Hypertension induces left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by mechanisms involving oxidative stress and unbalanced cardiac matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. We hypothesized that ?1-adrenergic receptor blockers with antioxidant properties (nebivolol) could reverse hypertension-induced LVH more effectively than conventional ?1-blockers (metoprolol) when used at doses that exert similar antihypertensive effects. Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertension was induced in male Wistar rats. Six weeks after surgery, hypertensive and sham rats were treated with nebivolol (10 mg kg(-1)day(-1)) or metoprolol (20 mg kg(-1)day(-1)) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. LV structural changes and fibrosis were studied in hematoxylin/eosin- and picrosirius-stained sections, respectively. Cardiac MMP levels and activity were determined by in situ zymography, gel zymography, and immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidium and lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence assays were used to assess cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nitrotyrosine levels were determined in LV samples by immunohistochemistry and green fluorescence and were evaluated using the ImageJ software. Cardiac protein kinase B/Akt (AKT) phosphorylation state was assessed by Western blot. Both ?-blockers exerted similar antihypertensive effects and attenuated hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. Both drugs reduced myocyte hypertrophy and collagen deposition in 2K1C rats. These effects were associated with lower cardiac ROS and nitrotyrosine levels and attenuation of hypertension-induced increases in cardiac MMP-2 levels and in situ gelatinolytic activity after treatment with both ?-blockers. Whereas hypertension increased AKT phosphorylation, no effects were found with ?-blockers. In conclusion, we found evidence that two ?1-blockers with different properties attenuate hypertension-induced LV hypertrophy and cardiac collagen deposition in association with significant cardiac antioxidant effects and MMP-2 downregulation, thus suggesting a critical role for ?1-adrenergic receptors in mediating those effects. Nebivolol is not superior to metoprolol, at least with respect to their capacity to reverse hypertension-induced LVH.
The purpose of the present study was (1) to test the accuracy of a small-volume cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) device in detecting horizontal root fractures (HRFs) in teeth with and without an intracanal metallic post (IMP) and (2) to investigate the use of 2 different acquisition protocols of a CBCT device for HRF diagnosis.
Nitrite-derived nitric oxide (NO) formation exerts antihypertensive effects. Because NO inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, we carried a comprehensive series of experiments in rats to test the hypothesis that sodium nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting ACE. We examined whether sodium nitrite (15 mg/kg; or vehicle; by gavage): (I) attenuates the pressor responses to angiotensin I at doses of 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 ?g/kg intravenously; (II) attenuates the acute hypertension induced by L-NAME (100 mg/kg; or vehicle; by gavage); (III) attenuates the chronic hypertension induced by L-NAME (1 g/L in drinking water; or vehicle) administered for 6 weeks; (IV) attenuates the hypertension in the 2 kidney-1 clip (2K1C) chronic hypertension model. Blood samples were collected at the end of each study and plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was measured with a fluorimetric assay using Hippuryl-His-Leu as substrate. ACE inhibitors were used as positive controls. Plasma nitrite concentrations were measured by ozone-based reductive chemiluminescence. The in vitro effects of sodium nitrite (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 ?mol/L) on plasma ACE activity were also determined. We found that sodium nitrite did not affect the pressor responses to angiotensin I. Moreover, while sodium nitrite exerted significant antihypertensive effects in acute and chronic hypertension models, no significant effects on plasma ACE activity were found. In vitro experiments showed no effects of sodium nitrite on plasma ACE activity. This is the first study to demonstrate that the acute and chronic antihypertensive effects of sodium nitrite are not associated with significant inhibition of circulating ACE activity.
Nitrate and nitrite have emerged as an important novel source of nitric oxide (NO). We have previously demonstrated that sodium nitrite is an antihypertensive compound that exerts antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension. These unpredicted antioxidant effects of nitrite raised the question whether the beneficial effects found were caused by its conversion to NO or simply due to reversal of endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of its antioxidant effects. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive effects of a daily dose of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks in L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. We studied the effects of nitrite on markers of NO bioavailability, vascular oxidative stress, and expression of xanthine oxidoreductase. Moreover, we tested if xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition could attenuate the acute hypotensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertensive rats. We found that a single pharmacological dose of sodium nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME-induced hypertension. While the beneficial antihypertensive properties of nitrite were associated with increased levels of NO metabolites, hypertension increased vascular xanthine oxidoreductase expression by approximately 40%, with minor increases in vascular superoxide production. The inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase by oxypurinol attenuated the acute hypotensive effects of nitrite. Taken together, our results show that nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats and provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase plays an important role in this antihypertensive effect.
Our purpose was to compare the accuracy and reliability of linear measurements for Le Fort I osteotomy using volume rendering software. We studied 11 dried skulls and used cone-beam computed tomography (CT) to generate 3-dimensional images. Linear measurements were based on craniometric anatomical landmarks that were predefined as specifically used for Le Fort I osteotomy, and identified twice each by 2 radiologists, independently, using Dolphin imaging version 11.5.04.35. A third examiner then made physical measurements using digital calipers. There was a significant difference between Dolphin imaging and the gold standard, particularly in the pterygoid process. The largest difference was 1.85mm (LLpPtg L). The mean differences between the physical and the 3-dimensional linear measurements ranged from -0.01 to 1.12mm for examiner 1, and 0 to 1.85mm for examiner 2. Interexaminer analysis ranged from 0.51 to 0.93. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.96 and 0.57 to 0.92, for examiners 1 and 2, respectively. We conclude that the Dolphin imaging should be used sparingly during Le Fort I osteotomy.
Orally administered nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects associated with increased gastric nitric oxide (NO) formation. While reducing agents facilitate NO formation from nitrite, no previous study has examined whether antioxidants with reducing properties improve the antihypertensive responses to orally administered nitrite. We hypothesized that TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) could enhance the hypotensive effects of nitrite in hypertensive rats by exerting antioxidant effects (and enhancing NO bioavailability) and by promoting gastric nitrite-derived NO generation. The hypotensive effects of intravenous and oral sodium nitrite were assessed in unanesthetized freely moving rats with L-NAME (N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 100mg/kg; po)-induced hypertension treated with TEMPOL (18mg/kg; po) or vehicle. While TEMPOL exerted antioxidant effects in hypertensive rats, as revealed by lower plasma 8-isoprostane and vascular reactive oxygen species levels, this antioxidant did not affect the hypotensive responses to intravenous nitrite. Conversely, TEMPOL enhanced the dose-dependent hypotensive responses to orally administered nitrite, and this effect was associated with higher increases in plasma nitrite and lower increases in plasma nitrate concentrations. In vitro experiments using electrochemical and chemiluminescence NO detection under variable pH conditions showed that TEMPOL enhanced nitrite-derived NO formation, especially at low pH (2.0 to 4.0). TEMPOL signal evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance decreased when nitrite was reduced to NO under acidic conditions. Consistent with these findings, increasing gastric pH with omeprazole (30mg/kg; po) attenuated the hypotensive responses to nitrite and blunted the enhancement in plasma nitrite concentrations and hypotensive effects induced by TEMPOL. Nitrite-derived NO formation in vivo was confirmed by using the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (C-PTIO), which blunted the responses to oral nitrite. Our results showed that TEMPOL promotes nitrite reduction to NO in the stomach and enhanced plasma nitrite concentrations and the hypotensive effects of oral sodium nitrite through mechanisms critically dependent on gastric pH. Interestingly, the effects of TEMPOL on nitrite-mediated hypotension cannot be explained by increased NO formation in the stomach alone, but rather appear more directly related to increased plasma nitrite levels and reduced nitrate levels during TEMPOL treatment. This may relate to enhanced nitrite uptake or reduced nitrate formation from NO or nitrite.
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is the best examination for bone lesions of the maxilla, allowing the dentist to evaluate precisely the behavior and components of the lesion and their relationship to the surrounding structures. Central giant cell lesion and cherubism are histologically very similar lesions. Therefore clinical and radiological examinations are fundamentally important for the diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to report two cases diagnosed as central giant cell lesions and cherubism using CBCT. This imaging modality was very important for the diagnosis of the lesions presented in the current study. It also allowed observing precisely the limits of the lesions, the components, the behavior and the exact relationship to adjacent structures.
Upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been reported in both experimental and clinical hypertension. However, although pro-inflammatory cytokines that up-regulate iNOS contribute to pre-eclampsia, no previous study has tested the hypothesis that a selective iNOS inhibitor (1400 W) could exert antihypertensive effects associated with decreased iNOS expression and nitrosative stress in pre-eclampsia. This study examined the effects of 1400 W in the reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP) placental ischaemia animal model and in normal pregnant rats. Sham-operated and RUPP rats were treated with daily vehicle or 1 mg/kg/day N-[3-(Aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine (1400 W) subcutaneously for 5 days. Plasma 8-isoprostane levels, aortic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ROS production were evaluated by ELISA, dihydroethidium fluorescence microscopy and lucigenin chemiluminescence respectively. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was assessed by western blotting analysis and aortic nitrotyrosine was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Mean arterial blood pressure increased by ~30 mmHg in RUPP rats, and 1400 W attenuated this increase by ~50% (P < 0.05). While RUPP increased plasma 8-isoprostane levels, aortic ROS levels, and NADPH-dependent ROS production (P < 0.05), treatment with 1400 W blunted these alterations (P < 0.05). Moreover, while RUPP increased iNOS expression and aortic nitrotyrosine levels (P < 0.05), treatment with 1400 W blunted these alterations (P < 0.05). These results clearly implicate iNOS in the hypertension associated with RUPP. Our findings may suggest that iNOS inhibitors could be clinically useful in the therapy of pre-eclampsia, especially in particular groups of patients genetically more prone to express higher levels of iNOS. This issue deserves further confirmation.
Using a clinical survey, panoramic, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, this study was conducted to ascertain primary maxillofacial abnormalities in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI).
The purpose of this study was to evaluate which post-processing imaging protocol would be better to analyze the additional mental foramen (AMF) in preoperative planning with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) exams, and to test reproducibility of measurements, using open source software (OsiriX). The software was used to detect the cases of AMF from among 58 exams for dental implant planning in edentulous mandible areas-three cases were found. The case images were submitted to qualitative analysis using 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D-MPR and 3D volume rendering protocols by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. Quantitative analysis used the 3D-MPR protocol; the closed polygon tool measured the mental foramen (MF) and the AMF areas; the length tool measured the distance between foramina. The measurements were performed independently by the examiners, at two different times. Intra- and interexaminer agreement was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The panoramic view did not show the MF and the AMF clearly. The AMF could be detected in the parasagittal view. 2D Orthogonal MPR was effective to observe the AMF in some cases. The 3D-MPR and 3D view protocols were the most effective to locate and analyze the AMF. In conclusion, a 3D view improves visualization when anatomical points are not clearly visible. 3D-MPR was considered a more effective post-processing imaging protocol to observe foramina relationships. The high reproducibility of measurements for anatomical MF variations was established using specific tools featured in open source software for CBCT. OsiriX is realistic and recommended for preoperative planning.
Abstract This technical note is aimed at presenting a method to manipulate and use three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images, in order to assess the condition of grafts and implants placed in the jaws. Three-dimensional reconstructed images from cone beam computed tomography (3D-CBCT) of fifteen patients who underwent a total of 21 procedures of multiple implant placements were rendered, analyzed and manipulated using a thresholding colors edition tool of the open source OsiriX imaging software. Cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT cuts of the cases were also analyzed in order to confirm the advantages of using the edited 3D reconstructed images. The advantages provided by the method analyzed to manipulate 3D-CBCT reconstructed images from OsiriX software include: 3D visualization of two or more implant inclinations in the same image avoiding beam-hardening artifacts, and allowing a 3D evaluation of the implant-prosthesis connection, and of the sinus grafted area prior to implant placement. The thresholding colors edition of 3D-CBCT reconstructed images from OsiriX imaging software was indicated as a useful method to allow visualization of grafts and implants placed in the jaws, and to provide more detailed information for evaluating implant-related treatment.
Nitric oxide (NO)-derived metabolites including the anion nitrite can recycle back to NO and thus complement NO formation independent of NO synthases. While nitrite is as a major vascular storage pool and source of NO, little is known about drugs that increase tissue nitrite concentrations. This study examined the effects of atorvastatin or sildenafil, or the combination, on vascular nitrite concentrations and on endothelial dysfunction in the 2 kidney-1 clip (2K1C) hypertension model. Sham-operated or 2K1C hypertensive rats were treated with vehicle, atorvastatin (50 mg/Kg), sildenafil (45 mg/Kg), or both for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored weekly. Nitrite concentrations were assessed in the aortas and in plasma samples by ozone-based reductive chemiluminescence assay. Aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation. Aortic NADPH activity and ROS production were evaluated by luminescence and dihydroethidium, respectively, and plasma TBARS levels were measured. Aortic nitrotyrosine staining was evaluated to assess peroxynitrite formation. Atorvastatin and sildenafil, alone or combined, significantly lowered SBP by approximately 40 mmHg. Atorvastatin significantly increased vascular nitrite levels by 70% in hypertensive rats, whereas sildenafil had no effects. Both drugs significantly improved the vascular function, and decreased vascular NADPH activity, ROS, and nitrotyrosine levels. Lower plasma TBARS concentrations were found with both treatments. The combination of drugs showed no improved responses compared to each drug alone. These findings show evidence that atorvastatin, but not sildenafil, increases vascular NO stores, although both drugs exert antioxidant effects, improve endothelial function, and lower blood pressure in 2K1C hypertension.
Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is associated with angiogenesis and adipose tissue mass depends on neovascularization. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main angiogenic factor in the adipose tissue, and VEGF expression is tightly regulated at both transcriptional and translational levels. However, no previous study has tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in the VEGF gene could affect susceptibility to obesity. To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of genotypes and haplotypes including three VEGF genetic polymorphisms in obese children and adolescents with those found in healthy controls. We studied 172 healthy children and adolescents and 113 obese children and adolescents. Genotypes of three clinically relevant VEGF polymorphisms in the promoter region (C-2578A, G-1154A, and G-634C) of the VEGF gene were determined by TaqMan allele discrimination assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. VEGF haplotypes were inferred using Haplo.stats and PHASE 2.1 programs. We found no differences in the distributions of VEGF genotypes and alleles (p?>?0.05). However, the CAG haplotype was more frequent in the obese group than in the control group (4% versus 0%, respectively, in white subjects; p?=?0.008; odds ratio?=?10.148 (95% confidence interval: 1.098-93.788). Our findings suggest that VEGF haplotypes affect susceptibility to obesity in children and adolescents.
Dietary nitrite and nitrate are important sources of nitric oxide (NO). However, the use of nitrite as an antihypertensive drug may be limited by increased oxidative stress associated with hypertension. We evaluated the antihypertensive effects of sodium nitrite given in drinking water for 4 weeks in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats and the effects induced by nitrite on NO bioavailability and oxidative stress. We found that, even under the increased oxidative stress conditions present in 2K1C hypertension, nitrite reduced systolic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas treatment with nitrite did not significantly change plasma nitrite concentrations in 2K1C rats, it increased plasma nitrate levels significantly. Surprisingly, nitrite treatment exerted antioxidant effects in both hypertensive and sham-normotensive control rats. A series of in vitro experiments was carried out to show that the antioxidant effects induced by nitrite do not involve direct antioxidant effects or xanthine oxidase activity inhibition. Conversely, nitrite decreased vascular NADPH oxidase activity. Taken together, our results show for the first time that nitrite has antihypertensive effects in 2K1C hypertensive rats, which may be due to its antioxidant properties resulting from vascular NADPH oxidase activity inhibition.
Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoter region of the perforin gene (PRF1) and it was found that the -398T mutant allele is correlated with lower amounts of protein in circulating CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
Our findings demonstrated that the results obtained for ampicillin may accurately predict the in vitro susceptibility to amoxicillin but not to imipenem and piperacillin among isolates of Enterococcus faecalis resistant to penicillin but susceptible to ampicillin, which have emerged recently, in contrast to penicillin- and ampicillin-susceptible isolates.
The new pathway nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a physiological alternative to the classical enzymatic pathway for NO formation from l-arginine. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and the nitrite formed is then swallowed and reduced to NO under the acidic conditions of the stomach. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increases in gastric pH caused by omeprazole could decrease the hypotensive effect of oral sodium nitrite. We assessed the effects of omeprazole treatment on the acute hypotensive effects produced by sodium nitrite in normotensive and L-NAME-hypertensive free-moving rats. In addition, we assessed the changes in gastric pH and plasma levels of nitrite, NO(x) (nitrate+nitrite), and S-nitrosothiols caused by treatments. We found that the increases in gastric pH induced by omeprazole significantly reduced the hypotensive effects of sodium nitrite in both normotensive and L-NAME-hypertensive rats. This effect of omeprazole was associated with no significant differences in plasma nitrite, NO(x), or S-nitrosothiol levels. Our results suggest that part of the hypotensive effects of oral sodium nitrite may be due to its conversion to NO in the acidified environment of the stomach. The increase in gastric pH induced by treatment with omeprazole blunts part of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrate and nitrite.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of large-volume cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to detect horizontal root fracture and to test the influence of a metallic post.
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