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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The formation of inflammatory demyelinated lesions in cerebral white matter.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Vascular permeability and inflammatory demyelination are intimately linked in the brain, but what is their temporal relationship? We aimed to determine the radiological correlates of the earliest tissue changes accompanying demyelination in a primate model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset.
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Azathioprine versus Beta Interferons for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicentre Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For almost three decades in many countries azathioprine has been used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However its efficacy was usually considered marginal and following approval of ? interferons for this indication it was no longer recommended as first line treatment, even if presently no conclusive direct ? interferon-azathioprine comparison exists. To compare azathioprine efficacy versus the currently available ? interferons in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial was conducted in 30 Italian multiple sclerosis centers. Eligible patients (relapsing-remitting course; ?2 relapses in the last 2 years) were randomly assigned to azathioprine or ? interferons. The primary outcome was annualized relapse rate ratio (RR) over 2 years. Key secondary outcome was number of new brain MRI lesions. Patients (n?=?150) were randomized in 2 groups (77 azathioprine, 73 ? interferons). At 2 years, clinical evaluation was completed in 127 patients (62 azathioprine, 65 ? interferons). Annualized relapse rate was 0.26 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.19-0.37) in the azathioprine and 0.39 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) in the interferon group. Non-inferiority analysis showed that azathioprine was at least as effective as ? interferons (relapse RRAZA/IFN 0.67, one-sided 95% CI 0.96; p<0.01). MRI outcomes were analyzed in 97 patients (50 azathioprine and 47 ? interferons). Annualized new T2 lesion rate was 0.76 (95% CI 0.61-0.95) in the azathioprine and 0.69 (95% CI 0.54-0.88) in the interferon group. Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events were higher (20.3% vs. 7.8%, p?=?0.03) in the azathioprine than in the interferon group, and concentrated within the first months of treatment, whereas in the interferon group discontinuations occurred mainly during the second year. The results of this study indicate that efficacy of azathioprine is not inferior to that of ? interferons for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Considering also the convenience of the oral administration, and the low cost for health service providers, azathioprine may represent an alternative to interferon treatment, while the different side effect profiles of both medications have to be taken into account.
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Carbon nanotube scaffolds instruct human dendritic cells: modulating immune responses by contacts at the nanoscale.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Nanomaterials interact with cells and modify their function and biology. Manufacturing this ability can provide tissue-engineering scaffolds with nanostructures able to influence tissue growth and performance. Carbon nanotube compatibility with biomolecules motivated ongoing interest in the development of biosensors and devices including such materials. More recently, carbon nanotubes have been applied in several areas of nerve tissue engineering to study cell behavior or to instruct the growth and organization of neural networks. To gather further knowledge on the true potential of future constructs, in particular to assess their immune-modulatory action, we evaluate carbon nanotubes interactions with human dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells and their behavior can predict immune responses triggered by adhesion-dependent signaling. Here, we incorporate DC cultures to carbon nanotubes and we show by phenotype, microscopy, and transcriptional analysis that in vitro differentiated and activated DCs show when interfaced to carbon nanotubes a lower immunogenic profile.
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Perivenular brain lesions in a primate multiple sclerosis model at 7-tesla magnetic resonance imaging.
Mult. Scler.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide in vivo assessment of tissue damage, allowing evaluation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion evolution over time - a perspective not obtainable with postmortem histopathology. Relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an experimental model of MS that can be induced in the common marmoset, a small new world primate, and that causes perivenular white matter (WM) lesions similar to those observed in MS. METHODS Brain lesion development and evolution were studied in vivo and postmortem in four marmosets with EAE through serial T2- and T2*-weighted scans at 7-tesla. Supratentorial WM lesions were identified and characterized. RESULTS Of 97 lesions observed, 86 (88%) were clearly perivenular, and 62 (72%) developed around veins that were visible even prior to EAE induction. The perivenular configuration was confirmed by postmortem histopathology. Most affected veins, and their related perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces, passed into the subarachnoid space rather than the ventricles. CONCLUSION As in human MS, the intimate association between small veins and EAE lesions in the marmoset can be studied with serial in vivo MRI. This further strengthens the usefulness of this model for understanding the process of perivenular lesion development and accompanying tissue destruction in MS.
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Evolution of the blood-brain barrier in newly forming multiple sclerosis lesions.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions develop around small, inflamed veins. New lesions enhance with gadolinium on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), reflecting disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Single time point results from pathology and standard MRI cannot capture the spatiotemporal expansion of lesions. We investigated the development and expansion of new MS lesions, focusing on the dynamics of BBB permeability.
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Inhibition of immune synapse by altered dendritic cell actin distribution: a new pathway of mesenchymal stem cell immune regulation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Immune synapse formation between dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells is one of the key events in immune reaction. In immunogenic synapses, the presence of fully mature DCs is mandatory; consequently, the modulation of DC maturation may promote tolerance and represents a valuable therapeutic approach in autoimmune diseases. In the field of cell therapy, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their immunoregulatory properties, such as inhibiting DC immunogenicity during in vitro differentiation and ameliorating in vivo models of autoimmune diseases (e.g., experimental allergic encephalomyelitis). MSCs seem to play different roles with regard to DCs, depending on cell concentration, mechanism of stimulation, and accompanying immune cells. The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunogenic effects of MSC/DC interactions during DC activation (LPS stimulation or Ag loading). Human monocyte-derived DCs, bone marrow-derived MSCs, and circulating lymphocytes obtained from healthy donors, as well as the laboratory-generated influenza virus hemagglutinin-derived peptide, aa 306-318 peptide-specific T cell line were used for this study. We demonstrate that MSCs mediate inhibition of DC function only upon cell-cell contact. Despite no modification observed in cell phenotype or cytokine production, MSC-treated DCs were unable to form active immune synapses; they retained endocytic activity and podosome-like structures, typical of immature DCs. The transcriptional program induced by MSC-DC direct interaction supports at the molecular pathway level the phenotypical features observed, indicating the genes involved into contact-induced rearrangement of DC cytoskeleton.
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Modulating dendritic cells (DC) from immunogenic to tolerogenic responses: a novel mechanism of AZA/6-MP.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Azathioprine (Aza), 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-Thioguanine (6-TG) are thiopurine drugs widely used as immunosuppressants/anti-inflammatory agents in organ transplantation and chemotherapy. Aza is well tolerated and effective in modifying the course of MS. Here we investigated the action of 6-MP on human dendritic cells (DCs). We described for the first time that 6-MP impairs in vitro differentiation of DCs, has an inhibitory effect during DC activation processes inducing a functionally less immunogenic phenotype. Moreover, 6-MP significantly reduces DC IL-23 production and CCR7 expression, at the same time induces IL-10 augmentation. All these findings add a novel action mechanism in Aza immune modulation.
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Prevalence of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and phenotype distribution.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOsd) is a group of demyelinating disorders recently redefined and associated with NMO-IgG/anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. Because NMOsd is of unknown prevalence worldwide, we conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 850 patients with demyelinating disorders hospitalized in North East Tuscany from 1998 to 2006 to examine the prevalence of NMO and related disorders among unselected consecutive neurological patients with inflammatory CNS diseases and to evaluate the clinical phenotype spectrum of identified cases. Clinical data were updated after at least 2 years of follow-up. An immunofluorescence technique was used to detect NMO-IgG on rat brain tissue. Sera from other 828 neurological patients, 65 non-neurological patients and 50 healthy donors served as controls. The prevalence of NMOsd was 1.5%, with a MS:NMOsd ratio of 42.7. Among 13 NMOsd patients, 77% had long spinal cord lesions, 38% had severe optic neuritis and 23% had brain or brainstem lesions. Only 56% had clinically definite NMO at follow-up. The final EDSS score ranged from 1 to 10, mainly depending on brainstem involvement occurrence. Our findings confirm a low prevalence of NMO and related disorders among demyelinating inflammatory diseases in a Caucasian population. Moreover, this study demonstrates an unexpectedly high prevalence of limited and atypical variants of this disease, not previously documented.
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Clinical, pathological, and immunologic aspects of the multiple sclerosis model in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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The efficacy of many new immunomodulatory therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has often been disappointing, reflecting our incomplete understanding of this enigmatic disease. There is a growing awareness that, at least in part, there may be limited applicability to the human disease of results obtained in the widely studied MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rodents. This review describes the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model developed in a small neotropical primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The model has features including clinicopathologic correlation patterns, lesion heterogeneity, immunologic mechanisms, and disease markers that more closely mimic the human disease. Several unique features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in marmosets, together with their outbred nature and close genetic and immunologic similarities to humans, create an attractive experimental model for translational research into MS, particularly for the preclinical evaluation of new biologic therapeutic molecules that cannot be investigated in rodents because of their species specificity. Moreover, this model provides new insights into possible pathogenetic mechanisms in MS.
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Immunohistochemistry analysis of bone marrow biopsies in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cells transplantation.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
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Recently autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) has been introduced for the treatment of severe forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). As little data are available on bone marrow (BM) of MS patients undergoing AHSCT, we investigated the morphological and phenotypic characteristics of MS BM.
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Efficacy and safety of venous angioplasty of the extracranial veins for multiple sclerosis. Brave dreams study (brain venous drainage exploited against multiple sclerosis): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a disabling progressive course. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has recently been described as a vascular condition characterized by restricted venous outflow from the brain, mainly due to blockages of the internal jugular and azygos veins. Despite a wide variability among studies, it has been found to be associated with MS. Data from a few small case series suggest possible improvement of the clinical course and quality of life by performing percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA) of the stenotic veins.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.