA (27%). None of the STEC non-O157 strains were eae-positive. Besides O157:H7, other 20 different serotypes were identified, being O8:H19, O178:H19, and O174:H28 the prevalent. Strains belonging to the same serotype could be isolated from different sources of the same retail market. Also, the same serotype could be detected in different stores. In conclusion, screening techniques are increasingly sensitive, but the isolation of STEC non-O157 is still a challenge. Moreover, with the results obtained from the present work, although more studies are needed, cross-contamination between meat and the environment could be suspected.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term decline of central cone function in retinitis pigmentosa evaluated by focal electroretinogram.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated long-term changes of central cone-mediated function in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients by recording focal electroretinograms (fERG).
Related JoVE Video
Non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in bovine rectums and surface water streams on a beef cattle farm in Argentina.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purposes of this study were to detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in bovine rectums and water in a beef cattle farm in Argentina, and to determine the pathogenic potential of the circulating strains. During the study, 292 rectal swabs from healthy animals and 79 environmental water samples were collected. The rectal swabs and one loop of the Moore swabs, enriched in Escherichia coli broth for 24 h at 37°C, were streaked on MacConkey agar plates and incubated overnight at 37°C. The isolates were characterized by biochemical tests and serotyped. Nonmotile STEC strains were typed for their H-specific (fliC) antigens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Isolates were characterized by detection of stx1, stx2, and their variants, eae, ehxA, and saa genes. Macrorestriction fragment analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed using the PulseNet standardized protocol. From 371 samples analyzed, 36.6% of rectal swabs and 34.2% of water samples were non-O157 STEC-positive by PCR, and 110 strains from rectal swabs, but only three from water, were isolated. The strains were grouped into 24 different serotypes, from which, O103:[H2] (n = 12), O136:H12 (n = 8), O178:H19 (n = 8), and O103:NM (n = 5) were most prevalent, representing 29.2% of the isolates. Predominant genotypes were stx1/eae/ehxA (16.8%) and stx2/saa/ehxA (15.9%). PFGE analysis revealed 56 different patterns, with 65 strains grouped in 19 clusters of 100% similarity. Two STEC O124:H19 strains isolated from rectal swabs and water with a 5-month interval harbored the stx1/stx2/saa/ehxA genotype, and showed an indistinguishable PFGE profile. By comparison, some XbaI-PFGE patterns identified in the present study were identical to the profiles of strains isolated from human, food, and animal sources included in the Argentine PulseNet database. By PCR, similar non-O157 detection rates were found in rectal swabs and water. However, the methodology for water samples needs to be improved, since only three strains from the total number of positive samples were recovered.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a multiplex PCR assay for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and enteropathogenic E. coli strains.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strains respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-?) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-?, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2?×?10(4)?CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms.
Related JoVE Video
The first Italian patient with oculopharyngodistal myopathy: case report and considerations on differential diagnosis.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy is a clinicopathologically distinct muscular disease. The underlying genetic defect has not been identified. We report here a 43-year old woman with asymmetric bilateral ptosis, dysphonia, swallowing difficulties, and weakness of the distal leg muscles. Serum creatine kinase was moderately increased. Electromyography revealed myopathic changes and myotonic discharges. Both cardiologic and pneumologic evaluation did not reveal abnormalities. Muscle computed tomography images showed adipose tissue replacement of abdominis rectus, lateral vastus, adductor magnus, and both the posterior and anterior compartment muscles below the knee, with prevalent involvement of medial gastrocnemius muscle. Muscle biopsy uncovered changes in fiber size and the presence of atrophic fibers with rimmed vacuoles of varying diameter, and core-like structures in type I fibers. Diagnosis was performed according to clinical and histopathologic findings, which were fully consistent with the other reported patients, and on the genetic exclusion of similar conditions such as oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy type 1 and multi-minicore disease associated to RYR1 mutations. Differential diagnosis with mitochondrial myopathies, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy and distal myopathies was also considered. This is the first Italian case of oculopharyngodistal myopathy, further suggesting the worldwide distribution of this rare neuromuscular disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetically related Argentinean and Australian Escherichia coli O157 isolates are distinguished by virulence clades and alternative Shiga toxin 1 and 2 prophages.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 is the leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The frequencies of stx genotypes and the incidences of O157-related illness and HUS vary significantly between Argentina and Australia. Locus-specific polymorphism analysis revealed that lineage I/II (LI/II) E. coli O157 isolates were most prevalent in Argentina (90%) and Australia (88%). Argentinean LI/II isolates were shown to belong to clades 4 (28%) and 8 (72%), while Australian LI/II isolates were identified as clades 6 (15%), 7 (83%), and 8 (2%). Clade 8 was significantly associated with Shiga toxin bacteriophage insertion (SBI) type stx(2) (locus of insertion, argW) in Argentinean isolates (P < 0.0001). In Argentinean LI/II strains, stx(2) is carried by a prophage inserted at argW, whereas in Australian LI/II strains the argW locus is occupied by the novel stx(1) prophage. In both Argentinean and Australian LI/II strains, stx(2c) is almost exclusively carried by a prophage inserted at sbcB. However, alternative q(933)- or q(21)-related alleles were identified in the Australian stx(2c) prophage. Argentinean LI/II isolates were also distinguished from Australian isolates by the presence of the putative virulence determinant ECSP_3286 and the predominance of motile O157:H7 strains. Characteristics common to both Argentinean and Australian LI/II O157 strains included the presence of putative virulence determinants (ECSP_3620, ECSP_0242, ECSP_2687, ECSP_2870, and ECSP_2872) and the predominance of the tir255T allele. These data support further understanding of O157 phylogeny and may foster greater insight into the differential virulence of O157 lineages.
Related JoVE Video
Botulinum neurotoxin A impairs neurotransmission following retrograde transynaptic transport.
Traffic
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The widely used botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) blocks neurotransmission via cleavage of the synaptic protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). Recent evidence demonstrating long-distance propagation of SNAP-25 proteolysis has challenged the idea that BoNT/A remains localized to the injection site. However, the extent to which distant neuronal networks are impacted by BoNT/A retrograde trafficking remains unknown. Importantly, no studies have addressed whether SNAP-25 cleavage translates into structural and functional changes in distant intoxicated synapses. Here we show that the BoNT/A injections into the adult rat optic tectum result in SNAP-25 cleavage in retinal neurons two synapses away from the injection site, such as rod bipolar cells and photoreceptors. Retinal endings displaying cleaved SNAP-25 were enlarged and contained an abnormally high number of synaptic vesicles, indicating impaired exocytosis. Tectal injection of BoNT/A in rat pups resulted in appearance of truncated-SNAP-25 in cholinergic amacrine cells. Functional imaging with calcium indicators showed a clear reduction in cholinergic-driven wave activity, demonstrating impairments in neurotransmission. These data provide the first evidence for functional effects of the retrograde trafficking of BoNT/A, and open the possibility of using BoNT/A fragments as drug delivery vehicles targeting the central nervous system.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.