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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Osteopetrosis in obese female rats is site-specifically inhibited by physical training.
Exp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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A sedentary life style and obesity induce systemic inflammatory responses. Although the effects of physical inactivity on osseous tissue have been well established, the effects of obesity on bone tissue remain controversial. Furthermore, the effects of physical training on bone tissue responses in the presence of diet-induced obesity are unknown. Purpose: To investigate the effects of obesity and physical training in multiple bone sites in rats. Methods. Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1) control diet (C) - non trained (NT); 2) high-refined carbohydrate-containing diet (HC - NT); 3) C - trained (C-T) and 4) HC-T. At 5 months of age, the rats were submitted to daily exercise for 30 minutes/day. After 13 weeks, blood samples, adipose and skeleton tissues were collected. Two-way ANOVA was applied to detect differences (p?0.05). Results. The HC-NT group exhibited increased body mass, adiposity, serum leptin, serum insulin, HOMA index and levels of TNF-? and IL-6. Obese rats (HC-NT) exhibited thicker of nasal and trabecular bones in the lumbar vertebrae and long bones in a site-dependent manner. The HC-T group exhibited similar adiposity and inflammatory results. Morphological analysis of the lumbar vertebrae in rats fed the HC diet revealed characteristics of osteopetrosis that were inhibited by exercise. Conclusions. The HC diet induced obesity, inflammatory/hormonal alterations and increases the trabecular bone in a site-dependent manner. However, obesity causes osteopetrosis in the lumbar vertebrae which can be inhibited by physical training. Though exercise inhibited the development of bone alterations, physical training did not inhibit the HC-diet induced obesity responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Rare Association: Chagas' Disease and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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A woman (49 years) with Chagas' disease showed: ECG, right bundle-branch block and left anterior-superior fascicular block; V1 has unusual R > R', and elevated ST segment from V2 to V6 . Additional imaging revealed concomitant HCM and Chagas, which is uncommon. Overlapping of ECG findings can be explained by this rare association of diseases.
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Influence of blood coagulability after spinal surgeries.
Acta Ortop Bras
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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To verify whether spinal surgery causes relevant changes in the blood clotting process and define which factors have the greatest influence on changes found.
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Genome of the avirulent human-infective trypanosome--Trypanosoma rangeli.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite infecting humans and other wild and domestic mammals across Central and South America. It does not cause human disease, but it can be mistaken for the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. We have sequenced the T. rangeli genome to provide new tools for elucidating the distinct and intriguing biology of this species and the key pathways related to interaction with its arthropod and mammalian hosts.
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Penile cancer: impact of age at diagnosis on morphology and prognosis.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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In order to describe epidemiological and pathological features of penile cancer in a high-risk area of Brazil.
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Magnesium replacement does not improve insulin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome: a 12-week randomized double-blind study.
J Clin Med Res
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To evaluate the effect of magnesium (Mg) replacement on insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome (MS) without diabetes.
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Estimates of adherence to treatment of vivax malaria.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The relation between therapeutic failure and non-adherence to treatment of malaria has been clearly established. Several measures have been used to estimate adherence to Plasmodium vivax therapy, but few protocols have been validated to ensure reliability of the estimates of adherence. The objective of this study was to validate a five-item-reported-questionnaire derived from original Morisky four-item scale to estimate adherence to P. vivax malaria therapy.
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Sonographic evaluation of the thyroid size in neonates.
J Clin Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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To validate the use of the ratio between the total transverse diameters of the thyroid lobes (Th) and the width of the trachea (Tr)-the Th:Tr or Yasumoto ratio-as a sonographic method for estimating thyroid size, and to determine reference values for this ratio and for thyroid volume in neonates.
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Exercising for food: bringing the laboratory closer to nature.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Traditionally, exercise physiology experiments have borne little resemblance to how animals express physical activity in the wild. In this experiment, 15 adult male rats were divided into three equal-sized groups: exercise contingent (CON), non-exercise contingent (NON) and sedentary (SED). The CON group was placed in a cage with a running wheel, where the acquisition of food was contingent upon the distance required to run. Every 3 days the distance required to run to maintain food intake at free feeding levels was increased by 90% in comparison to the previous 3 days. The NON group was housed identically to the CON group, but food acquisition was not dependent upon running in the wheel. Finally, the SED group was kept in small cages with no opportunity to perform exercise. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine significant differences in responses between the experimental phases and treatment groups, and ANCOVA was used to analyse growth and tissue mass variables with body length and body mass used separately as covariates. A post hoc Tukey's test was used to indicate significant differences. A Pearson's correlation was used to test the relationship between the distance travelled by the animal and the distance/food ratio. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 for all tests. The CON group showed the hypothesized correlation between distance required to run to obtain food and the mean distance travelled (P<0.001), during 45 days in the contingency phase. This group showed a decrease in body mass, rather than an increase as shown by NON and SED groups. The CON group had a significantly lower body temperature (P<0.05) and adiposity (P<0.05) when compared with the other two groups for the same body size. The present experimental model based on animals choosing the characteristics of their physical exercise to acquire food (i.e. distance travelled, speed and duration) clearly induced physiological effects (body characteristics and internal temperature), which are useful for investigating relevant topics in exercise physiology such as the link between exercise, food and body mass.
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Impact of cone-beam computed tomography on implant planning and on prediction of implant size.
Braz Oral Res
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The aim was to investigate the impact of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) on implant planning and on prediction of final implant size. Consecutive patients referred for implant treatment were submitted to clinical examination, panoramic (PAN) radiography and a CBCT exam. Initial planning of implant length and width was assessed based on clinical and PAN exams, and final planning, on CBCT exam to complement diagnosis. The actual dimensions of the implants placed during surgery were compared with those obtained during initial and final planning, using the McNemmar test (p < 0.05). The final sample comprised 95 implants in 27 patients, distributed over the maxilla and mandible. Agreement in implant length was 50.5% between initial and final planning, and correct prediction of the actual implant length was 40.0% and 69.5%, using PAN and CBCT exams, respectively. Agreement in implant width assessment ranged from 69.5% to 73.7%. A paired comparison of the frequency of changes between initial or final planning and implant placement (McNemmar test) showed greater frequency of changes in initial planning for implant length (p < 0.001), but not for implant width (p = 0.850). The frequency of changes was not influenced by implant location at any stage of implant planning (chi-square test, p > 0.05). It was concluded that CBCT improves the ability of predicting the actual implant length and reduces inaccuracy in surgical dental implant planning.
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Distantiae transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: a new epidemiological feature of acute Chagas disease in Brazil.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice.
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In vitro and in vivo analysis of the antithrombotic and toxicological profile of new antiplatelets N-acylhydrazone derivatives and development of nanosystems: determination of novel NAH derivatives antiplatelet and nanotechnological approach.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among the most important cardiovascular diseases are atherothrombosis and venous thromboembolism that present platelet aggregation as a key event. Currently, the commercial antiplatelet agents display several undesirable effects, which prompt the search for new compounds with better therapeutic index, more efficient body distribution and mechanism.
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Neurofibromatoses: part 1 - diagnosis and differential diagnosis.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Neurofibromatoses (NF) are a group of genetic multiple tumor growing predisposition diseases: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and schwannomatosis (SCH), which have in common the neural origin of tumors and cutaneous signs. They affect nearly 80 thousand of Brazilians. In recent years, the increased scientific knowledge on NF has allowed better clinical management and reduced complication morbidity, resulting in higher quality of life for NF patients. In most cases, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, clinical geneticists, oncology and internal medicine specialists are able to make the differential diagnosis between NF and other diseases and to identify major NF complications. Nevertheless, due to its great variability in phenotype expression, progressive course, multiple organs involvement and unpredictable natural evolution, NF often requires the support of neurofibromatoses specialists for proper treatment and genetic counseling. This Part 1 offers step-by-step guidelines for NF differential diagnosis. Part 2 will present the NF clinical management.
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Crystalline forms of nonprotein drugs filed in Brazil from 1995-2005.
Pharm Pat Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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In the present study, we evaluated 457 patent applications filed for crystalline forms of nonprotein drugs during the period 1995-2005 in Brazil. Online searches were conducted using the Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial patent database and the Derwent Innovations Index(®). It was found that no patent applications in this area were filed by Brazilian applicants. It was also noted that only 61% of patent applications included the characterization of three or more crystalline phase techniques. In most applications, no determination of purity was provided for chemical and/or crystalline phases. In a subset of patent applications, those for blockbuster drugs, we found that approximately 90% did not meet Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial acceptance criteria nor the criteria developed in this study. These results reveal that appropriate and thorough characterization of the crystalline forms of drugs is, indeed, lacking in patent applications.
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A double-blind, randomized controlled, prospective trial assessing the effectiveness of oral corticoids in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar canal stenosis.
J Negat Results Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Corticoids have potent anti-inflammatory effects, which may help in relieving pain and dysfunction associated with lumbar canal stenosis. We assessed the effectiveness of a decreasing-dose regimen of oral corticoids in the treatment of lumbar canal stenosis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
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Neuropsychological impairments in elderly Neurofibromatosis type 1 patients.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Cognitive performance is compromised in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients, but neuropsychological data including elderly NF1 are extremely sparse. We compared the cognitive performance of a small elderly NF1 group (n = 5) with an age-matched healthy control group (n = 49). NF1 group performed worse than control group on a global cognitive impairment task, verbal working memory, and visuospatial functioning. The results suggest that cognitive impairment is an important feature of NF1 across lifespan, including elderly individuals. Future studies approaching the NF1 cognitive profile might benefit from looking at the mechanisms linked to the age-related aspects of cognitive decline.
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A modified point count method as a practical approach to assess the tumor volume and the percent gland involvement by prostate carcinoma.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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This study reports a modified point-count method for quantifying the extent of carcinoma in prostatectomy specimens (n=143), as adapted from Billis et al. (2003) [3]. The prostates were studied as follows: the basal/apical margins were sampled using the cone method. The remainder of the gland was divided into 12 quadrant-shaped regions that were sampled using two slices. Eight equidistant points were marked directly on the coverslip over each fragment. The points inside the tumoral areas were counted and expressed as both the percentage of prostate gland involvement by carcinoma (PGI) and the tumor volume (TV). A significant correlation between the preoperative PSA levels and each of the three quantitative estimations were observed, with improved correlations with the PGI and TV values obtained using the point-count method (viz. number of slices involved (NSI) (r=0.32), PGI (r=0.39) and TV (r=0.44)). With the data sets stratified into three categories, all three methods correlated with multiple parameters, including Gleason scores ?7, primary Gleason scores ?4, perineural/angiolymphatic invasion, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion and positive margins. All three quantitative methods were associated with morphologic features of tumor progression. The results obtained using this modified point-count method correlate more strongly with preoperative PSA levels.
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Auditory temporal processing deficits and language disorders in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.
J Commun Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Previous findings from a case report led to the argument of whether other patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) may have abnormal central auditory function, particularly auditory temporal processing. We hypothesized that it is associated with language and learning disabilities in this population. The aim of this study was to measure central auditory temporal function in NF1 patients and correlate it with the results of language evaluation tests. A descriptive/comparative study including 25 NF1 individuals and 22 healthy controls compared their performances on audiometric evaluation and auditory behavioral testing (Sequential Verbal Memory, Sequential Non-Verbal Memory, Frequency Pattern, Duration Pattern, and Gaps in Noise Tests). To assess language performance, two tests (phonological and syntactic awareness) were also conducted. The study showed that all participants had normal peripheral acoustic hearing. Differences were found between the NF1 and control groups in the temporal auditory processing tests [Sequential Verbal Memory (P=0.009), Sequential Non-Verbal Memory (P=0.028), Frequency Patterns (P=0.001), Duration Patterns (P=0.000), and Gaps in Noise (P=0.000)] and in language tests. The results of Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated the presence of positive correlations between the phonological awareness test and Frequency Patterns humming (r=0.560, P=0.001), Frequency Patterns labeling (r=0.415, P=0.022) and Duration Pattern humming (r=0.569, P=0.001). These results suggest that the neurofibromin deficiency found in NF1 patients is associated with auditory temporal processing deficits, which may contribute to the cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and attention deficits that are common in this disorder. Learning outcomes: The reader will be able to: (1) describe the auditory temporal processing in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1; and (2) describe the impact of the auditory temporal deficits in language in this population.
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Identification of strain-specific B-cell epitopes in Trypanosoma cruzi using genome-scale epitope prediction and high-throughput immunoscreening with peptide arrays.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The factors influencing variation in the clinical forms of Chagas disease have not been elucidated; however, it is likely that the genetics of both the host and the parasite are involved. Several studies have attempted to correlate the T. cruzi strains involved in infection with the clinical forms of the disease by using hemoculture and/or PCR-based genotyping of parasites from infected human tissues. However, both techniques have limitations that hamper the analysis of large numbers of samples. The goal of this work was to identify conserved and polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of T. cruzi that could be used for serodiagnosis and serotyping of Chagas disease using ELISA.
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Long-term chlorhexidine effect on bond strength to Er:YAG laser irradiated-dentin.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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This study evaluates the bond strength of dentin prepared with Er:YAG laser or bur, after rewetting with chlorhexidine on long-term artificial saliva storage and thermocycling. One hundred and twenty human third molars were sectioned in order to expose the dentin surface (n?=?10). The specimens were randomly divided in 12 groups according to treatment and aging: Er:YAG laser rewetting with deionized water (LW) and 24 h storage in artificial saliva (WC); LW and 6 months of artificial saliva storage?+?12.000 thermocycling (6M), LW and 12 months of artificial saliva storage?+?24.000 thermocycling (12M), Er:YAG laser rewetting with 2% chlorhexidine (LC) and WC, LC and 6M, LC and 12M, bur on high-speed turbine rewetting with deionized water (TW) and WC, TW6M, TW12M, bur on high-speed turbine?+?2% chlorhexidine (TC) and WC, TC and 6M, TC and12M. The specimens were etched with 35% phosphoric acid, washed, and dried with air. Single Bond 2 adhesive was applied and the samples were restored with a composite. Each tooth was sectioned in order to obtain 4 sticks, which were submitted to microtensile bond strength test (µTBS). The two-way ANOVA, showed no significant differences for the interaction between the factors and for the aging factor. Tukey 5% showed that the LC group had the lowest µTBS. The rewetting with chlorhexidine negatively influenced the bond strength of the preparation with the Er:YAG laser. The artificial saliva aging and thermocycling did not interfere with dentin bond strength. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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In vitro leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of the glycoalkaloids from Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) fruits.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Leishmaniasis is an infection caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and is the second most prevalent parasitic protozoal disease after malaria in the world. We report the in vitro leishmanicidal activity on promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and cytotoxicity, using LLCMK2 cells, of the glycoalkaloids from the fruits of Solanum lycocarpum, determined by colorimetric methods. The alkaloidic extract was obtained by acid-base extraction; solamargine and solasonine were isolated by silica-gel chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC final purification. The alkaloidic extract, solamargine, solasonine, as well as the equimolar mixture of the glycoalkaloids solamargine and solasonine displayed leishmanicidal activity against promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, whereas the aglycone solasodine was inactive. After 24 and 72?h of incubation, most of the samples showed lower cytotoxicities (IC50 6.5 to 124??M) as compared to leishmanicidal activity (IC50 1.1 to 23.6??M). The equimolar mixture solamargine/solasonine was the most active with an IC50 value of 1.1??M, after 72?h. Likewise, solamargine was the most active after 24?h with an IC50 value of 14.4??M, both in comparison with the positive control amphotericin B.
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Protective actions of melatonin against heart damage during chronic Chagas disease.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Chronic cardiomyopathy is the most important clinical form of Chagas disease, and it is characterised by myocarditis that is associated with fibrosis and organ dysfunction. Alternative treatment options are important tools to modulate host immune responses. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin during the chronic phase of Chagas disease. TNF-?, IL-10 and nitrite concentrations were evaluated as predictive factors of immune modulation. Creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac inflammatory foci and heart weight were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of the melatonin treatment. Male Wistar rats were infected with 1×10(5) blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and kept untreated for 60 days to mimic chronic infection. After this period, the rats were orally treated with melatonin 50mg/kg/day, and the experiments were performed 90, 120, and 180 days post-infection. Melatonin treatment significantly increased the concentration of IL-10 and reduced the concentrations of NO and TNF-? produced by cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, it led to decreased heart weight, serum CK-MB levels and inflammatory foci when compared to the untreated and infected control groups. We conclude that melatonin therapy is effective at protecting animals against the harmful cardiac inflammatory response that is characteristic of chronic T. cruzi infection.
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Activity of antimalarial drugs in vitro and in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The currently used treatments for leishmaniasis, a neglected parasitic disease, are associated with several side effects, high cost and resistance of the Leishmania parasites. Here we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the antileishmanial activity of five antimalarial drugs against Leishmania amazonensis. Mefloquine was effective against promastigotes in axenic cultures and showed an IC50 (concentration giving half-maximal inhibition) value of 8.4±0.7 µM. In addition, mefloquine, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were active against intracellular amastigotes in macrophage-infected cultures, presenting IC50 values of 1.56±0.19 µM, 0.78±0.08 µM and 0.67±0.12 µM, respectively. The ultrastructural analysis of chloroquine- or mefloquine-treated amastigotes showed an accumulation of multivesicular bodies in the cytoplasm of the parasite, suggesting endocytic pathway impairment, in addition to the formation of myelin-like figures and enlargement of the Golgi cisternae. CBA mice were infected with L. amazonensis in the ear dermis, and treated by oral and/or topical routes with chloroquine and mefloquine. Treatment of L. amazonensis-infected mice with chloroquine by the oral route reduced lesion size, which was associated with a decrease in the number of parasites in the ear, as well as the parasite burden in the draining lymph nodes. In contrast, mefloquine administration by both routes decreased the lesion size in infected mice without causing a reduction in parasite burden. Our results revealed a promising antileishmanial effect of chloroquine and suggest its use in cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.
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Perceptions of patients, physicians, and Medical students on physicians appearance.
Rev Assoc Med Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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To investigate the impressions made by different styles of dress and appearance adopted by physicians on patients, medical students and other physicians in Brazil.
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Predicting the proteins of Angomonas deanei, Strigomonas culicis and their respective endosymbionts reveals new aspects of the trypanosomatidae family.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution.
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Non-invasive endothelial function assessment in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-systemic disease caused by neurofibromin deficiency. The reduced life expectancy of patients with NF1 has been attributed to NF1-associated malignant neoplasms. However, an analysis of death certificates in the USA suggests that vascular disease could be an important cause of early death among these patients. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is related to vasculopathy and is an early marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Since neurofibromin has already been demonstrated to affect endothelial cell function, ED may be associated with NF1. The purpose of this study was to assess endothelial function in patients with NF1 using a non-invasive method.
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Lower head temperature does not affect childrens self-paced running velocity.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To test if the use of a peaked cap protects children against sun radiation, allowing increased exercise performance, nineteen healthy children (10.3 ± 0.8 years old, 146.2 ± 6.9 cm, 36.8 ± 5.5 kg, 1.2 ± 0.1 m2 and 44.1 ± 2.8 mL.kg-1.min-1) took part in 4 experimental situations: 2 initial familiarization runs and 2 self-paced 6km runs (4 × 1.5 km exercise bouts with 3min rest intervals) one of them wearing a peaked cap (CAP) and another situation without the cap (NOCAP). The CAP and NOCAP situations were randomized. Exercise was performed outdoors 3-7 days apart. Environmental variables were measured every 10min, and physiological variables were measured before and after each run and during the rest intervals. Running velocity did not differ between CAP and NOCAP situations. The mean head temperature was reduced by 1.1 °C in the CAP situation (p < .05). Average skin temperature, mean heart rate, rate of perceived exertion and wet bulb and globe temperature did not differ between CAP and NOCAP. The decrease in the mean head temperature was not sufficient to alter running velocity.
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Neospora caninum: infection induces high lysosomal activity.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Neospora caninum is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular lesions in dogs, making it an important target of veterinary medicine. Lysosomes are cellular organelles responsible for important biological functions as cellular defense mechanisms. The aim of this work was to evaluate the lysosomal stability of rat gliocytes infected in vitro with N. caninum. Rat glial cultures were infected at a ratio of 1:1 (cell/parasite). The enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) was assayed in the medium of control and infected cell cultures. The activity observed at 24h of incubation was 0.4±0.08mU/mg/min for control cells and 1.3±0.5mU/mg/min for infected cells. After 72h, control and infected cells exhibited activities of 1.3±0.5 and 4.1±0.9mU/mg/min, respectively. These results suggested that lysosomal compartment plays an important role in the mechanisms of cellular infection by N. caninum.
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Repeat-enriched proteins are related to host cell invasion and immune evasion in parasitic protozoa.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Proteins containing repetitive amino acid domains are widespread in all life forms. In parasitic organisms, proteins containing repeats play important roles such as cell adhesion and invasion and immune evasion. Therefore, extracellular and intracellular parasites are expected to be under different selective pressures regarding the repetitive content in their genomes. Here, we investigated whether there is a bias in the repetitive content found in the predicted proteomes of 6 exclusively extracellular and 17 obligate intracellular protozoan parasites, as well as 4 free-living protists. We also attempted to correlate the results with the distinct ecological niches they occupy and with distinct protein functions. We found that intracellular parasites have higher repetitive content in their proteomes than do extracellular parasites and free-living protists. In intracellular parasites, these repetitive proteins are located mainly at the parasite surface or are secreted and are enriched in amino acids known to be part of N- and O-glycosylation sites. Furthermore, in intracellular parasites, the developmental stages that are able to invade host cells express a higher proportion of proteins with perfect repeats relative to other life cycle stages, and these proteins have molecular functions associated with cell invasion. In contrast, in extracellular parasites, degenerate repetitive motifs are enriched in proteins that are likely to play roles in evading host immune response. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that both the ability to invade host cells and to escape the host immune response may have shaped the expansion and maintenance of perfect and degenerate repeats in the genomes of intra- and extracellular parasites.
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Immunomodulatory effect of the alkaloidic extract of Solanum lycocarpum fruits in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma; it accounts for more than 280,000 deaths annually. In this work we investigated the effect of the alkaloidic extract obtained by acid-base extraction of the dried fruits of Solanum lycocarpum on schistosomiasis. We used this extract at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg to treat mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni in different phases of the parasite cycle, and we compared its effect with that of the positive control praziquantel (60 mg/kg). We evaluated the results on the basis of the number of macrophages, eggs, and granulomas; we also assessed nitric oxide (NO) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) production. Animals treated with a daily dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg alkaloidic extract between the 37th and 41st day of infection showed increased number of macrophages, elevated NO and IFN-? concentrations, and reduced number of eggs and granulomas in the liver. The alkaloidic extract of S. lycocarpum fruits displayed an immunomodulatory effect on mice infected with S. mansoni, so its potential to treat schistosomiasis deserves further studies.
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Trypanosoma cruzi infection in neotropical wild carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora): at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Little is known on the role played by Neotropical wild carnivores in the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. We investigated T. cruzi infection in wild carnivores from three sites in Brazil through parasitological and serological tests. The seven carnivore species examined were infected by T. cruzi, but high parasitemias detectable by hemoculture were found only in two Procyonidae species. Genotyping by Mini-exon gene, PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) and kDNA genomic targets revealed that the raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) harbored TcI and the coatis (Nasua nasua) harbored TcI, TcII, TcIII-IV and Trypanosoma rangeli, in single and mixed infections, besides four T. cruzi isolates that displayed odd band patterns in the Mini-exon assay. These findings corroborate the coati can be a bioaccumulator of T. cruzi Discrete Typing Units (DTU) and may act as a transmission hub, a connection point joining sylvatic transmission cycles within terrestrial and arboreal mammals and vectors. Also, the odd band patterns observed in coatis isolates reinforce that T. cruzi diversity might be much higher than currently acknowledged. Additionally, we assembled our data with T. cruzi infection on Neotropical carnivores literature records to provide a comprehensive analysis of the infection patterns among distinct carnivore species, especially considering their ecological traits and phylogeny. Altogether, fifteen Neotropical carnivore species were found naturally infected by T. cruzi. Species diet was associated with T. cruzi infection rates, supporting the hypothesis that predator-prey links are important mechanisms for T. cruzi maintenance and dispersion in the wild. Distinct T. cruzi infection patterns across carnivore species and study sites were notable. Musteloidea species consistently exhibit high parasitemias in different studies which indicate their high infectivity potential. Mesocarnivores that feed on both invertebrates and mammals, including the coati, a host that can be bioaccumulator of T. cruzi DTUs, seem to take place at the top of the T. cruzi transmission chain.
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Reduction of galectin-3 expression and liver fibrosis after cell therapy in a mouse model of cirrhosis.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, is caused by different mechanisms of injury, associated with persistent inflammation. Galectin-3 is an important regulator of fibrosis that links chronic inflammation to fibrogenesis. We investigated the role of bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation in chronic inflammation and hepatic fibrosis.
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Report of three new leprosy cases in children under fifteen in the municipality of Itaguai, Rio de Janeiro: event alert for epidemiological investigation.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Leprosy is an infectious disease with an average incubation period of two to five years. It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, mainly affecting skin, mucous membranes and peripheral nerves. When it occurs in children under fifteen, it reflects an intense and long contact period, with a high bacillary load. Therefore, it is considered an important alert sign that points to the challenge of controlling the disease. The authors report three cases of leprosy in children under fifteen that occurred in the Itaguaí district, Rio de Janeiro. The epidemiologic implications of new cases detected at this age and the fundamental role of examining the patients close contacts and the possible identification of source cases as an effort for leprosy control are discussed.
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Neuromuscular economy, strength, and endurance in healthy elderly men.
J Strength Cond Res
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Declines in muscular strength resulting from reduced neural activity may influence the reduction in aerobic capacity in older men. However, there has been little investigation into the relationship between muscular strength and economy of movement during aerobic exercise in elderly subjects. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between strength, aerobic performance, and neuromuscular economy in older men. Twenty-eight aged men (65 ± 4 years old) were evaluated in dynamic (1 repetition maximum test), isometric strength (maximal voluntary contraction), and rate of force development. Peak oxygen uptake, maximal workload, and ventilatory threshold were determined during a ramp protocol on a cycle ergometer. Throughout the same protocol, the neuromuscular economy (electromyographic signal) of the vastus lateralis was measured. Significant correlations were found between muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and neuromuscular economy (r = 0.43-0.64, p < 0.05). Our results suggest that cardiorespiratory capacity and economy of movement are associated with muscular strength during aging.
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Genomic analyses, gene expression and antigenic profile of the trans-sialidase superfamily of Trypanosoma cruzi reveal an undetected level of complexity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, a highly debilitating human pathology that affects millions of people in the Americas. The sequencing of this parasites genome reveals that trans-sialidase/trans-sialidase-like (TcS), a polymorphic protein family known to be involved in several aspects of T. cruzi biology, is the largest T. cruzi gene family, encoding more than 1,400 genes. Despite the fact that four TcS groups are well characterized and only one of the groups contains active trans-sialidases, all members of the family are annotated in the T. cruzi genome database as trans-sialidase. After performing sequence clustering analysis with all TcS complete genes, we identified four additional groups, demonstrating that the TcS family is even more heterogeneous than previously thought. Interestingly, members of distinct TcS groups show distinctive patterns of chromosome localization. Members of the TcSgroupII, which harbor proteins involved in host cell attachment/invasion, are preferentially located in subtelomeric regions, whereas members of the largest and new TcSgroupV have internal chromosomal locations. Real-time RT-PCR confirms the expression of genes derived from new groups and shows that the pattern of expression is not similar within and between groups. We also performed B-cell epitope prediction on the family and constructed a TcS specific peptide array, which was screened with sera from T. cruzi-infected mice. We demonstrated that all seven groups represented in the array are antigenic. A highly reactive peptide occurs in sixty TcS proteins including members of two new groups and may contribute to the known cross-reactivity of T. cruzi epitopes during infection. Taken together, our results contribute to a better understanding of the real complexity of the TcS family and open new avenues for investigating novel roles of this family during T. cruzi infection.
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Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil).
Rev. Biol. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the reservoir to be assessed and might provide useful data for the management of other species native to this habitat. This study showed that the peacock bass has no predators or natural competitors in the reservoir and that reproduces continuously, with high reproductive rates, and has a smaller median length at first maturity (L50) than other species of Cichla. Its successful establishment in habitats strongly affected by human activity should cause changes in the whole structure of the local fish communities. Nonetheless, in this reservoir, there appears to be some sharing of the functions of this species with native carnivorous fish, a situation that may be sustained by the presence of a wide variety of foraging fish.
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Evaluation of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer in horses and cattle.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the accuracy of the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in horses and cattle. Both eyes of 10 adult horses and cattle were evaluated in a postmortem study. The eyes from 10 clinically normal adult horses and cattle were also examined after bilateral auriculopalpebral nerve block and topical anesthesia for an in vivo study. IOP was measured postmortem using direct manometry (measured with an aneroid manometer) and tonometry (measured with a Perkins handheld applanation tonometer). The correlation coefficients (r(2)) for the data from the postmortem manometry and Perkins tonometer study were 0.866 for horses and 0.864 for cattle. In the in vivo study, IOP in horses was 25.1 ± 2.9 mmHg (range 19.0~30.0 mmHg) as measured by manometry and 23.4 ± 3.2 mmHg (range 18.6~28.4 mmHg) according to tonometry. In cattle, IOP was found to be 19.7 ± 1.2 mmHg (range 18.0~22.0 mmHg) by manometry and 18.8 ± 1.7 mmHg (range 15.9~20.8 mmHg) by tonometry. There was a strong correlation between the IOP values obtained by direct ocular manometry and the tonometer in both horses and cattle. Our results demonstrate that the Perkins handheld tonometer could be an additional tool for accurately measuring IOP in equine and bovine eyes.
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Protective effect of brown Brazilian propolis against acute vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in mice: involvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Cell Biochem. Funct.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Propolis has been highlighted for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate if brown Brazilian hydroalcoholic propolis extract (HPE) protects against vaginal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in female BALB/c mice. The treatment was divided in 5?days of pre-treatment with HPE [50?mg·kg(-1) , once a day, intragastric (i.g.)], HSV-2 infection [10?µl of a solution 1?×?10(2) plaque-forming unit (PFU·ml(-1) HSV-2), intravaginal inoculation at day 6] and post-treatment with HPE (50?mg·kg(-1) ) for 5?days more. At day 11, the animals were killed, and the in vivo analysis (score of lesions) and ex vivo analysis [haematological and histological evaluation; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities; reactive species (RS), tyrosine nitration levels, non-protein thiols (NPSH) and ascorbic acid (AA) levels] were carried out. HPE treatment reduced extravaginal lesions and the histological damage caused by HSV-2 infection in vaginal tissues of animals. HPE was able to decrease RS, tyrosine nitration, AA levels and MPO activity. Also, it protected against the inhibition of CAT activity in vaginal tissues of mice. HPE promoted protective effect on HSV-2 infected animals by acting on inflammatory and oxidative processes, and this effect probably is caused by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Methionine- and choline-deficient diet induces hepatic changes characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
Arq Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a disease with a high incidence, difficult diagnosis, and as yet no effective treatment. So, the use of experimental models for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induction and the study of its routes of development have been studied.
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Bacillary angiomatosis in HIV-positive patient from Northeastern Brazil: a case report.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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It is a report of disseminated bacillary angiomatosis (BA) in a 23-year-old female patient, who is HIV-positive and with fever, weight loss, hepatomegaly, ascites, and papular-nodular skin lesions. The clinical and diagnostic aspects involved in the case were discussed. Bacillary angiomatosis must always be considered in the diagnosis of febrile cutaneous manifestations in AIDS.
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Dyspnea descriptors translated from English to Portuguese: application in obese patients and in patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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To investigate the usefulness of descriptive terms applied to the sensation of dyspnea (dyspnea descriptors) that were developed in English and translated to Brazilian Portuguese in patients with four distinct clinical conditions that can be accompanied by dyspnea.
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Dyspnea descriptors developed in Brazil: application in obese patients and in patients with cardiorespiratory diseases.
J Bras Pneumol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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To develop a set of descriptive terms applied to the sensation of dyspnea (dyspnea descriptors) for use in Brazil and to investigate the usefulness of these descriptors in four distinct clinical conditions that can be accompanied by dyspnea.
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Dermatomyofibroma: a case report of a rare disease.
An Bras Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Dermato myofibroma is included in the group of benign cutaneous mesenchymal neoplastic lesions of fibroblastic and myofibroblastic lineage. Its a rare disease and there are approximately only one hundred cases described worldwide in the medical literature up to now. The present study reports the case of a young woman with typical clinical cutaneous lesion and histopathological diagnosis of dermato myofibroma. Special stains were carried out which showed preserved collagen fibers and immunohistochemistry was positive for vimentin and negative for actin and S100. As it is a rare disease, the histopathological findings are of great importance but clinical suspicion is possible in typical cases such as this one.
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Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma with epithelial cysts: demonstration of Melan A and HMB45 positivity in the cystic epithelial lining.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) may present as rare variants such as epithelioid and AML with epithelial cysts posing difficulties for the diagnosis to the surgical pathologist. We report a case of a 46-year-old male patient presenting a 5-cm solid tumor in the lower pole of the left kidney, with cystic changes at cut surface. The tumor exhibited 95% of epithelioid cells with atypical nuclei. A small focus of typical AML was observed. The immunoprofile of tumor cells was classical of AML including expression of melanocytic markers such as HMB45 and Melan A. We report the immunohistochemical study of the cystic component in an epithelioid AML. In contrast to the immunoreactivity reported in typical AML, the present case shows obvious expression of melanocytic markers in the cystic epithelial lining. This is strong evidence that these cysts are neoplastic and derived from AML, rather than entrapped native collecting duct epithelium.
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Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors.
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Burkholderia pseudomallei antibodies in individuals living in endemic regions in Northeastern Brazil.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among the population of two municipalities in Northeastern Brazil. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were positive in 51.27% (161 in 317 samples) and 58.49% (186), respectively. IgM titers were higher in children than in adults. On the contrary, IgG increased progressively with age. We observed a significant association between agricultural occupation and raised IgM titers (P < 0.005) and IgG titers (P < 0.001), and between construction workers and raised IgG titers (P = 0.005). Antibody IgG avidities did not correlate with age. The highest titers of antibodies (1/800) showed the highest antibody avidity indexes (P < 0.01). Most of the serum samples recognized 45-kDa and 200-kDa bands by IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses. Our study showed a high seropositivity among individuals living in endemic regions of the state of Ceará, and highlights the need for further surveillance close to water courses such as dams and rivers in Northeastern Brazil.
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Chromosome mapping of repetitive sequences in Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae): implications for karyotypic evolution and perspectives for biotechnological uses.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The cobia, Rachycentron canadum, a species of marine fish, has been increasingly used in aquaculture worldwide. It is the only member of the family Rachycentridae (Perciformes) showing wide geographic distribution and phylogenetic patterns still not fully understood. In this study, the species was cytogenetically analyzed by different methodologies, including Ag-NOR and chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3))/DAPI staining, C-banding, early replication banding (RGB), and in situ fluorescent hybridization with probes for 18S and 5S ribosomal genes and for telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)(n). The results obtained allow a detailed chromosomal characterization of the Atlantic population. The chromosome diversification found in the karyotype of the cobia is apparently related to pericentric inversions, the main mechanism associated to the karyotypic evolution of Perciformes. The differential heterochromatin replication patterns found were in part associated to functional genes. Despite maintaining conservative chromosomal characteristics in relation to the basal pattern established for Perciformes, some chromosome pairs in the analyzed population exhibit markers that may be important for cytotaxonomic, population, and biodiversity studies as well as for monitoring the species in question.
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The relationship between heart rate variability and serum cytokines in chronic chagasic patients with persistent parasitemia.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Persistent parasitemia, immunological, and autonomic nervous system impairments may play an important role in the evolution and clinical outcome of the chronic phase of Chagas disease by triggering functional cardiovascular changes.
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Impact of a supervised strength training or walking training over a subsequent unsupervised therapy period on walking capacity in patients with claudication.
J Vasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Previous studies have demonstrated that supervised strength training (ST) or walking training (WT) improve walking capacity in patients with claudication. However, it remains unknown whether these improvements would be sustained over a subsequent unsupervised period. This article reports the findings of a study to analyze whether the improvements in walking capacity, achieved with a supervised ST or WT, would be sustained over a subsequent unsupervised therapy period in patients with claudication. Patients were initially randomized to supervised exercise consisting of ST (n = 15) or WT (n = 15) for 12 weeks. After this period, 12 patients in each group consented to be followed for an additional 12 weeks of unsupervised therapy. Initial claudication distance (ICD) and total walking distance (TWD) were measured at baseline, after the supervised period (Week 12) and after the unsupervised period (Week 24). In comparison with baseline values, both groups similarly increased ICD and TWD at Week 12. From Week 12 to Week 24, both groups similarly decreased ICD (ST: -55 ± 110 m and WT: -82 ± 142 m, P =.04) and TWD (ST: -68 ± 186 m and WT: -128 ± 112 m, P < .01). However, in both groups, ICD (ST: +126 ± 149 m and WT: +50 ± 167 m, P = .01) and TWD (ST: +104 ± 162 m and WT: +45 ± 139 m, P =.01) at Week 24 remained greater than baseline values. The conclusion is that supervised ST or WT followed by an unsupervised therapy period similarly decreased walking capacity in patients with claudication. However, after the unsupervised period, walking capacity remained at a higher level than before the onset of the supervised exercise-training period.
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Production of bovine hand-made cloned embryos by zygote-oocyte cytoplasmic hemi-complementation.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cytoplast type and activation process on development of cloned embryos. Bovine oocytes (MII) or zygotes at the one-cell stage (IVF) were manually bisected and segregated in MII or IVF hemi-cytoplasts or hemi-karyoplasts. Adult skin cells from a bovine female were used as nucleus donors (SC). Experimental groups were composed of IVF embryos; parthenogenetic embryos; hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos; and reconstructed HMC embryos using IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?MII hemi-cytoplast?+ SC (G-I); IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?SC (G-II); MII hemi-cytoplast?+?IVF hemi-karyoplast (G-III); and IVF hemi-cytoplast?+?IVF hemi-karyoplast (G-IV). Embryos from G-I to G-IV were allocated to subgroups as sperm-activated (SA) or were further chemically activated (SA?+?CA). Embryos from all groups and subgroups were in vitro cultured in the WOW system. Blastocyst development in subgroup G-I SA (28.2%) was similar to IVF (27.0%) and HMC (31.4%) controls, perhaps due to a to a more suitable activation process and/or better complementation of cytoplasmic reprogramming factors, with the other groups and subgroups having lower levels of development. No blastocyst development was observed when using IVF hemi-karyoplasts (G-III and G-IV), possibly due to the manipulation process during a sensitive biological period. In summary, the presence of cytoplasmic factors from MII hemi-oocytes and the sperm activation process from hemi-zygotes appear to be necessary for adequate in vitro development, as only the zygote-oocyte hemi-complementation was as efficient as controls for the generation of bovine cloned blastocysts.
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[Completeness of data on live birth certificates and death certificates for early neonatal and fetal deaths in the Ribeirão Preto Region, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2000-2007].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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This study aimed to evaluate the completeness of data on nine items included in both the certificate of live birth (CLB) and death certificate (DC), as well as the retrieval of data on early neonatal deaths. The study assessed live birth and early neonatal and fetal death records in municipalities in the Ribeirão Preto Region, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007. Database matching for live births and deaths allowed retrieving data on early neonatal deaths. Data completion was good on the CLB and poor on the DC. Retrieval of data related to mortality was satisfactory, except for maternal schooling, number of live born children, and stillbirths. The findings highlight the need to improve completion of the DC and showed that the retrieval process improved the completeness of data from the database on early neonatal deaths. The use of reports on local investigation of deaths is recommended as a strategy to make mortality databases more complete.
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Pattern formation, long-term transients, and the Turing-Hopf bifurcation in a space- and time-discrete predator-prey system.
Bull. Math. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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Understanding of population dynamics in a fragmented habitat is an issue of considerable importance. A natural modelling framework for these systems is spatially discrete. In this paper, we consider a predator-prey system that is discrete both in space and time, and is described by a Coupled Map Lattice (CML). The prey growth is assumed to be affected by a weak Allee effect and the predator dynamics includes intra-specific competition. We first reveal the bifurcation structure of the corresponding non-spatial system. We then obtain the conditions of diffusive instability on the lattice. In order to reveal the properties of the emerging patterns, we perform extensive numerical simulations. We pay a special attention to the system properties in a vicinity of the Turing-Hopf bifurcation, which is widely regarded as a mechanism of pattern formation and spatiotemporal chaos in space-continuous systems. Counter-intuitively, we obtain that the spatial patterns arising in the CML are more typically stationary, even when the local dynamics is oscillatory. We also obtain that, for some parameter values, the systems dynamics is dominated by long-term transients, so that the asymptotical stationary pattern arises as a sudden transition between two different patterns. Finally, we argue that our findings may have important ecological implications.
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Behavioral and cognitive phenotype of children and adolescents with Williams-Beuren Syndrome.
Pro Fono
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of multiples genes of long arm of chromosome 7 (region 7q11-23), which causes behavioral and intellectual disability. For the effectiveness of educational inclusion of these children, multidisciplinary approaches are needed to guide teachers and parents.
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Chemokines and chemokine receptors coordinate the inflammatory immune response in human cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) includes different clinical manifestations displaying diverse intensities of dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Diffuse CL (DCL) cases are hyporesponsive, and lesions show very few lymphocytes and a predominance of macrophages. In contrast, localized CL (LCL) cases are responsive to leishmanial antigen, and lesions exhibit granulocytes and mononuclear cell infiltration in the early phases, changing to a pattern with numerous lymphocytes and macrophages later in the lesion. Therefore, different chemokines may affect the predominance of cell infiltration in distinct clinical manifestations. In lesions from LCL patients, we examined by flow cytometry the presence of different chemokines and their receptors in T cells, and we verified a higher expression of CXCR3 in the early stages of LCL (less than 30 days of infection) and a higher expression of CCR4 in the late stages of disease (more than 60 days of infection). We also observed a higher frequency of T cells producing IL-10 in the late stage of LCL. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a higher expression of CCL7, CCL17 in lesions from late LCL, as well as CCR4 suggesting a preferential recruitment of regulatory T cells in the late LCL. Comparing lesions from LCL and DCL patients, we observed a higher frequency of CCL7 in DCL lesions. These results point out the importance of the chemokines, defining the different types of cells recruited to the site of the infection, which could be related to the outcome of infection as well as the clinical form observed.
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Sinoaortic denervation prevents enhanced heat loss induced by central cholinergic stimulation during physical exercise.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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The present study investigated whether the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on thermoregulation during exercise are modulated by arterial baroreceptors. Wistar rats were submitted to sinoaortic denervation (SAD) or sham denervation (SHAM) and then fitted with a chronic guide cannula into the lateral cerebral ventricle. After 2 weeks, a catheter was implanted into the ascending aorta, and a temperature sensor was implanted into the peritoneal cavity. Two days later, the rats were submitted to exercise on a treadmill at 18 m/min until fatigued. Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses were measured after injection of 2 ?L of 10mM physostigmine (Phy) or 0.15M NaCl solution (Sal) into the cerebral ventricle. In SHAM rats, Phy injection induced a greater exercise-induced increase in blood pressure and lower increase in heart rate than Sal treatment. In the SAD group, the attenuation of heart rate in response to Phy was blocked despite an exaggerated increase in blood pressure. SHAM rats treated with Phy had a higher increase in tail skin temperature compared to Sal injection (31.9 ± 0.4 °C Phy-SHAM vs. 30.1 ± 0.6 °C Sal-SHAM, 5 min after injection; p<0.05), resulting in a lower exercise-induced increase in core temperature. In contrast, SAD blocked the Phy injection effects in thermoregulatory responses during exercise (tail temperature: 30.1 ± 1.2 °C Phy-SAD vs. 29.5 ± 1.2 °C Sal-SAD, 5 min, p = 0.65). Therefore, we conclude that the enhancement of cutaneous heat loss induced by central cholinergic stimulation during exercise is mediated primarily by arterial baroreceptors.
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[AIDS and transmissible opportunistic diseases in the Brazilian border area].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Person-to-person transmission of HIV and other communicable diseases may be associated with human geographic mobility. This article evaluated the incidence of transmissible opportunistic diseases among AIDS cases that had been reported by municipalities in the Brazilian border area.
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[Health professionals knowledge about the prevention of pneumonia associated to mechanical ventilation at Intensive Care Unit].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2010
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The Pneumonia Associated to Mechanical Ventilation (PAMV) is the more important and more common infection in critic mechanically ventilated patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICUs). This quantitative research has aimed to assess the knowledge of the health professionals about the prevention of PAMV in two public hospitals of Fortaleza, Ceará State, from June to July, 2006. A questionnaire was applied to 104 professionals, by means of the concept scales of Likert which was used as a parameter and reference to the assessment. It was calculated the average and standard digression and analyzed the knowledge of professionals in relation to the PAMV. It was observed the association between the knowledge about prevention of PAMV and other variables through the chi2 tests from Fisher-Freeman-Halton, fixing the significance level in 5%. The results obtained had suggested that the knowledge of health professionals of the two ICUs about prevention of PAMV was insignificant. We conclude that, in general, despite the professional category, the knowledge about PAMV and risk factors associated to it was only regular lower than expected and, in some cases, the situation was considerably worrying.
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Assessment of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery.
Pro Fono
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Swallowing evaluation of older individuals with coronary disease referred to heart surgery.
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Effects of intensity and positional predictability of a visual stimulus on simple reaction time.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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The influence of visual stimuli intensity on manual reaction time (RT) was investigated under two different attentional settings: high (Experiment 1) and low (Experiment 2) stimulus location predictability. These two experiments were also run under both binocular and monocular viewing conditions. We observed that RT decreased as stimulus intensity increased. It also decreased as the viewing condition was changed from monocular to binocular as well as the location predictability shifted from low to high. A significant interaction was found between stimulus intensity and viewing condition, but no interaction was observed between neither of these factors and location predictability. These findings support the idea that the stimulus intensity effect arises from purely sensory, pre-attentive mechanisms rather than deriving from more efficient attentional capture.
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Thermoregulatory efficiency is increased after heat acclimation in tropical natives.
J Physiol Anthropol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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To evaluate the effects of heat acclimation on sweat rate redistribution and thermodynamic parameters, 9 tropical native volunteers were submitted to 11 days of exercise-heat exposures (40+/-0 degrees C and 45.1+/-0.2% relative humidity). Sudomotor function was evaluated by measuring total and local (forehead, chest, arm, forearm, and thigh) sweat rates, local sweat sodium concentration, and mean skin and rectal temperatures. We also calculated heat production (H), heat storage (S), heat exchange by radiation (R) and by convection (C), evaporated sweat (E(sw)), sweating efficiency (eta(sw)), skin wettedness (w(sk)), and the ratio between the heat storage and the sum of heat production and heat gains by radiation and convection (S/(H+R+C)). The heat acclimation increased the whole-body sweat rate and reduced the mean skin temperature. There were changes in the local sweat rate patterns: on the arm, forearm, and thigh it increased significantly from day 1 to day 11 (all p<0.05) and the sweat rates from the forehead and the chest showed a small nonsignificant increase (p=0.34 and 0.17, respectively). The relative increase of local sweat rates on day 11 was not different among the sites; however, when comparing the limbs (arm, forearm, and thigh) with the trunk (forehead and chest), there was a significant higher increase in the limbs (32+/-5%) in comparison to the trunk (11+/-2%, p=0.001). After the heat acclimation period we observed higher w(sk) and E(sw) and reduced S/(H+R+C), meaning greater thermoregulatory efficiency. The increase in the limb sweat rate, but not the increase in the trunk sweat rate, correlated with the increased w(sk), E(sw), and reduced S/(H+R+C) (p<0.05 to all). Altogether, it can be concluded that heat acclimation increased the limbs sweat rates in tropical natives and that this increase led to increased loss of heat through evaporation of sweat and this higher sweat evaporation was related to higher thermoregulatory efficiency.
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Risk factors for maxillofacial injuries in a Brazilian emergency hospital sample.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Maxillofacial injuries occur in a significant number of trauma patients. Epidemiological assessments are essential to reaffirm patterns, identify new trends and develop clinical and research priorities for effective treatment and prevention of these injuries.
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Heat and exercise acclimation increases intracellular levels of Hsp72 and inhibits exercise-induced increase in intracellular and plasma Hsp72 in humans.
Cell Stress Chaperones
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0?±?0.7 years; 80.5?±?2.0 kg; 180?±?2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40?±?0°C and 45?±?0% relative humidity) for 11 days. The protocol consisted of running on a treadmill using a controlled hyperthermia technique in which the work rate was adjusted to elevate the rectal temperature by 1°C in 30 min and maintain it elevated for another 30 min. Before and after the HA, the volunteers performed a heat stress test (HST) at 50% of their individual maximal power output for 90 min in the same environment. Blood was drawn before (REST), immediately after (POST) and 1 h after (1 h POST) HST, and plasma and leukocytes were separated and stored. Subjects showed expected adaptations to HA: reduced exercise rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, and augmented sweat rate and exercise tolerance. In HST1, plasma Hsp72 increased from REST to POST and then returned to resting values 1 h POST (REST: 1.11?±?0.07, POST: 1.48?±?0.10, 1 h POST: 1.22?±?0.11 ng mL(-1); p??0.05). HA increased resting levels of intracellular Hsp72 (HST1: 1?±?0.02 and HST2: 4.2?±?1.2 density units, p??0.05). Regression analysis showed that the lower the pre-exercise expression of intracellular Hsp72, the higher the exercise-induced increase (R?=?-0.85, p?
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Biological detoxification of different hemicellulosic hydrolysates using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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This work had as its main objective to contribute to the development of a biological detoxification of hemicellulose hydrolysates obtained from different biomass plants using Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 yeast. Tests with hemicellulosic hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse in different concentrations were carried out to evaluate the influence of the hydrolysate concentration on the inhibitory compounds removal from the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate, without reduction of sugar concentration. The highest reduction values of inhibitors concentration and less sugar losses were observed when the fivefold concentrated hydrolysate was treated by the evaluated yeast. In these experiments it was found that the high sugar concentrations favored lower sugar consumption by the yeast. The highest concentration reduction of syringaldehyde (66.67%), ferulic acid (73.33%), furfural (62%), and 5-HMF (85%) was observed when the concentrated hydrolysate was detoxified by using this yeast strain after 24 h of experimentation. The results obtained in this work showed the potential of the yeast Issatchenkia occidentalis CCTCC M 206097 as detoxification agent of hemicellulosic hydrolysate of different biomass plants.
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Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and benznidazole treatments during acute infection of two different Trypanosoma cruzi strains.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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A significant role for hormones in regulating the balance of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines with a role in modulating diseases has been accumulating. Previously, we reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant steroid hormone synthesized by the adrenal cortex, markedly reduced the blood and tissue parasites in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats. Based on these findings, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate ester (DHEA-S) therapy alone or in combination with benznidazole (BNZ) (recommended in Brazil for the treatment of T. cruzi infection) will be effective during the acute phase of two different lineages of T. cruzi strains: type I (Y strain) and type II (Bolivia strain) of T. cruzi. Administration of either DHEA-S or BNZ alone or in combination significantly reduced the Y strain parasite load as compared with untreated. Furthermore treatment with DHEA-S resulted in Bolivia strain clearance. This protective effect of DHEA-S was associated with the hosts immune response, as evidence by enhanced levels of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2. DHEA-S treatment also increased peritoneal macrophages levels and nitrite production. DHEA-S treatment was effective in reducing the mortality rate as compared to BNZ alone or to combiner DHEA-S+BNZ treatment of T. cruzi Bolivia strain infected animals. These findings suggest that hormonal therapy may have a protective effect in the treatment of T. cruzi infection.
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Thrichomys laurentius (Rodentia; Echimyidae) as a putative reservoir of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis: patterns of experimental infection.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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The importance of the genus Thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of Leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of Thrichomys spp. Moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in Brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. Our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of Thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and amplification of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. Male and female T. laurentius (n = 24) born in captivity were evaluated for the retention of infection with these Leishmania species and followed up by parasitological, serological, hematological, biochemical, histological, and molecular assays for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months post infection (mpi). T. laurentius showed its competence as maintenance host for the two inoculated Leishmania species. Four aspects should be highlighted: (i) re-isolation of parasites 12 mpi; (ii) the low parasitic burden displayed by T. laurentius tissues; (iii) the early onset and maintenance of humoral response, and (iv) the similar pattern of infection by the two Leishmania species. Both Leishmania species demonstrated the ability to invade and maintain itself in viscera and skin of T. laurentius, and no rodent displayed any lesion, histological changes, or clinical evidence of infection. We also wish to point out the irrelevance of the adjective dermotropic or viscerotropic to qualify L. braziliensis and L. infantum, respectively, when these species are hosted by nonhuman hosts. Our data suggest that T. laurentius may act at least as a maintenance host of both tested Leishmania species since it maintained long-lasting infections. Moreover, it cannot be discarded that Leishmania spp. infection in free-ranging T. laurentius could result in higher parasite burden due the more stressing conditions in the wild. Therefore the tissular parasitism of the skin, infectiveness to the vector, and amplification of the transmission cycle of both Leishmania species could be expected.
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Control of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium intracellulare infections with respect to distinct granuloma formations in livers of BALB/c mice.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium that can cause a range of diseases in humans. Complications from M. fortuitum infection have been associated with numerous surgical procedures. A protective immune response against pathogenic mycobacterial infections is dependent on the granuloma formation. Within the granuloma, the macrophage effector response can inhibit bacterial replication and mediate the intracellular killing of bacteria. The granulomatous responses of BALB/c mice to rapidly and slowly growing mycobacteria were assessed in vivo and the bacterial loads in spleens and livers from M. fortuitum and Mycobacterium intracellulare-infected mice, as well as the number and size of granulomas in liver sections, were quantified. Bacterial loads were found to be approximately two times lower in M. fortuitum-infected mice than in M. intracellulare-infected mice and M. fortuitum-infected mice presented fewer granulomas compared to M. intracellulare-infected mice. These granulomas were characterized by the presence of Mac-1+ and CD4+ cells. Additionally, IFN-?mRNA expression was higher in the livers of M. fortuitum-infected mice than in those of M. intracellulare-infected mice. These data clearly show that mice are more capable of controlling an infection with M. fortuitum than M. intracellulare. This capacity is likely related to distinct granuloma formations in mice infected with M. fortuitum but not with M. intracellulare.
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Implant-supported obturator overdenture for extensive maxillary resection patient: a clinical report.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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This clinical report presents an implant-retained obturator overdenture solution for a Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index Class IV maxillectomy patient with a large oronasal communication and severe facial asymmetry, loss of upper lip and midfacial support, severe impairment of mastication, deglutition, phonetics, and speech intelligibility. Due to insufficient bone support to provide satisfactory zygomaticus implant anchorage, conventional implants were placed in the body of the left zygomatic arch and in the right maxillary tuberosity. Using a modified impression technique, a cobalt-chromium alloy framework with three overdenture attachments was constructed to retain a complete maxillary obturator. Patient-reported functional and quality of life measure outcomes were dramatically improved after treatment and at the two-year follow-up.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.