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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reduction in fecundity and shifts in cellular processes by a native virus on an invasive insect.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Pathogens and their vectors have coevolutionary histories that are intricately intertwined with their ecologies, environments, and genetic interactions. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is native to East Asia but has quickly become one of the most important aphid pests in soybean-growing regions of North America. In this study, we used bioassays to examine the effects of feeding on soybean infected with a virus it vectors (Soybean mosaic virus [SMV]) and a virus it does not vector (Bean pod mottle virus [BPMV]) have on A. glycines survival and fecundity. The genetic underpinnings of the observed changes in fitness phenotype were explored using RNA-Seq. Aphids fed on SMV-infected soybean had transcriptome and fitness profiles that were similar to that of aphids fed on healthy control plants. Strikingly, a significant reduction in fecundity was seen in aphids fed on BPMV-infected soybean, concurrent with a large and persistent downregulation of A. glycines transcripts involved in regular cellular activities. Although molecular signatures suggested a small regulatory RNA pathway defense response was repressed in aphids feeding on infected plants, BPMV did not appear to be replicating in the vector. These results suggest that incompatibilities with BPMV or the effects of BPMV infection on soybean caused A. glycines to allot available energy resources to survival rather than reproduction and other core cellular processes. Ultimately, the detrimental impacts to A. glycines may reflect the short tritrophic evolutionary histories between the insect, plant, and virus.
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Virus-independent and common transcriptome responses of leafhopper vectors feeding on maize infected with semi-persistently and persistent propagatively transmitted viruses.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Insects are the most important epidemiological factors for plant virus disease spread, with >75% of viruses being dependent on insects for transmission to new hosts. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons Forbes) transmits two viruses that use different strategies for transmission: Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) which is semi-persistently transmitted and Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) which is persistently and propagatively transmitted. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms in insects that regulate the process and efficiency of transmission, or how these mechanisms differ based on virus transmission strategy.
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SLC11A1 polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis status.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2010
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To test for association of SLC11A1 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) status in a Caucasian cohort.
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A mutation in the Lettuce infectious yellows virus minor coat protein disrupts whitefly transmission but not in planta systemic movement.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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The Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 mutant p1-5b was previously isolated from Bemisia tabaci-transmitted virus maintained in Chenopodium murale plants. p1-5b RNA 2 contains a single-nucleotide deletion in the minor coat protein (CPm) open reading frame (ORF) that is predicted to result in a frameshift and premature termination of the protein. Using the recently developed agroinoculation system for LIYV, we tested RNA 2 containing the p1-5b CPm mutant genotype (agro-pR6-5b) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We showed that plant infection triggered by agro-pR6-5b spread systemically and resulted in the formation of virions similar to those produced in p1-5b-inoculated protoplasts. However, virions derived from these mutant CPm genotypes were not transmitted by whiteflies, even though virion concentrations were above the typical transmission thresholds. In contrast, and as demonstrated for the first time, an engineered restoration mutant (agro-pR6-5bM1) was capable of both systemic movement in plants and whitefly transmission. These results provide strong molecular evidence that the full-length LIYV-encoded CPm is dispensable for systemic plant movement but is required for whitefly transmission.
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Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 1-encoded P34 is an RNA-binding protein and exhibits perinuclear localization.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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The Crinivirus, Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) has a bipartite, positive-sense ssRNA genome. LIYV RNA 1 encodes replication-associated proteins while RNA 2 encodes proteins needed for other aspects of the LIYV life cycle. LIYV RNA 1 ORF 2 encodes P34, a trans enhancer for RNA 2 accumulation. Here we show that P34 is a sequence non-specific ssRNA-binding protein in vitro. P34 binds ssRNA in a cooperative manner, and the C-terminal region contains the RNA-binding domain. Topology predictions suggest that P34 is a membrane-associated protein and the C-terminal region is exposed outside of the membrane. Furthermore, fusions of P34 to GFP localized to the perinuclear region of transfected protoplasts, and colocalized with an ER-specific dye. This localization was of interest since LIYV RNA 1 replication (with or without P34 protein) induced strong ER rearrangement to the perinuclear region. Together, these data provide insight into LIYV replication and possible functions of P34.
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Agroinoculation of the Crinivirus, Lettuce infectious yellows virus, for systemic plant infection.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) is phloem-limited, non-mechanically transmissible, and is transmitted to plants only by Bemisia tabaci. Here, we developed agroinoculation to deliver LIYV to plants thereby obviating the need for B. tabaci. Agroinfiltration of RNA 1 containing a green fluorescent protein gene into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in subliminal infections, as judged by green fluorescence. Agroinfiltration of LIYV wild-type RNA 1 and 2 constructs resulted in systemic infections in N. benthamiana plants and typical LIYV symptoms. In addition, partially purified LIYV virions from agroinoculated N. benthamiana plants were successfully acquired via membrane-feeding and transmitted to lettuce plants by B. tabaci. Agroinoculation coupled with targeted mutagenesis technologies will greatly enhance LIYV reverse genetics studies to characterize LIYV gene functions in planta for processes such as virus replication, recombination, trafficking, symptom elicitation and virus-vector interactions.
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Two Crinivirus-specific proteins of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV), P26 and P9, are self-interacting.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Interactions of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV)-encoded proteins were tested by yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays. LIYV-encoded P34, Hsp70h, P59, CP, CPm, and P26 were tested in all possible pairwise combinations. Interaction was detected only for the P26-P26 combination. P26 self-interaction domains were mapped using a series of N- and C-terminal truncations. Orthologous P26 proteins from the criniviruses Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), and Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV) were also tested, and each exhibited strong self-interaction but no interaction with orthologous proteins. Two small putative proteins encoded by LIYV RNA2, P5 and P9, were also tested for interactions with the six aforementioned LIYV proteins and each other. No interactions were detected for P5, but P9-P9 self-interaction was detected. P26- and P9-encoding genes are present in all described members of the genus Crinivirus, but are not present in other members of the family Closteroviridae. LIYV P26 has previously been demonstrated to induce a unique LIYV cytopathology, plasmalemma deposits (PLDs), but no role is yet known for P9.
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Lettuce infectious yellows virus-encoded P26 induces plasmalemma deposit cytopathology.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) encodes a 26 kDa protein (P26) previously shown to associate with plasmalemma deposits (PLDs), unique LIYV-induced cytopathologies located at the plasmalemma over plasmodesmata pit fields in companion cells and phloem parenchyma. To further characterize the relationship of P26 and PLDs, we assessed localization and cytopathology induction of P26 expressed from either LIYV or a heterologous Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions, immunofluorescence microscopy, biochemical fractionation, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analyses demonstrated that P26 not only associated with, but induced formation of PLDs in the absence of other LIYV proteins. Interestingly, PLDs induced by P26-expressing TMV were no longer confined to phloem cells. Putative P26 orthologs from two other members of the genus Crinivirus which do not induce conspicuous PLDs exhibited fractionation properties similar to LIYV P26 but were not associated with any PLD-like cytopathology.
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Virus pathogen database and analysis resource (ViPR): a comprehensive bioinformatics database and analysis resource for the coronavirus research community.
Viruses
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Several viruses within the Coronaviridae family have been categorized as either emerging or re-emerging human pathogens, with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) being the most well known. The NIAID-sponsored Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR, www.viprbrc.org) supports bioinformatics workflows for a broad range of human virus pathogens and other related viruses, including the entire Coronaviridae family. ViPR provides access to sequence records, gene and protein annotations, immune epitopes, 3D structures, host factor data, and other data types through an intuitive web-based search interface. Records returned from these queries can then be subjected to web-based analyses including: multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic inference, sequence variation determination, BLAST comparison, and metadata-driven comparative genomics statistical analysis. Additional tools exist to display multiple sequence alignments, view phylogenetic trees, visualize 3D protein structures, transfer existing reference genome annotations to new genomes, and store or share results from any search or analysis within personal private Workbench spaces for future access. All of the data and integrated analysis and visualization tools in ViPR are made available without charge as a service to the Coronaviridae research community to facilitate the research and development of diagnostics, prophylactics, vaccines and therapeutics against these human pathogens.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.