Inflammation and venous thrombosis are intimately linked, and there is evidence that levels of inflammatory cytokines influence risk of venous thrombosis. We investigated the hypothesis that allelic variation within the IL-1 gene cluster, which encompasses the genes encoding the inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-1? and the competitive IL-1 receptor antagonist, is associated with venous thrombosis among patients with heritable thrombophilia.
There is increasing evidence that activation of inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues is mediated co-operatively by the actions of more than one cell type. In particular, the monocyte has been implicated as a potentially important cell in the initiation of inflammatory responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activating signals. To determine the potential for monocyte-regulated activation of tissue cells to underpin inflammatory responses in the vasculature, we established cocultures of primary human endothelial cells and monocytes and dissected the inflammatory responses of these systems following activation with TLR agonists. We observed that effective activation of inflammatory responses required bidirectional signalling between the monocyte and the tissue cell. Activation of cocultures was dependent on interleukin-1 (IL-1). Although monocyte-mediated IL-1beta production was crucial to the activation of cocultures, TLR specificity to these responses was also provided by the endothelial cells, which served to regulate the signalling of the monocytes. TLR4-induced IL-1beta production by monocytes was increased by TLR4-dependent endothelial activation in coculture, and was associated with increased monocyte CD14 expression. Activation of this inflammatory network also supported the potential for downstream monocyte-dependent T helper type 17 activation. These data define co-operative networks regulating inflammatory responses to TLR agonists, identify points amenable to targeting for the amelioration of vascular inflammation, and offer the potential to modify atherosclerotic plaque instability after a severe infection.
The paired male accessory glands of Drosophila melanogaster enhance sperm function, stimulate egg production, and reduce female receptivity to other males by releasing a complex mixture of glycoproteins from a secretory epithelium into seminal fluid. A small subpopulation of about 40 specialized secretory cells, called secondary cells, resides at the distal tip of each gland. We show that these cells grow via mechanisms promoted by mating. If aging males mate repeatedly, a subset of these cells delaminates from and migrates along the apical surface of the glandular epithelium toward the proximal end of the gland. Remarkably, these secretory cells can transfer to females with sperm during mating. The frequency of this event increases with age, so that more than 50% of triple-mated, 18-d-old males transfer secondary cells to females. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling specifically in secondary cells is needed to drive all of these processes and is required for the accessory gland to produce its normal effects on female postmating behavior in multiply mated males. We conclude that secondary cells are secretory cells with unusual migratory properties that can allow them to be transferred to females, and that these properties are a consequence of signaling that is required for secondary cells to maintain their normal reproductive functions as males age and mate.
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