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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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MPD-RC 101 prospective study of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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From 2007 to 2011, 66 patients with primary myelofibrosis or myelofibrosis (MF) preceded by essential thrombocythemia or polycythemia vera were enrolled into a prospective phase 2 clinical trial of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), Myeloproliferative Disorder Research Consortium 101 trial. The study included patients with sibling donors (n = 32) receiving fludarabine/melphalan (FluMel) as a preparative regimen and patients with unrelated donors (n = 34) receiving conditioning with FluMel plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). Patient characteristics in the 2 cohorts were similar. Engraftment occurred in 97% of siblings and 76% of unrelated transplants, whereas secondary graft failure occurred in 3% and 12%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 25 months for patients alive, the overall survival (OS) was 75% in the sibling group (median not reached) and 32% in the unrelated group (median OS: 6 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3, 25) (hazard ratio 3.9, 95% CI: 1.8,8.9) (P < .001). Nonrelapse mortality was 22% in sibling and 59% in unrelated AHSCT. Survival correlated with type of donor, but not with the degree of histocompatibility match, age, or JAK2(V617F) status. In patients with MF with sibling donors, AHSCT is an effective therapy, whereas AHSCT from unrelated donors with FluMel/ATG conditioning led to a high rate of graft failure and limited survival. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00572897.
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Effect of body mass in children with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The rising incidence of pediatric obesity may significantly affect bone marrow transplantation (BMT) outcomes. We analyzed outcomes in 3687 children worldwide who received cyclophosphamide-based BMT regimens for leukemias between 1990 and 2007. Recipients were classified according to age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles as underweight (UW), at risk of UW (RUW), normal, overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Median age and race were similar in all groups. Sixty-one percent of OB children were from the United States/Canada. Three-year relapse-free and overall survival ranged from 48% to 52% (P = .54) and 55% to 58% (P = .81) across BMI groups. Three-year leukemia relapses were 33%, 33%, 29%, 25%, and 21% in the UW, RUW, normal, OW, and OB groups, respectively (P < .001). Corresponding cumulative incidences for transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18%, 19%, 21%, 22%, and 28% (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a decreased risk of relapse compared with normal BMI (relative risk [RR] = 0.73; P < .01) and a trend toward higher TRM (RR = 1.28; P = .014). BMI in children is not significantly associated with different survival after BMT for hematologic malignancies. Obese children experience less relapse posttransplant compared with children with normal BMI; however, this benefit is offset by excess in TRM.
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Pharmacoeconomic impact of up-front use of plerixafor for autologous stem cell mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Stem cell collection can be a major component of overall cost of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Plerixafor is an effective agent for mobilization; however, it is often reserved for salvage therapy because of its high cost. We present data on the pharmacoeconomic impact of the use of plerixafor as an up-front mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma (MM).
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Cross-sectional study of patient-reported neurobehavioral problems following hematopoietic stem cell transplant and health-related quality of life.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Although hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients may experience neurocognitive impairment, experiences of neurobehavioral problems (including apathy and disinhibition) are understudied. These experiences reflect behavioral signs and symptoms of neurological dysfunction that can potentially reduce health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Understanding them is important because they may be confused with other diagnoses, including depression, potentially leading to inappropriate treatments. The objectives of this preliminary cross-sectional study were to describe HSCT patients' neurobehavioral functioning pre-HSCT and post-HSCT and to examine relations with HRQOL.
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Harnessing Benefits of Helping Others: A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing Expressive Helping to Address Survivorship Problems After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Objective: Prior research supports the hypothesis that cancer survivors who help others face treatment experience a range of psychosocial and health-related benefits as a result of peer helping. This study investigates an expressive helping (EH) intervention designed to harness those benefits by targeting survivorship problems among cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. EH includes two components: (a) emotionally expressive writing (EW; writing ones deepest thoughts and feelings about the transplant experience in a series of brief, structured writing sessions) followed by (b) peer helping (PH; helping other people prepare for transplant by sharing ones own transplant experiences along with advice and encouragement through a written narrative). Method: EH was compared with neutral writing (NW), EW (without PH), and PH (without EW) in a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in which survivors completed baseline measures, 4 structured writing exercises (with instructions depending on randomization), and postintervention measures including validated measures of general psychological distress, physical symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results: Among survivors with moderate-severe survivorship problems, EH reduced distress (compared with NW and PH; ps < .05) and improved physical symptoms (compared with NW, PH, and EW; ps < .002) and HRQOL (compared with NW; p = .02). Conclusions: Peer helping through writing benefits transplant survivors with moderate-severe survivorship problems, but only if they have first completed expressive writing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Prospective study of mobilization kinetics up to 18 hours after late-afternoon dosing of plerixafor.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The current FDA-approved time interval between plerixafor dosing and apheresis initiation is approximately 11 hours, but this time interval is impractical for most care providers. Few studies have examined mobilization kinetics beyond 11 hours in multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) patients. Therefore, this studys intent was to analyze an interval of 17 to 18 hours between plerixafor dosing and apheresis initiation.
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Providing personalized prognostic information for adult leukemia survivors.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Prediction of subsequent leukemia-free survival (LFS) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in adults with acute leukemia who survived at least 1 year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is difficult. We analyzed 3339 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 1434 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received myeloablative conditioning and related or unrelated stem cells from 1990 to 2005. Most clinical factors predictive of LFS in 1-year survivors were no longer significant after 2 or more years. For acute myeloid leukemia, only disease status (beyond first complete remission) remained a significant adverse risk factor for LFS 2 or more years after transplantation. For lymphoblastic leukemia, only extensive chronic GVHD remained a significant adverse predictor of LFS in the second and subsequent years. For patients surviving for 1 year without disease relapse or extensive chronic GVHD, the risk of developing extensive chronic GVHD in the next year was 4% if no risk factors were present and higher if noncyclosporine-based GVHD prophylaxis, an HLA-mismatched donor, or peripheral blood stem cells were used. Estimates for subsequent LFS and extensive chronic GVHD can be derived for individual patients or populations using an online calculator (http://www.cibmtr.org/LeukemiaCalculators). This prognostic information is more relevant for survivors than estimates provided before transplantation.
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Significant improvement in survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation during a period of significantly increased use, older recipient age, and use of unrelated donors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Over the past four decades, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has evolved as a curative modality for patients with hematologic diseases. This study describes changes in use, technique, and survival in a population-based cohort.
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Trends in use of and survival after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in North America, 1995-2005: significant improvement in survival for lymphoma and myeloma during a period of increasing recipient age.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is performed to treat relapsed and recurrent malignant disorders and as part of initial therapy for selected malignancies. This study evaluated changes in use, techniques, and survival in a population-based cohort of 68,404 patients who underwent first auto-HCT in a US or Canadian center between 1994 and 2005 and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The mean annual number of auto-HCTs performed was highest during 1996-1999 (6948), and decreased subsequently 2000-2003 (4783), owing mainly to fewer auto-HCTs done to treat breast cancer. However, the mean annual number of auto-HCTs increased from 5278 annually in 1994-1995 to 5459 annually in 2004-2005, reflecting increased use for multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite an increase in the median recipient age from 44 to 53 years, there has been a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) from 1994 to 2005 in patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (day +100 OS, from 85% to 96%; 1-year OS, from 68% to 80%; P < .001) and chemotherapy-sensitive multiple myeloma (day +100 OS, from 96% to 98%; 1-year OS, from 83% to 92%; P < .001). This improvement in OS was most pronounced in middle-aged (>40 years) and older (>60 years) individuals.
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Prospective cohort study of the circadian rhythm pattern in allogeneic sibling donors undergoing standard granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Prior in vivo murine studies suggest circadian oscillations for hematopoietic stem cell release, which are maintained following administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or plerixafor. Furthermore, retrospective data analysis of healthy donors who underwent G-CSF-induced mobilization demonstrated significantly increased CD34+ cell yields when collected in the afternoon compared with the morning. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted to directly examine the number of peripheral blood CD34+ and CD34+CD38- progenitor/stem cells at baseline and then every 6 hours for 24 hours on days 4 to 5 of G-CSF (10 ?g/kg/day in the morning) mobilization in 11 allogeneic donors. Data were analyzed using mixed-model analysis of repeated measures. RESULTS: Whereas we observed a significant increase in CD34+ cell counts toward the evening, counts were then sustained on the morning of day 5. The correlation between CD34+CD38- cell counts and the less defined CD34+ populations was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the pharmacodynamic activity and timing of G-CSF may alter endogenous progenitor rhythms. Donor age, medical history, and medications may also impact circadian rhythm. Further studies should examine the circadian rhythm at the peak of G-CSF mobilization and should consider potential confounders such as the time of G-CSF administration and the age of the subjects.
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Autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with secondary CNS involvement.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS(+) ) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS(-) ). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS(+) patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS(+) group with a subset of CNS(-) patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n = 55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n = 96) at the time of AHCT. CNS(+) patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis.
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Retrospective analysis of prognosticators in patients with relapsed Hodgkins Lymphoma treated with autologous transplant: results of a single center.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Hodgkins Lymphoma (HL) is highly chemoresponsive, and majority of patients respond to therapy except for a small number which require high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue for salvage. We report the results of a single-center experience in 41 patients with relapsed HL treated with high-dose therapy at the time of relapse from the year 1989-2010. The 7-year OS for the group is 39.2 %; the median progression-free survival is 30.6 months. Univariate analysis identified refractory disease at transplant and extranodal involvement as important prognosticators. The 100-day mortality was 5 %. The most common cause for delayed mortality was disease progression. The incidence of secondary malignancy in the group was 2 %. Our results reinforce the significance of long-term follow up as late relapses are observed. Additionally, identifying biological prognosticators and implying them for treatment may improve the outcomes in poor-risk patients.
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Outcome of lower-intensity allogeneic transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous transplantation failure.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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We studied the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning regimens (reduced-intensity conditioning and nonmyeloablative) in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who relapsed after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Nonrelapse mortality, lymphoma progression/relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were analyzed in 263 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. All 263 patients had relapsed after a previous autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and then had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a related (n = 26) or unrelated (n = 237) donor after reduced-intensity conditioning (n = 128) or nonmyeloablative (n = 135) and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1996 and 2006. The median follow-up of survivors was 68 months (range, 3-111 months). Three-year nonrelapse mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-50%). Lymphoma progression/relapse at 3 years was 35% (95% CI, 29%-41%). Three-year probabilities of PFS and overall survival were 21% (95% CI, 16%-27%) and 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), respectively. Superior Karnofsky Performance Score, longer interval between transplantations, total body irradiation-based conditioning regimen, and lymphoma remission at transplantation were correlated with improved PFS. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after lower-intensity conditioning is associated with significant nonrelapse mortality but can result in long-term PFS. We describe a quantitative risk model based on pretransplantation risk factors to identify those patients likely to benefit from this approach.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Alternate donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma using lower intensity conditioning: a report from the CIBMTR.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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We analyzed the outcomes of 248 (61% male) adult recipients of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-mismatched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) after reduced or lower intensity conditioning (RIC), reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1997 to 2004. Median age was 52 (range: 18-72 years); 31% had a Karnofsky performance score <90. Follicular NHL (43%) was the major histology. Incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 43% at 100 days; and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 44% at 3 years. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 100 days was 24%. Three-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 41% and 32%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and HLA mismatch were associated with increased TRM. High-grade histology, ATG use, and chemotherapy resistance were associated with lower PFS. Older age, shorter interval from diagnosis to HCT, non-total body irridiation (TBI) conditioning regimens, ex vivo T cell depletion, and HLA-mismatched unrelated donors were associated with mortality. GVHD did not influence relapse or PFS. Older age, aggressive histology, and chemotherapy resistance correlated with poorer survival. For selected patients with NHL, lack of an available sibling donor should not be a barrier to allogeneic HCT.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Donor characteristics affecting graft failure, graft-versus-host disease, and survival after unrelated donor transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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We examined the effect of donor characteristics on graft failure (<5% donor chimerism within 3 months after transplantation), acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD), and survival after unrelated donor reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation in 709 patients with hematologic malignancies. Donor-recipient pairs were HLA typed at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 (allele-level). A total of 501 patients were >95% donor chimerism, 145 patients were 5% to 95%, and 63 patients were <5%. The only donor characteristic associated with transplantation outcome was donor-recipient HLA matching. One- or 2-loci mismatched transplants led to higher grade 2-4 (relative risk [RR] = 1.27, P = .035) and grade 3-4 (RR = 1.85, P < .001) aGVHD and 2-loci mismatched transplants higher mortality (RR = 2.22, P < .001). Graft failure was higher after transplantation of bone marrow (RR = 2.33, P = .002). Donor age, parity, and donor sex match were not associated with transplantation outcome. Donor-recipient HLA matching is the only donor characteristic predictive for survival after RIC regimens for hematologic malignancies.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Impact of immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibodies on the outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The success of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation is largely dependent on alloimmune effects. It is critical to determine whether immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibody infusion abrogates the therapeutic benefits of transplantation. We examined 1676 adults undergoing RIC transplantation for hematologic malignancies. All patients received alkylating agent plus fludarabine; 792 received allografts from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling, 884 from a 7 or 8 of 8 HLA-matched unrelated donor. Using Cox regression, outcomes after in vivo T-cell depletion (n = 584 antithymocyte globulin [ATG]; n = 213 alemtuzumab) were compared with T cell- replete (n = 879) transplantation. Grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was lower with alemtuzumab compared with ATG or T cell- replete regimens (19% vs 38% vs 40%, P < .0001) and chronic GVHD, lower with alemtuzumab, and ATG regimens compared with T-replete approaches (24% vs 40% vs 52%, P < .0001). However, relapse was more frequent with alemtuzumab and ATG compared with T cell-replete regimens (49%, 51%, and 38%, respectively, P < .001). Disease-free survival was lower with alemtuzumab and ATG compared with T cell-replete regimens (30%, 25%, and 39%, respectively, P < .001). Corresponding probabilities of overall survival were 50%, 38%, and 46% (P = .008). These data suggest adopting a cautious approach to routine use of in vivo T-cell depletion with RIC regimens.
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Comparison of reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation with chemotherapy in patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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We compared the outcomes of patients age 60-70 years with acute myelogenous leukemia receiving reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first remission (CR1) reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Research (n = 94) with the outcomes in patients treated with induction and postremission chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocols (n = 96). All patients included had been in CR1 for at least 4 months. The HCT recipients were slightly younger than the chemotherapy patients (median age, 63 years vs 65 years; P < .001), but there were no significant between-group differences in the proportion with therapy-related leukemia or in different cytogenetic risk groups. Time from diagnosis to CR1 was longer for the HCT recipients (median, 44 days vs 38 days; P = .031). Allogeneic HCT was associated with significantly lower risk of relapse (32% vs 81% at 3 years; P < .001), higher nonrelapse mortality (36% vs 4% at 3 years; P < .001), and longer leukemia-free survival (32% vs 15% at 3 years; P = .001). Although overall survival was longer for HCT recipients, the difference was not statistically significant (37% vs 25% at 3 years; P = .08). Our findings suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic HCT in patients age 60-70 with acute myelogenous leukemia in CR1 reduces relapse and improves leukemia-free survival. Strategies that reduce nonrelapse mortality may yield significant improvements in overall survival.
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Self-efficacy beliefs mediate the relationship between subjective cognitive functioning and physical and mental well-being after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Cognitive problems are commonly reported by hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors and are associated with poorer physical and mental well-being. It was hypothesized that adverse effects of subjective cognitive impairment occur because cognitive difficulties reduce survivors confidence that they can manage HSCT-related symptoms-that is, self-efficacy for symptom management.
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Combining FDG-PET/CT with laboratory data yields superior results for prediction of relapse in multiple myeloma.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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? The precise role of positron emission tomography (PET/CT) for predicting relapse/progression in multiple myeloma remains uncertain. We compared the predictive values of PET/CT, concurrent laboratory testing (labs), and their combination in prediction of 12-month progression, as determined by current International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria.
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Reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation provides high event-free and overall survival in patients with advanced indolent B cell malignancies: CALGB 109901.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Cancer and Leukemia Group B conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with allogeneic transplantation to treat patients with recurrent low-grade B cell malignancies. Patients over age 18 with a diagnosis of relapsed, chemotherapy-sensitive disease underwent transplantation with a matched sibling donor, and conditioning with cyclophosphamide (1 g/m(2)/day × 3) and fludarabine phosphate (25 mg/m(2)/day × 5). Graft-versus-host prophylaxis included cyclosporine or tacrolimus plus low-dose methotrexate. Forty-four evaluable patients with a median age of 53 and median of 2 prior regimens were accrued. Sixteen patients had follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 28 had histologies including 7 indolent B cell lymphomas, 4 mantle cell, 15 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 2 prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) patients. The 6-month treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 2.4% and 3-year TRM was 9%. Three-year event-free and overall survival were 0.75 and 0.81 for the follicular patients, 0.59 and 0.71 for the CLL/PLL patients, and 0.55 and 0.64 for the other histologies. The incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 29%, and extensive chronic GVHD was 18%. This report demonstrates that allogeneic sibling transplantation with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen is safe and efficacious for patients with advanced indolent B cell malignancies enrolled on a Cooperative Group study.
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Effectiveness of partner social support predicts enduring psychological distress after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
J Consult Clin Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors who are 1 to 3 years posttransplant are challenged by the need to resume valued social roles and activities--a task that may be complicated by enduring transplant-related psychological distress common in this patient population. The present study investigated whether transplant survivors who receive adequate social support from their spouse or intimate partner experience lower distress.
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Randomized clinical trial of telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce post-traumatic stress disorder and distress symptoms after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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A significant number of survivors of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) report enduring adverse effects of treatment, including illness-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and general distress. We report results of a randomized clinical trial that tested the effects of a 10-session, telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention on PTSD, depression, and distress symptoms.
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Effect of graft source on unrelated donor haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in adults with acute leukaemia: a retrospective analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Umbilical-cord blood (UCB) is increasingly considered as an alternative to peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) or bone marrow, especially when an HLA-matched adult unrelated donor is not available. We aimed to determine the optimal role of UCB grafts in transplantation for adults with acute leukaemia, and to establish whether current graft-selection practices are appropriate.
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Comparison of outcomes after transplantation of G-CSF-stimulated bone marrow grafts versus bone marrow or peripheral blood grafts from HLA-matched sibling donors for patients with severe aplastic anemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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We compared outcomes of patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated bone marrow (G-BM) (n = 78), unstimulated bone marrow (BM) (n = 547), or peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) (n = 134) from an HLA-matched sibling. Transplantations occurred in 1997 to 2003. Rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery were not different among the 3 treatment groups. Grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (relative risk [RR] = 0.82, P = .539), grade 3-4 aGVHD (RR = 0.74, P = .535), and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (RR = 1.56, P = .229) were similar after G-BM and BM transplants. Grade 2-4 aGVHD (RR = 2.37, P = .012) but not grade 3-4 aGVHD (RR = 1.66, P = .323) and cGVHD (RR = 5.09, P < .001) were higher after PBPC transplants compared to G-BM. Grade 2-4 (RR = 2.90, P < .001), grade 3-4 (RR = 2.24, P = .009) aGVHD and cGVHD (RR = 3.26, P < .001) were higher after PBPC transplants compared to BM. Mortality risks were lower after transplantation of BM compared to G-BM (RR = 0.63, P = .05). These data suggest no advantage to using G-BM and the observed higher rates of aGVHD and cGVHD in PBPC recipients warrants cautious use of this graft source for SAA. Taken together, BM is the preferred graft for HLA-matched sibling transplants for SAA.
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Effect of age on outcome of reduced-intensity hematopoietic cell transplantation for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission or with myelodysplastic syndrome.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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PURPOSE Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) primarily afflict older individuals. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is generally not offered because of concerns of excess morbidity and mortality. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens allow increased use of allogeneic HCT for older patients. To define prognostic factors impacting long-term outcomes of RIC regimens in patients older than age 40 years with AML in first complete remission or MDS and to determine the impact of age, we analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). PATIENTS AND METHODS We reviewed data reported to the CIBMTR (1995 to 2005) on 1,080 patients undergoing RIC HCT. Outcomes analyzed included neutrophil recovery, incidence of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS Univariate analyses demonstrated no age group differences in NRM, grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, or relapse. Patients age 40 to 54, 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and > or = 65 years had 2-year survival rates as follows: 44% (95% CI, 37% to 52%), 50% (95% CI, 41% to 59%), 34% (95% CI, 25% to 43%), and 36% (95% CI, 24% to 49%), respectively, for patients with AML (P = .06); and 42% (95% CI, 35% to 49%), 35% (95% CI, 27% to 43%), 45% (95% CI, 36% to 54%), and 38% (95% CI, 25% to 51%), respectively, for patients with MDS (P = .37). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant impact of age on NRM, relapse, DFS, or OS (all P > .3). Greater HLA disparity adversely affected 2-year NRM, DFS, and OS. Unfavorable cytogenetics adversely impacted relapse, DFS, and OS. Better pre-HCT performance status predicted improved 2-year OS. CONCLUSION With these similar outcomes observed in older patients, we conclude that older age alone should not be considered a contraindication to HCT.
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Non-myeloablative conditioning and allogeneic transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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In multiple myeloma (MM), allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) carries a lower relapse risk than autologous transplantation but a greater transplant-related mortality. Nonmyeloablative conditioning for allogeneic transplantation (NST) reduces transplant-related toxicity. Results are encouraging when used during first remission in low-risk patients, but less-so in relapsed or refractory disease. This is a single-center retrospective analysis of 20 previously treated MM patients who underwent NST from matched-related or matched-unrelated donors from 2000-2006. Median age was 52.7 years (37.2-68.0). Twenty-five percent had advanced or high-risk disease. Eleven still had active disease prior to NST. Conditioning was total body irradiation 200 cGy on a single fraction on day -5, followed by antithymocyte globulin (ATG) 1.5 mg/kg/day and fludarabine 30 mg/m(2)/day on days -4 to -2. All received immunosuppression, most commonly with oral mycofenylate mofetil and cyclosporine beginning on day -5. At day 100, 50% had achieved complete remission. Transplant-related mortality was 25%. Median overall survival (OS) was 21.2 months (0.6-90+) and progression-free survival (PFS) 6.6 months (0.6-90+). Both OS and PFS were 24% at 3 years. OS was significantly greater for patients with age <52 years (median 27 months vs. 7.9 months, P = 0.031), and there was a trend toward greater OS for those with beta2 microglobulin <2.5 mg/l (median 27 months vs. 7.7 months, P = 0.08). Donor characteristics and Ig type had no significant effect on survival. These data suggest a benefit of NST in relapsed/refractory MM. Randomized trials must be performed to confirm and further qualify this benefit.
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Second unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary graft failure.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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Failure to engraft donor cells is a devastating complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We describe the results of 122 patients reported to the National Marrow Donor Program between 1990 and 2005, who received a second unrelated donor HCT after failing to achieve an absolute neutrophil count of >or=500/microL without recurrent disease. Patients were transplanted for leukemia (n = 83), myelodysplastic disorders (n = 16), severe aplastic anemia (n = 20), and other diseases (n = 3). The median age was 29 years. Twenty-four patients received second grafts from a different unrelated donor. Among 98 patients who received a second graft from the same donor, 28 received products that were previously collected and cryopreserved for the first transplantation. One-year overall survival (OS) after second transplant was 11%, with 10 patients alive at last follow-up. We observed no differences between patients who received grafts from the same or different donors, or in those who received fresh or cryopreserved product. The outcomes after a second allogeneic HCT for primary graft failure are dismal. Identifying risk factors for primary graft failure can decrease the incidence of this complication. Further studies are needed to test whether early recognition and hastened procurement of alternative grafts can improve transplant outcomes for primary graft failure.
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Combined bone marrow and peripheral blood progenitor cell autografts for patients with poor mobilization.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) autografts with low CD34(+) cell content provide inadequate platelet (Plt) and red blood cell (RBC) reconstitution. Repeat collection and bone marrow (BM) harvesting are used in this situation. Minimum cell contents for BM-PBPC combined grafts are undefined.
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Double unit grafts successfully extend the application of umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults with acute leukemia.
Blood
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Cell dose is a major limitation for umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation because units containing a minimum of 2.5 x 10(7) total nucleated cells (TNC)/kilogram patient body weight are frequently not available. The transplantation of 2 partially HLA-matched UCB units has been adopted as a simple approach for increasing the TNC.We sought to determine whether the relative safety and efficacy of this approach was comparable with a single UCB transplantation. Included are adults with acute leukemia who received transplants with 1 (n =106) or 2 (n =303) UCB units. All UCB units for single UCB transplantations contained TNC ? 2.5 x 10(7)/kg. For double UCB transplantations, the total TNC for units 1 and 2 were > 2.5 x 10(7)/kg but in approximately half of these transplantations, 1 of the 2 units contained < 2.5 x 10(7) TNC/kg. Adjusting for factors associated with outcomes, risks of neutrophil recovery (odds ratio 0.83, P =.59), transplantation-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, P= .63), relapse (HR 0.90, P= .64), and overall mortality (HR 0.93, P= .62) was similar after double UCB and adequate dose single UCB transplantations. These data support double UCB unit transplantation for acute leukemia when an adequately dosed single UCB unit is not available thereby extending access to nearly all patients.
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Conditioning regimens for allotransplants for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: myeloablative or reduced intensity?
Blood
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The best conditioning regimen before allogeneic transplantation for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains to be clarified. We analyzed data from 396 recipients of allotransplants for DLBCL receiving myeloablative (MAC; n = 165), reduced intensity (RIC; n = 143), or nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMAC; n = 88) regimens. Acute and chronic GVHD rates were similar across the groups. Five-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was higher in MAC than RIC and NMAC (56% vs 47% vs 36%; P = .007). Five-year relapse/progression was lower in MAC than in RIC/NMAC (26% vs 38% vs 40%; P = .031). Five-year progression-free survival (15%-25%) and overall survival (18%-26%) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. In multivariate analysis, NMAC and more recent transplant year were associated with lower NRM, whereas a lower Karnofsky performance score (< 90), prior relapse resistant to therapy, and use of unrelated donors were associated with higher NRM. NMAC transplants, no prior use of rituximab, and prior relapse resistant to therapy were associated with a greater risk of relapse/progression. In conclusion, allotransplantation with RIC or NMAC induces long-term progression-free survival in selected DLBCL patients with a lower risk of NRM but with higher risk of lymphoma progression or relapse.
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An unusual case of donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome following double-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Am. J. Hematol.
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Umbilical cord-blood transplantation is considered an effective treatment strategy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) when a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor is unavailable. The use of a second unit helps ensure engraftment in larger adults and those with comorbidities, even though only one unit engrafts in most patients. Herein, we present the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a patient who developed donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome (ddMDS) after double umbilical cord-blood transplantation (dUCB HSCT). To our knowledge, no cases of ddMDS have been described in a patient with a history of ALL in molecular remission after receiving a dUCB HSCT. Current molecular techniques, including analysis of short tandem repeats (STR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed us to firmly establish donor origin.
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Economic survivorship stress is associated with poor health-related quality of life among distressed survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Psychooncology
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a demanding cancer treatment associated with enduring physical and psychological complications. Survivors well-being may be further compromised by exposure to chronic stressors common to this population, including difficulties arising from costly medical care, changes in employment status, and health insurance coverage. Thus, we hypothesized that financial, employment, and insurance stressors (collectively referred to as economic survivorship stressors) would be associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survivors.
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A randomized trial of hypnosis for relief of pain and anxiety in adult cancer patients undergoing bone marrow procedures.
J Psychosoc Oncol
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Pain and anxiety are closely associated with bone marrow aspirates and biopsies. To determine whether hypnosis administered concurrently with the procedure can ameliorate these morbidities, the authors randomly assigned 80 cancer patients undergoing bone marrow aspirates and biopsies to either hypnosis or standard of care. The hypnosis intervention reduced the anxiety associated with procedure, but the difference in pain scores between the two groups was not statistically significant. The authors conclude that brief hypnosis concurrently administered reduces patient anxiety during bone marrow aspirates and biopsies but may not adequately control pain. The authors explain this latter finding as indicating that the sensory component of a patients pain experience may be of lesser importance than the affective component. The authors describe future studies to clarify their results and address the limitations of this study.
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Social correlates of distress following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: exploring the role of loneliness and cognitive processing.
J Health Psychol
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This study investigated whether loneliness and cognitive processing explain the influence of negative (social constraints) and positive (emotional support) relationship qualities on cancer survivors distress. Participants were 195 cancer survivors who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Path analysis supported the hypothesis that loneliness and cognitive processing would mediate the association between social constraints and distress. Only loneliness mediated the association between emotional support and distress - an indirect effect significant only when support came from family and friends rather than a partner. Findings suggest that addressing social constraints may enhance cancer survivors adjustment.
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