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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DNA methylation changes in genes frequently mutated in sporadic colorectal cancer and in the DNA repair and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway genes.
Epigenomics
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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The onset and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) involves a cascade of genetic and/or epigenetic events. The aim of the present study was to address the DNA methylation status of genes relevant in colorectal carcinogenesis and its progression, such as genes frequently mutated in CRC, genes involved in the DNA repair and Wnt signaling pathway.
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Histopathological aspects of liver under variable food restriction: Has the intense one-week food restriction a protective effect on non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) development?
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by a variety of hepatic injury patterns without significant alcohol use. It has a close association with obesity, so treatment includes weight loss, control of insulin sensitivity, interventions directed at inflammation and fibrosis. There is a certain relationship between the grade and duration of food restriction and hepatic function. The objective of this work was to describe the relationship between biochemistry, autoantibodies, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), and liver morphology in experimental rabbit groups with food restriction as compared to controls with ad libitum food (ADL) income. The experiment was performed on a total of 24 rabbits of a weaning age of 25-81 days. The first group (R1) was restricted between 32 and 39 days of age to 50g of food per rabbit a day. The second group (R2) was also restricted between 32 and 39 days, but the rabbits received 65g of food per rabbit a day. At the end of the experiment, the blood and liver samples were collected at necropsy. NAFLD has developed in all three groups. There was any autoantibody positivity in all three groups. IGF-I is moderately higher in R1 and R2 group, as compared to the control group (P>0.05). IGFBP-3 is without statistical significance in all three groups. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is the only liver biochemical parameter that has significantly increased following food restriction (P>0.039). Single one-week restriction has any protective effect on NAFLD development.
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Variations in mismatch repair genes and colorectal cancer risk and clinical outcome.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is one of the best understood forms of genetic instability in colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is routinely cured by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy, with a prognostic effect and resistance to such therapy conferred by MMR status. In this study, we aimed to analyse the effect of genetic variants in classical coding regions or in less-explored predicted microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of MMR genes on the risk of CRC, prognosis and the efficacy of 5-FU therapy. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMR genes were initially tested for susceptibility to CRC in a case-control study (1095 cases and 1469 healthy controls). Subsequently, the same SNPs were analysed for their role in survival on a subset of patients with complete follow-up. Two SNPs in MLH3 and MSH6 were associated with clinical outcome. Among cases with colon and sigmoideum cancer, carriers of the CC genotype of rs108621 in the 3'UTR of MLH3 showed a significantly increased survival compared to those with the CT + TT genotype (log-rank test, P = 0.05). Moreover, this polymorphism was also associated with an increased risk of relapse or metastasis in patients with heterozygous genotype (log-rank test, P = 0.03). Patients carrying the CC genotype for MSH6 rs1800935 (D180D) and not undergoing 5-FU-based chemotherapy showed a decreased number of recurrences (log-rank test, P = 0.03). No association with CRC risk was observed. We provide the first evidence that variations in potential miRNA target-binding sites in the 3'UTR of MMR genes may contribute to modulate CRC prognosis and predictivity of therapy.
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HOTAIR long non-coding RNA is a negative prognostic factor not only in primary tumors, but also in the blood of colorectal cancer patients.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death of neoplasia. Demand for predictive and prognostic markers to reverse this trend is increasing. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR (Homeobox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA) overexpression in tumors was previously associated with poor prognosis and higher mortality in different carcinomas. We analyzed HOTAIR expression levels in tumor and blood of incident sporadic CRC patients in relation to their overall survival with the aim to evaluate surrogate prognostic marker for CRC. Tissue donor group consisted of 73 CRC patients sampled for tumor and normal tissue. Blood donor group was represented by 84 CRC patients compared with 40 healthy controls. Patients were characterized for tumor-node-metastasis stage, tumor grade, microsatellite instability and tumor penetration by stromal cells. HOTAIR levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. CRC patients had higher HOTAIR expression in blood than healthy controls (P = 0.0001), whereas there was no difference in HOTAIR levels between tumor and adjacent mucosa of CRC patients. HOTAIR levels positively correlated between blood and tumor (R = 0.43, P = 0.03). High HOTAIR levels in tumors were associated with higher mortality of patients [Cox's proportional hazard, hazard ratio = 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-19.2, P = 0.046]. The hazard ratio was even higher when blood HOTAIR levels were taken into account (hazard ratio = 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-26.1, P = 0.019). Upregulated HOTAIR relative expression in primary tumors and in blood of CRC patients is associated with unfavorable prognosis. Our data suggest that HOTAIR blood levels may serve as potential surrogate prognostic marker in sporadic CRC.
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Post-treatment recovery of suboptimal DNA repair capacity and gene expression levels in colorectal cancer patients.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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DNA repair in blood cells was observed to be suboptimal in cancer patients at diagnosis, including colorectal cancer (CRC). To explore the causality of this phenomenon, we studied the dynamics of DNA repair from diagnosis to 1 yr follow-up, and with respect to CRC treatment. Systemic CRC therapy is targeted to DNA damage induction and DNA repair is thus of interest. CRC patients were blood-sampled three times in 6-mo intervals, starting at the diagnosis, and compared to healthy controls. DNA repair was characterized by mRNA levels of 40 repair genes, by capacity of nucleotide excision repair (NER), and by levels of DNA strand breaks (SBs). NER and base excision repair genes were significantly under-expressed (P?
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Colorectal cancer risk and patients' survival: influence of polymorphisms in genes somatically mutated in colorectal tumors.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The first two studies aiming for the high-throughput identification of the somatic mutation spectrum of colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors were published in 2006 and 2007. Using exome sequencing, they described 69 and 140 candidate cancer genes (CAN genes), respectively. We hypothesized that germline variants in these genes may influence CRC risk, similar to APC, which is causing CRC through germline and somatic mutations.
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Interferon Signaling Pathway Genes Are Associated with Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility and Survival.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interferon (IFN) signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1) and rs2234711 (IFNGR1) remained formally significant (P?=?0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively). Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14) was associated with overall survival of the patients (P?=?0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P?=?0.034). The hazard ratios (HRs) for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P?=?0.029 and P?=?0.036, respectively), suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.
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Non-coding polymorphisms in nucleotide binding domain 1 in ABCC1 gene associate with transcript level and survival of patients with breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters may cause treatment failure by transporting of anticancer drugs outside of the tumor cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 coded by the ABCC1 gene has recently been suggested as a potential prognostic marker in breast cancer patients. This study aimed to explore tagged haplotype covering nucleotide binding domain 1 of ABCC1 in relation with corresponding transcript levels in tissues and clinical phenotype of breast cancer patients.
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Association between CASP8 -652 6N del polymorphism (rs3834129) and colorectal cancer risk: results from a multi-centric study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The common -652 6N del variant in the CASP8 promoter (rs3834129) has been described as a putative low-penetrance risk factor for different cancer types. In particular, some studies suggested that the deleted allele (del) was inversely associated with CRC risk while other analyses failed to confirm this. Hence, to better understand the role of this variant in the risk of developing CRC, we performed a multi-centric case-control study. In the study, the variant -652 6N del was genotyped in a total of 6,733 CRC cases and 7,576 controls recruited by six different centers located in Spain, Italy, USA, England, Czech Republic and the Netherlands collaborating to the international consortium COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics). Our analysis indicated that rs3834129 was not associated with CRC risk in the full data set. However, the del allele was under-represented in one set of cases with a family history of CRC (per allele model OR?=?0.79, 95% CI?=?0.69-0.90) suggesting this allele might be a protective factor versus familial CRC. Since this multi-centric case-control study was performed on a very large sample size, it provided robust clarification of the effect of rs3834129 on the risk of developing CRC in Caucasians.
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Variation within 3-UTRs of base excision repair genes and response to therapy in colorectal cancer patients: A potential modulation of microRNAs binding.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Colorectal cancer is routinely treated with a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. 5-FU incorporates into DNA, and the base excision repair (BER) pathway specifically recognizes such damage. We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3-untranslated regions (UTR) of BER genes, and potentially affecting the microRNA (miRNA) binding, on the risk of colorectal cancer, its progression, and prognosis. SNPs in miRNA-binding sites may modulate the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression operated by miRNAs and explain interindividual variability in BER capacity and response to 5-FU.
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Genetic variants in C-type lectin genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and clinical outcome.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Inflammatory responses play a vital role at different stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. C-type lectins mediate inflammatory/immune responses and participate in immune escape of pathogens and tumors. Our study aimed to evaluate the correlation between polymorphisms in three C-type lectin genes, CD209, MBL2 and REG4, and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. We genotyped 15 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and assessed their associations with CRC risk in a case-control study of 1353 CRC cases and 767 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall and event-free survival in 414 patients. Two CD209 SNPs were associated with CRC risk after adjustment for multiple comparison. Minor allele carriers of the promoter SNP rs2287886 had an increased risk of CRC (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.08-1.56), while minor allele carriers of the 3UTR SNP, rs7248637, had a decreased risk (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60-0.91). Multivariate survival analyses, including age, gender, TNM stage and grade, showed that patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis and carrying the rs2994809 T allele had a decreased overall and event-free survival (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.20-3.72 and HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.39, respectively). We show that SNPs in CD209 may affect CRC risk, while a SNP in REG4 may be a useful marker for CRC progression.
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Evaluation of tumor suppressor gene expressions and aberrant methylation in the colon of cancer-induced rats: a pilot study.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Altered expression and methylation pattern of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes, in particular involved in mismatch repair (MMR) pathway, frequently occur in primary colorectal (CRC) tumors. However, little is known about (epi)genetic changes of these genes in precancerous and early stages of CRC. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze expression profile and promoter methylation status of important tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes in the early stages of experimentally induced colorectal carcinogenesis. Rats were treated with azoxymethane (AOM), dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) or with their combination, and sacrificed 1 or 4 months post-treatment period. The down-regulation of Apc expression in left colon, detectable in animals treated with DSS-AOM and sacrificed 1 month after the end of treatment, represents most early marker of the experimental colorectal carcinogenesis. Significantly reduced gene expressions were also found in 5 out of 7 studied MMR genes (Mlh1, Mlh3, Msh3 Pms1, Pms2), regarding the sequential administration of DSS-AOM at 4 months since the treatment. Strong down-regulation was also discovered for Apc, Apex1, Mgmt and TP53. Tumors developed in rectum-sigmoid region displayed significantly lower Apc and Pms2 expressions. The decreased expression of studied genes was not in any case associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region. Present data suggest that down-regulation of Apc and MMR genes are prerequisite for the development of CRC. In this study we addressed for the first time early functional alterations of tumor suppressor genes with underlying epigenetic mechanisms in experimentally induced CRC in rats.
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Chromosomal damage among medical staff occupationally exposed to volatile anesthetics, antineoplastic drugs, and formaldehyde.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Structural chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes represent a biomarker for cellular damage caused by genotoxic carcinogens and are an indicator of increased cancer risk. We evaluated the association between frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations, and occupational exposures to volatile anesthetics, antineoplastic agents, and formaldehyde among 601 medical professionals.
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ABO blood groups and pancreatic cancer risk and survival: results from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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There is strong epidemiologic evidence indicating that common genetic variability could be implicated in pancreatic cancer risk and, to date, various loci have been proposed. In particular, there is increasing evidence of the involvement of ABO gene variability and pancreatic cancer risk. In a large multicentric study of 1,028 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and 2,257 controls in the context of the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium, we investigated the suggested association with increased risk for carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determining the A or B allele in comparison with the O allele, which encodes for a non-functional enzyme. Since glycosyltransferase activity, encoded by ABO, is higher for the A1 variant compared with the A2 variant, we investigated the hypothesis that A1 carriers were at an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. In our analysis, carriers of the A1 were indeed at greater risk of developing the disease. In addition, we investigated the possible influence that genetic variability at the ABO locus may have in pancreatic cancer survival, but we observed no effect in our population.
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Meta-analysis of mismatch repair polymorphisms within the cogent consortium for colorectal cancer susceptibility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In the last four years, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified sixteen low-penetrance polymorphisms on fourteen different loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the low risks conferred by known common variants, most of the 35% broad-sense heritability estimated by twin studies remains unexplained. Recently our group performed a case-control study for eight Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 CRC genes. The present investigation is a follow-up of that study. We have genotyped six SNPs that showed a positive association and carried out a meta-analysis based on eight additional studies comprising in total more than 8000 cases and 6000 controls. The estimated recessive odds ratio for one of the SNPs, rs3219489 (MUTYH Q338H), decreased from 1.52 in the original Swedish study, to 1.18 in the Swedish replication, and to 1.08 in the initial meta-analysis. Since the corresponding summary probability value was 0.06, we decided to retrieve additional information for this polymorphism. The incorporation of six further studies resulted in around 13000 cases and 13000 controls. The newly updated OR was 1.03. The results from the present large, multicenter study illustrate the possibility of decreasing effect sizes with increasing samples sizes. Phenotypic heterogeneity, differential environmental exposures, and population specific linkage disequilibrium patterns may explain the observed difference of genetic effects between Sweden and the other investigated cohorts.
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Association between TAS2R38 gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in two independent populations of Caucasian origin.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Molecular sensing in the lingual mucosa and in the gastro-intestinal tract play a role in the detection of ingested harmful drugs and toxins. Therefore, genetic polymorphisms affecting the capability of initiating these responses may be critical for the subsequent efficiency of avoiding and/or eliminating possible threats to the organism. By using a tagging approach in the region of Taste Receptor 2R38 (TAS2R38) gene, we investigated all the common genetic variation of this gene region in relation to colorectal cancer risk with a case-control study in a German population (709 controls and 602 cases) and in a Czech population (623 controls and 601 cases). We found that there were no significant associations between individual SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene and colorectal cancer in the Czech or in the German population, nor in the joint analysis. However, when we analyzed the diplotypes and the phenotypes we found that the non-taster group had an increased risk of colorectal cancer in comparison to the taster group. This association was borderline significant in the Czech population, (OR?=?1.28, 95% CI 0.99-1.67; P(value)?=?0.058) and statistically significant in the German population (OR?=?1.36, 95% CI 1.06-1.75; P(value)?=?0.016) and in the joint analysis (OR?=?1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.61; P(value)?=?0.001). In conclusion, we found a suggestive association between the human bitter tasting phenotype and the risk of CRC in two different populations of Caucasian origin.
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DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair capacity in healthy individuals.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Interindividual differences in DNA repair capacity (DRC) represent an important source of variability in genome integrity and thus influence health risk. In the last decade, DRC measurement has attracted attention as a potential biomarker in cancer prediction. Aim of the present exploratory study was to characterize the variability in DNA damage and DRC on 100 healthy individuals and to identify biological, lifestyle, or genetic factors modulating these parameters. The ultimate goal was to obtain reference data from cancer-free population, which may constitute background for further investigations on cancer patients. The endogenous DNA damage was measured as a level of DNA single-strand breaks and DRC, specific for nucleotide excision repair (NER), was evaluated using modified comet assay, following the challenge of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide. Additionally, genetic polymorphisms in NER genes (XPA, XPC, XPD, and XPG) were assessed. We have observed a substantial interindividual variability for both examined parameters. DNA damage was significantly affected by gender and alcohol consumption (P = 0.003 and P = 0.012, respectively), whereas DRC was associated with family history of cancer (P = 0.012). The stratification according to common variants in NER genes showed that DNA damage was significantly modulated by the presence of the variant T allele of XPC Ala499Val polymorphism (P = 0.01), while DRC was modulated by the presence of the A allele of XPA G23A polymorphism (P = 0.048). Our results indicate the range of endogenous DNA single-strand breaks and capacity of NER in healthy volunteers as well as the role of potentially relevant confounders. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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MTHFR and MTRR genotype and haplotype analysis and colorectal cancer susceptibility in a case-control study from the Czech Republic.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Polymorphic variants in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism, in particular of dietary folate, may modulate the risk for colorectal cancer through aberrant DNA-methylation and altered nucleotide synthesis and repair. In the present study, we have assessed the association of six polymorphisms and relative haplotypes in the MTHFR gene (rs1801133 and rs1801131) and in the MTRR gene (rs1801394, rs1532268, rs162036, and rs10380) with the risk for colorectal cancer in 666 patients and 1377 controls from the Czech Republic. We found that the 677 C>T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene significantly decreased the risk for colorectal cancer in homozygous carriers of the variant allele (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87). Also, we noted a significantly different distribution of genotypes between cases and controls for the 66A>G polymorphism in the MTRR gene. In particular, homozygous carriers of the G-containing allele of this polymorphism were at an increased risk for colorectal cancer (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85). Haplotype analysis of the two MTHFR polymorphisms showed a moderate difference in the distribution of the TA haplotype between cases and controls. In comparison to the most common haplotype (CA), the TA haplotype was associated with a decreased risk for colorectal cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). No difference in the distribution between cases and controls was observed for the haplotypes based on the four polymorphisms in the MTRR gene. The present study suggests that the 677TT genotype and the TA haplotype in the MTHFR gene may also have a role in colorectal cancer risk in the Czech population, indicating the importance of genes involved in folate metabolism with respect to cancer risk. For MTRR, additional studies on larger populations are needed to clarify the possible role of variation in this gene in colorectal carcinogenesis.
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Polymorphisms in CTNNBL1 in relation to colorectal cancer with evolutionary implications.
Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease related to environmental and genetic risk factors. Several studies have shown that susceptibility to complex diseases can be mediated by ancestral alleles. Using RNAi screening, CTNNBL1 was identified as a putative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CTNNBL1 have been associated with obesity, a known risk factor for CRC. We investigated whether genetic variation in CTNNBL1 affects susceptibility to CRC and tested for signals of recent selection. We applied a tagging SNP approach that cover all known common variation in CTNNBL1 (allele frequency >5%; r(2)>0.8). A case-control study was carried out using two well-characterized study populations: a hospital-based Czech population composed of 751 sporadic cases and 755 controls and a family/early onset-based German population (697 cases and 644 controls). Genotyping was performed using allele specific PCR based TaqMan® assays (Applied Biosystems, Weiterstadt, Germany). In the Czech cohort, containing sporadic cases, the ancestral alleles of three SNPs showed evidence of association with CRC: rs2344481 (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.06-1.95, dominant model), rs2281148 (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.36-0.96, dominant model) and rs2235460 (OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.01-1.89, AA vs. GG). The associations were less prominent in the family/early onset-based German cohort. Data derived from several databases and statistical tests consistently pointed to a likely shaping of CTNNBL1 by positive selection. Further studies are needed to identify the actual function of CTNNBL1 and to validate the association results in other populations.
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DNA damage, DNA repair rates and mRNA expression levels of cell cycle genes (TP53, p21(CDKN1A), BCL2 and BAX) with respect to occupational exposure to styrene.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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We studied the relationship between DNA damage, DNA repair rates and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of cell cycle genes TP53, p21(CDKN1A), BCL2 and BAX in a group of 71 styrene-exposed workers and 51 control individuals. The exposure was assessed by measuring the concentration of styrene at workplace and in blood. Parameters of DNA damage [measured as single-strand breaks (SSBs) and endonuclease III-sensitive sites], ?-irradiation-specific DNA repair rates and mRNA levels of studied genes were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The workers were divided into low (<50 mg/m³) and high (>50 mg/m³) styrene exposure groups. We found negative correlations between mRNA expression of TP53, BCL2, BAX and styrene exposure (P < 0.001 for all parameters). In contrast, p21(CDKN1A) mRNA expression significantly increased with increasing styrene exposure (P = 0.001). SSBs and endonuclease III-sensitive sites increased with increasing mRNA levels of TP53 (P < 0.001 for both) and BCL2 (P = 0.038, P = 0.002, respectively), whereas the same parameters decreased with increasing mRNA levels of p21(CDKN1A) (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, respectively). ?-Irradiation-specific DNA repair rates increased with p21(CDKN1A) mRNA levels up to the low exposure level (P = 0.044). Our study suggests a possible relationship between styrene exposure, DNA damage and transcript levels of key cell cycle genes.
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Genome-wide association study for colorectal cancer identifies risk polymorphisms in German familial cases and implicates MAPK signalling pathways in disease susceptibility.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Genetic susceptibility accounts for approximately 35% of all colorectal cancer (CRC). Ten common low-risk variants contributing to CRC risk have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In our GWAS, 610 664 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) passed the quality control filtering in 371 German familial CRC patients and 1263 controls, and replication studies were conducted in four additional case-control sets (4915 cases and 5607 controls). Known risk loci at 8q24.21 and 11q23 were confirmed, and a previously unreported association, rs12701937, located between the genes GLI3 (GLI family zinc finger 3) and INHBA (inhibin, beta A) [P = 1.1 x 10(-3), odds ratio (OR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.23, dominant model in the combined cohort], was identified. The association was stronger in familial cases compared with unselected cases (P = 2.0 x 10(-4), OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.16-1.60, dominant model). Two other unreported SNPs, rs6038071, 40 kb upstream of CSNK2A1 (casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide) and an intronic marker in MYO3A (myosin IIIA), rs11014993, associated with CRC only in the familial CRC cases (P = 2.5 x 10(-3), recessive model, and P = 2.7 x 10(-4), dominant model). Three software tools successfully pointed to the overrepresentation of genes related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways among the 1340 most strongly associated markers from the GWAS (allelic P value < 10(-3)). The risk of CRC increased significantly with an increasing number of risk alleles in seven genes involved in MAPK signalling events (P(trend) = 2.2 x 10(-16), OR(per allele) = 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.61).
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A gene-wide investigation on polymorphisms in the taste receptor 2R14 (TAS2R14) and susceptibility to colorectal cancer.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Molecular sensing in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract is responsible for the detection of ingested harmful drugs and toxins, thereby genetic polymorphisms affecting the capability of initiating these responses may be critical for the subsequent efficiency of the gut in eliminating possible threats to the organism. Although these fundamental control systems have been known for long time, the initial molecular recognition events that sense the chemical composition of the luminal contents of the GI tract have remained elusive. TAS2R14 is one of the better characterized members of the taste receptor family and has several polymorphic variants. Several substances that have been shown to activate TAS2R14 are powerful toxic and carcinogenic agents.
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Modulation of DNA repair capacity and mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC genes in styrene-exposed workers.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Decreased levels of single-strand breaks in DNA (SSBs), reflecting DNA damage, have previously been observed with increased styrene exposure in contrast to a dose-dependent increase in the base-excision repair capacity. To clarify further the above aspects, we have investigated the associations between SSBs, micronuclei, DNA repair capacity and mRNA expression in XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC genes on 71 styrene-exposed and 51 control individuals. Styrene concentrations at workplace and in blood characterized occupational exposure. The workers were divided into low (below 50 mg/m³) and high (above 50 mg/m³)) styrene exposure groups. DNA damage and DNA repair capacity were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes by Comet assay. The mRNA expression levels were determined by qPCR. A significant negative correlation was observed between SSBs and styrene concentration at workplace (R=-0.38, p=0.001); SSBs were also significantly higher in men (p=0.001). The capacity to repair irradiation-induced DNA damage was the highest in the low exposure group (1.34±1.00 SSB/10? Da), followed by high exposure group (0.72±0.81 SSB/10? Da) and controls (0.65±0.82 SSB/10? Da). The mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC negatively correlated with styrene concentrations in blood and at workplace (p<0.001) and positively with SSBs (p<0.001). Micronuclei were not affected by styrene exposure, but were higher in older persons and in women (p<0.001). In this study, we did not confirm previous findings on an increased DNA repair response to styrene-induced genotoxicity. However, negative correlations of SSBs and mRNA expression levels of XRCC1, hOGG1 and XPC with styrene exposure warrant further highly-targeted study.
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Polymorphisms of genes coding for ghrelin and its receptor in relation to colorectal cancer risk: a two-step gene-wide case-control study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), has two major functions: the stimulation of the growth hormone production and the stimulation of food intake. Accumulating evidence also indicates a role of ghrelin in cancer development.
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Genetic variants in selenoprotein genes increase risk of colorectal cancer.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Low selenium (Se) status correlates with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Since Se exerts its biological roles through the selenoproteins, genetic variations in selenoprotein genes may influence susceptibility to CRC. This study analysed 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein genes [glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), GPX4, 15 kDa selenoprotein (SEP15), selenoprotein S (SELS), selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2)] and in genes that code for a key protein in Se incorporation [SECIS-binding protein 2 (SBP2)] and in antioxidant defence [superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)] in relation to sporadic CRC incidence. CRC patients (832) and controls (705) from the Czech Republic were genotyped using allele specific PCR. Logistic regression analysis showed that three SNPs were significantly associated with an altered risk of CRC: rs7579 (SEPP1), rs713041 (GPX4) and rs34713741 (SELS). The association of these SNPs with disease risk remained after data stratification for diagnosis and adjustments for lifestyle factors and sex. Significant two-loci interactions were observed between rs4880 (SOD2), rs713041 (GPX4) and rs960531 (TXNRD2) and between SEPP1 and either SEP15 or GPX4. The results indicate that SNPs in SEPP1, GPX4 and SELS influence risk of CRC. We hypothesize that the two-loci interactions reflect functional interactions between the gene products. We propose that these variants play a role in cancer development and represent potential biomarkers of CRC risk.
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Chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of newly diagnosed cancer patients and healthy controls.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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The majority of human cancers arise from cells unable to maintain genomic stability. Recent prospective studies indicated that enhanced chromosomal aberrations (CAs) frequencies are predictive of gastrointestinal and lung cancers. However, studies on incident cancer patients are lacking; thus, we investigated chromosomal damage in newly diagnosed cancer patients and healthy individuals.
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Comparison of chromosomal aberrations frequency and polymorphism of GSTs genes in workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics or anaesthetics.
Interdiscip Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Authors compared the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) of workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics (group EXP1) or anaesthetics (group EXP2) in relationship to polymorphism of GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes. The cytogenetic analysis for chromosomal aberrations frequency and for polymorphisms of genes the PCR and PCR-RFLP method were used. Statistically higher frequency of total CAs was detected in both exposed groups: group EXP1 1.90±1.34%; Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.001; group EXP2 2.53±1.46%, p=0.0008) as compared to control (1.26±0.93%). In group EXP2 was detected statistically higher frequency of aberrations CSA-type as compared to CTA-type. In xenobiotic metabolizing genes for GST higher frequency of total CAs and constituent types chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) of genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 with null genotype was detected. Statistically significant difference was detected only in CSA-type of aberrations in GSTT1 gene. In gene GSTP1 was not detected any difference in frequency of aberrations in presence of the variant allele. Presented results point out importance of individual susceptibility in evaluation of genotoxic agents of anaesthetics or cytostatics.
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Biomarkers of nucleic acid oxidation, polymorphism in, and expression of, hOGG1 gene in styrene-exposed workers.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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This study investigated nucleic acid oxidation associated with styrene exposure, mRNA expression levels of hOGG1 gene and the role of the genetic polymorphism Ser326Cys of human 8-oxoguanine DNA N-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) in 60 styrene-exposed workers and 50 unexposed clerks. Biomarkers of exposure (styrene in blood, mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids and 4-vinylphenol in urine) and urinary biomarkers of nucleic acid oxidation, namely 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (U-8-oxodGuo), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (U-8-oxoGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (U-8-oxoGua) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of 8-oxodGuo adduct and 2-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) were measured by HPLC in DNA from white blood cells (WBC). Genomic DNA and RNA from blood samples were used to characterize the Ser326Cys polymorphism and the mRNA expression levels of the hOGG1 gene, respectively, by PCR-based methods. Exposed workers showed lower values of 8-oxodGuo/10(5) dGuo ratio in WBC-DNA but higher concentrations of U-8-oxoGuo compared to controls (p=0.002 and p=0.008, respectively, t-test for independent samples). In the whole group, all urinary biomarkers of nucleic acid oxidation correlated with both the sum of mandelic and phenylglyoxylic acids (rho>0.33, p<0.0001) and 4-vinylphenol (rho>0.29, p<0.001), whereas 8-oxodGuo/10(5) dGuo in WBC showed a negative correlation with exposure parameters (rho<-0.24, p<0.02). Subjects bearing the hOGG1 Ser/Ser genotype showed lower values of 8-oxodGuo/10(5) dGuo in WBC than those with at least one variant Cys allele (0.34+/-0.16 vs 0.45+/-0.21, p=0.008). In the subgroup of hOGG1 Ser/Ser subjects, laminators showed lower levels of WBC 8-oxodGuo/10(5) dGuo ratio and significantly higher concentrations of U-8-oxoGua than controls (p=0.07 and p=0.01, respectively, t-test for independent samples). Interestingly, workers showed higher levels of hOGG1 expression compared to controls (p<0.0005). Styrene exposure seems to be associated with oxidation damage to nucleic acids, particularly to RNA and with an induction of the BER system.
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Genetic variation in adipokine genes and risk of colorectal cancer.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Obesity has been related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Adipokines produced by the adipose tissue are directly linked to obesity and may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of CRC. We hypothesized that potentially functional polymorphisms in the adipokine genes leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), resistin (RETN), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) may be associated with CRC.
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Excretion of urinary N7 guanine and N3 adenine DNA adducts in mice after inhalation of styrene.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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New urinary adenine adducts, 3-(2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)adenine (N3alphaA), 3-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)adenine (N3betaA), were found in the urine of mice exposed to styrene vapour. These styrene 7,8-oxide derived adenine adducts as well as previously identified guanine adducts, 7-(2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)guanine (N7alphaG) and 7-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)guanine (N7betaG) were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS(2) and the excretion profile during and after a repeated exposure to 600mg/m(3) or 1200mg/m(3) of styrene for 10 consecutive days (6h/day) was determined. The excretion was dose dependent. Total N3 adenine adducts (N3alphaA+N3betaA) excreted amounted to nearly 0.8x10(-5)% of the absorbed dose while urinary N7 guanine adducts (N7alphaG+N7betaG) amounted to nearly 1.4x10(-5)% of the dose. No accumulation of the adducts was observed. Due to rapid depurination from the DNA, the excretion of both N3 adenine and N7 guanine adducts ceased shortly after finishing the exposure. Both N3 adenine and N7 guanine adducts may be used as non-invasive biomarkers of effective dose reflecting only a short time exposure to styrene.
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Effect of occupational exposure to cytostatics and nucleotide excision repair polymorphism on chromosomal aberrations frequency.
Interdiscip Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Authors evaluated the incidence of total chromosomal aberrations (CA) and their types - chromatid-type (CTA) and chromosome-type (CSA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 72 oncologic units workers occupationally exposed to cytostatics in relationship to polymorphisms of DNA repair genes XPD, XPG and XPC. The cytogenetic analysis was used for determination of chromosomal aberrations frequency and PCR-RFLP method for polymorphisms of genes. Statistically higher frequency of total CA was detected in exposed group as compared to control (1.90±1.34% vs. 1.26±0.93%; Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.001). There was not detected any difference between CTA and CSA (0.92±1.04% vs. 0.98±1.17%). Similarly, in genes XPD exon 23 and XPC exon 15 wasnt detected any difference neither in total chromosomal aberrations nor in CTA and CSA types. Statistically significant decrease of total chromosomal aberrations and CTA-type with presence of variant allele C was detected in gene XPG exon 15. Authors pointed out the importance of individual susceptibility factors in evaluation of effects of genotoxic agents, in that event, when the concentration does not meet the occupational exposure limit.
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NBN 657del5 heterozygous mutations and colorectal cancer risk in the Czech Republic.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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The most frequent Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS)-causing mutation is a 5-base pair deletion in gene coding for nibrin (NBN 657del5), which results in a non-fully functional protein product and is particularly frequent in Central and Eastern Europe. Recent studies have investigated whether NBN 657del5 carriage may predispose to an increased risk of different types of cancer. The Czech Republic has one of the highest incidences of colorectal cancer in the world as well as high incidence of NBS. To assess whether NBN 657del5 associates with an increased risk of sporadic colorectal cancer, we have screened 771 colorectal cancer patients, 614 controls with negative colonoscopy and 818 healthy blood donors from the Czech Republic. There were no significant differences between the frequencies of heterozygous carriers among the three groups. The present results do not provide any evidence that the exceeding risk of CRC in this population is attributable to the high frequency of heterozygous carriage of the NBN 657del5.
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Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and its functional characterisation: the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium.
Dig Liver Dis
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the European Union and in the USA, but little is known about its genetic susceptibility. The PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium was established to unite the efforts of different research groups; its aim is to create a large bio-database to uncover new genetic factors for pancreatic cancer risk, response to treatment, and patient survival. So far 2220 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a smaller number of cases of endocrine pancreatic tumours (n=86), chronic pancreatitis (n=272) and 3847 healthy controls have been collected. As a collective effort of the consortium, SNPs associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk from a genome-wide association study performed in Caucasians were replicated. The possibility that the same genetic polymorphisms may influence patient survival as well was also addressed. This collective effort is particularly important for pancreatic cancer because it is a relatively rare disease for which little is known about aetiopathogenesis and risk factors. The recruitment of additional collaborators and partner institutions is continuously on-going.
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Shared ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer and other nutrition related diseases.
BMC Med. Genet.
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The majority of non-syndromic colorectal cancers (CRCs) can be described as a complex disease. A two-stage case-control study on CRC susceptibility was conducted to assess the influence of the ancestral alleles in the polymorphisms previously associated with nutrition-related complex diseases.
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Functional, genetic, and epigenetic aspects of base and nucleotide excision repair in colorectal carcinomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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DNA repair capacity (DRC) is a determinant not only of cancer development but also of individual response to therapy. Previously, altered base and nucleotide excision repair (BER and NER) have been described in lymphocytes of patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. We, for the first time, evaluate both excision repair capacities in human colon biopsies to study their participation in colorectal tumorigenesis. Experimental design: Seventy pairs of tumor and adjacent healthy tissues were analyzed for BER- and NER-specific DRC by a comet repair assay. Tissue pairs were further compared for expression levels of a panel of 25 BER and NER genes complemented by their promoter methylation status.
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A comprehensive investigation on common polymorphisms in the MDR1/ABCB1 transporter gene and susceptibility to colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
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ATP Binding Cassette B1 (ABCB1) is a transporter with a broad substrate specificity involved in the elimination of several carcinogens from the gut. Several polymorphic variants within the ABCB1 gene have been reported as modulators of ABCB1-mediated transport. We investigated the impact of ABCB1 genetic variants on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. A hybrid tagging/functional approach was performed to select 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were genotyped in 1,321 Czech subjects, 699 CRC cases and 622 controls. In addition, six potentially functional SNPs were genotyped in 3,662 German subjects, 1,809 cases and 1,853 controls from the DACHS study. We found that three functional SNPs (rs1202168, rs1045642 and rs868755) were associated with CRC risk in the German population. Carriers of the rs1202168_T and rs868755_T alleles had an increased risk for CRC (P(trend)?=?0.016 and 0.029, respectively), while individuals bearing the rs1045642_C allele showed a decreased risk of CRC (P(trend)?=?0.022). We sought to replicate the most significant results in an independent case-control study of 3,803 subjects, 2,169 cases and 1,634 controls carried out in the North of Germany. None of the SNPs tested were significantly associated with CRC risk in the replication study. In conclusion, in this study of about 8,800 individuals we show that ABCB1 gene polymorphisms play at best a minor role in the susceptibility to CRC.
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Differences in nucleotide excision repair capacity between newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients and healthy controls.
Mutagenesis
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Alteration of DNA integrity is a potential cause of cancer and it is assumed that reduced DNA repair capacity and accumulation of DNA damage may represent intermediate markers in carcinogenesis. In this case-control study, DNA damage and nucleotide excision repair capacity (NER-DRC) were assessed in association with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Both parameters were quantified by comet assay in blood cells of 70 untreated incident patients and 70 age-matched healthy controls. mRNA expression and polymorphisms in relevant NER genes were concurrently analyzed. The aim of this study was to characterize incident CRC patients for NER-DRC and to clarify possible relations between investigated variables. Comet assay and mRNA expression analysis showed that CRC patients differ in repair capacity as compared to controls. Patients had a lower NER-DRC and simultaneously they exhibited higher endogenous DNA damage (for both P < 0.001). Accumulation of DNA damage and decreasing NER-DRC behaved as independent modulating parameters strongly associated with CRC. Expression levels of 6 out of 9 studied genes differed between groups (P ? 0.001), but none of them was related to DRC or to any of the studied NER polymorphisms. However, in patients only, XPC Ala499Val modulated expression levels of XPC, XPB and XPD gene, whereas XPC Lys939Gln was associated with XPA expression level in controls (for all P < 0.05). This study provides evidence on altered DRC and DNA damage levels in sporadic CRC and proposes the relevance of the NER pathway in this malignancy. Further, alterations in a complex multigene process like DNA repair may be better characterized by functional quantification of repair capacity than by quantification of individual genes transcripts or gene variants alone.
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Identification of candidate genes carrying polymorphisms associated with the risk of colorectal cancer by analyzing the colorectal mutome and microRNAome.
Cancer
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The presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 3-untranslated regions of genes could affect the binding between a microRNA (miRNA) and its target, with consequences on gene expression regulation. Considering the important role of miRNAs in carcinogenesis, it is hypothesized here that these SNPs could also affect the individual risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).
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