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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like Side Population in Human Glioblastoma Cells Accompanied With Stemness Gene Suppression by Korean Herbal Recipe MSC500.
Integr Cancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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High-grade gliomas are the most common and invasive malignant brain tumors in adults, and they are almost universally fatal because of drug resistance and recurrence. In spite of the progress in adjuvant therapy (like temozolomide) and irradiation after surgery, no effective salvage therapy is currently available for relapsed patients. A Korean herbal recipe MSC500 has been reported to have beneficial therapeutic effects in patients with high-grade gliomas who are relapsed or refractory to conventional treatments. But the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear.
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Target-controlled infusion of propofol versus intermittent bolus of a sedative cocktail regimen in deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy: comparison of cardiovascular and respiratory parameters.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To investigate whether target-controlled infusion (TCI) with propofol, a method that has theoretically better control of drug concentration, produces less cardiovascular and respiratory suppression than an intermittent bolus of a sedative cocktail regimen in deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy.
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Metabolic Profiling of CHO-A?PP695 Cells Revealed Mitochondrial Dysfunction Prior to Amyloid-? Pathology and Potential Therapeutic Effects of Both PPAR? and PPAR? Agonisms for Alzheimer's Disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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In this study, we performed gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based extracellular metabolic profiling on A?PP-transfected CHO cells (CHO-A?PP695) and its wildtype. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was then used to identify discriminant metabolites, which gave clues on the effects of A?PP transgene on cellular processes. To confirm the hypotheses generated based on the metabolic data, we performed biochemical assays to gather further evidence to support our findings. The OPLS-DA showed a robust differentiation following 24 h of incubation (Q2(cum) = 0.884) and 15 discriminant metabolites were identified. In contrast, extracellular A?42 was identified to increase significantly in CHO-A?PP695 only after incubation for 48 h. The observed 24-h metabolic fluxes were associated with increased mitochondrial A?PP and reduced mitochondrial viabilities, which occurred before extracellular A? accumulation. We also investigated the therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists, namely rosiglitazone (RSG) and pioglitazone (PIO), by employing the same approach to characterize the metabolic profiles of CHO-A?PP695 treated with RSG and PIO, with or without their respective receptor blockers. Treatment with PIO was found to reduce the perturbation of the discriminant metabolites in CHO-A?PP695 to a larger extent than treatment with RSG. We also attributed the PIO effects on the lowering of A?42, and restoration of mitochondrial activity to PPAR? and PPAR? agonism, respectively. Taken together, PIO was demonstrated to be therapeutically superior to RSG. Our findings provide further insights into early disease stages in this A?PP model, and support the advancement of PIO in AD therapy.
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Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30km from an NPP than those who live outside 30km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p value<0.001) related to nuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/<0.001) and the participants' concerns about nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/<0.001) and potential health effects (aOR/ p value: 2.95/ <0.001; 2.56/<0.001) were found to be commonly associated with the PRRs of "cancer incidence" and "perceived risk of death" related to nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/<0.001) to predict their perceived risk of death related to nuclear power. These factors are considered as important indicators and they can be used for suggesting future policy amendments and public referendum on the decision of the operation of the planned NPP.
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Phylogenetic Diversity and Antibacterial Activity of Culturable Fungi Derived from the Zoanthid Palythoa haddoni in the South China Sea.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Investigation on diversity of culturable fungi mainly focused on sponges and corals, yet little attention had been paid to the fungal communities associated with zoanthid corals. In this study, a total of 193 culturable fungal strains were isolated from the zoanthid Palythoa haddoni collected in the South China Sea, of which 49 independent isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Thirty-five strains were selected for phylogenetic analysis based on fungal ITS sequences. The results indicated that 18 genera within eight taxonomic orders of two phyla (seven orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) together with one unidentified fungal strain have been achieved, and Cladosporium sp. represented the dominant culturable genus. Particularly, 14 genera were isolated from a zoanthid for the first time. The antibacterial activities of organic extracts of mycelia and fermentation broth of 49 identified fungi were evaluated, and 29 (59.2 %) of the isolates displayed broad-spectrum or selective antibacterial activity. More interestingly, more than 60 % of the active fungal strains showed strong activity against two aquatic pathogenic bacteria Nocardia brasiliensis and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, compared with other pathogenic bacteria, indicating that zoanthid-derived fungi may protect its host against pathogens. This is the first report of systematically phylogenetic diversity and extensively antibacterial activity of zoanthid-derived fungi.
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Clarithromycin-Induced Torsades de Pointes.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Acquired QT prolongation can be caused by cardiac and noncardiac medications. Macrolides are known to prolong QT interval. Rarely, it can be fatal. We report a case of torsades de pointes in a patient taking clarithromycin as a part of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen.
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Lumazine peptides penilumamides B-D and the cyclic pentapeptide asperpeptide A from a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Three new lumazine peptides, penilumamides B-D (2-4), and one known analogue, penilumamide (1), together with a new cyclic pentapeptide, asperpeptide A (5), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15. Among them, 2 was obtained from the feeding culture with l-methionine of this strain. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization. Compounds 1-4 are rare lumazine peptides, of which 1 and 3 are formed from 2 by oxidation of the l-methionine residue.
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Antiviral C-25 epimers of 26-acetoxy steroids from the South China Sea gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Four new steroids with an acetoxy linked at the end of the side chain, echrebsteroids A-D (1-4) were obtained from the South China Sea gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka. The absolute configurations of 1-3 were determined using the modified Mosher's method on the hydrolysis products. The isolation of the pair of epimers (2 and 3) represents the first reported separation of C-25 epimers of 26-acetoxy steroids. The (25R)-epimer (3) exhibited promising antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus with an IC50 value of 0.19 ?M and a comparatively higher therapeutic ratio (TC50/IC50 = 128).
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Risk perception of nuclear power plants among university students in northeast Asia after the fukushima nuclear disaster.
Asia Pac J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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To examine the perception of nuclear energy risks among Asian university students following the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a standardized questionnaire survey was conducted since July 2011 after the Fukushima disaster. A total of 1814 respondents from 18 universities in China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan participated in this survey. It showed that students with the following characteristics had a higher preference for "a clear schedule to phase out nuclear power plant (NPP)": females (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44-2.34), in Japan (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.02-3.90), in China (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.04-2.09), and with perceived relative risks of cancer incidence greaterthan 1 (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.07-1.88). "If nuclear energy were phased out," the opinions on potential electricity shortage were as follows: Japan, aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.40-0.69; China, aOR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.75-3.45; and associated with academic majors (science/technology, aOR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.31-0.59; medicine/health science, aOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.49-0.84). The results carried essential messages for nuclear energy policy in East Asia.
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Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on ES-2 ovarian cancer cells.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor is found in the ovarian tissue, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), suggesting that GnRH agonists may have direct action on EOC.
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Mutations in the non-structural protein region contribute to intra-genotypic evolution of enterovirus 71.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Clinical manifestations of enterovirus 71 (EV71) range from herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), to severe neurological complications. Unlike the situation of switching genotypes seen in EV71 outbreaks during 1998-2008 in Taiwan, genotype B5 was responsible for two large outbreaks in 2008 and 2012, respectively. In China, by contrast, EV71 often persists as a single genotype in the population and causes frequent outbreaks. To investigate genetic changes in viral evolution, complete EV71 genome sequences were used to analyze the intra-genotypic evolution pattern in Taiwan, China, and the Netherlands.
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Concurrent dual-scopic management of diaphragm disease.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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With the increasing appliance of minimally invasive approaches in both thoracic and general surgery, more and more diaphragmatic conditions are being managed with laparoscopy or thoracoscopy. Which one is adopted depends on the disease, facility support and surgeon's preference. However, in difficult scenarios such as adhesions, uncertain tumour location or bulky herniated organs, addition of another approach could be beneficial. Here we describe 2 cases, one with metastatic tumours within the diaphragm and another with diaphragmatic hernia in which concurrent thoracoscopic and laparoscopic, so-called dual-scopic, management was performed.
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Management of hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients.
World J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is relatively higher than those without MHD. Chronic HCV infection detrimentally affects the life quality and expectancy, leads to renal transplant rejection, and increases the mortality of MHD patients. With the application of erythropoietin to improve uremic anemia and avoid blood transfusion, the new HCV infections during MHD in recent years are mainly caused by the lack of stringent universal precautions. Strict implementation of universal precautions for HCV transmission has led to markedly decreased HCV infections in many hemodialysis units, but physicians still should be alert for the anti-HCV negative HCV infection and occult HCV infection in MHD patients. Standard interferon alpha and pegylated interferon alpha monotherapies at a reduced dose are currently the main treatment strategies for MHD patients with active HCV replication, but how to increase the sustained virological response and decrease the side effects is the key problem. IFN?-free treatments with two or three direct-acting antivirals without ribavirin in MHD patients are waiting for future investigations.
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Galectin-1 overexpression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: effect on survival.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Galectin-1 overexpression is significantly correlated with the survival rate of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Immunohistochemical analysis of galectin-1 expression might be useful for identifying patients with a high risk of distant metastasis and for prompting timely adjuvant systemic therapy for patients with aggressive NPC.
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Antifouling and Fungicidal Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Sea Anemone-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, cochliomycins D-F, 1-3, and eight known analogues, 4-11, were isolated from the sea anemone-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. Compounds 1-4 are diastereomers differing from each other by the absolute configurations of the 4',5'-diol chiral centers. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were established by the CD exciton chirality method and TDDFT ECD calculations. In antifouling assays, 1, 3-6, and 6a exhibited potent antifouling activities against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite at nontoxic concentrations, with EC50 values ranging from 1.82 to 22.5 ?g/mL. Noticeably, fungicide whole-plant assays indicated that 6 showed excellent activity on the Plasmopara viticola preventative test at 6 ppm and concentration-dependent activity on the Phytophthora infestans preventative application at 200, 60, and 20 ppm. Preliminary structure-activity relationships are also discussed.
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Single-port thoracoscopic rib resection: a case report.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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We describe a method of single-port thoracoscopic rib resection using a Gigli saw. Rib resection is typically performed with a large skin incision and soft tissue dissection. Some authors have described a thoracoscopic approach for rib resection from the inner side of the chest wall instead of the outside to decrease pain and improve quality of life. A 41-year-old Chinese male received single-port thoracoscopic rib resection with satisfactory recovery. We present the technique, which may expand the indications of single-port thoracoscopic procedures.
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Learning Thoracoscopic Lobectomy in Resident Training.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Background?Thoracoscopic lobectomy is a safe and effective procedure; however, the ways by which to incorporate this technically demanding procedure into residency training is still unknown. We reported on the outcomes of thoracoscopic lobectomies performed by a single thoracic resident, who was simultaneously undergoing training for both open and thoracoscopic lobectomies. Patients and Methods?Between January 2010, and May 2011, data from 87 consecutive thoracoscopic lobectomies that were performed by a trainee surgeon (B.-Y.W.) were prospectively obtained. Data were grouped into the first 30 and subsequent 57 cases. Patient characteristics, operative data, complications, and surgical pathology were analyzed. Results?The mean operating time in group 2 was significantly lower compared with group 1 (264.0?±?45.9?min in group 1 vs. 197.5?±?57.7?min in group 2; p?
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Direct formation of InN-codoped p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diode by solgel spin-coating scheme.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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In this work p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diodes were directly formed on the Si substrate by a combination of cost-effective solgel spin-coating and thermal annealing treatment. Spin-coated n-ZnO films on InN/GaN/Si wafers were converted to p-type polarity after thermal treatment of proper annealing durations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that InN-codoped ZnO films have grown as the standard hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation in the (002) direction. The intensity of the (002) peak decreases for a further extended annealing duration, indicating the greater incorporation of dopants, also confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-temperature photoluminescence. Hall and resistivity measurements validate that our p-type ZnO film has a high carrier concentration of 3.73×10¹? cm?³, a high mobility of 210 cm²/Vs, and a low resistivity of 0.079 ?cm. As a result, the proposed p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunction diode displays a well-behaving current rectification of a typical p-n junction, and the measured current versus voltage (I-V) characteristic is hence well described by the modified Shockley equation. The research on the fabrication of p-ZnO/n-GaN heterojunctions shown here generates useful advances in the production of cost-effective ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.
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Response evaluation with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive chemoradiotherapy.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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We assessed the feasibility of combined endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography on response evaluation in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive chemoradiotherapy, and the impact of response on prognosis.
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Heteroresistance of Helicobacter pylori from the same patient prior to antibiotic treatment.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori strains has been increasing worldwide and has affected the efficacy of current treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether treatment failure was due to the presence of antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant H. pylori simultaneously within the same host before eradication. In order to discover H. pylori with antibiotic heteroresistance in the same patient, we examined the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori isolated from 412 patients without H. pylori eradication. The E-test was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of these strains. The results showed 19 (4.6%) of patients harbored antibiotic heteroresistant H. pylori, resistant to levofloxacin (5/19), clarithromycin (1/19) and metronidazole (16/19). Among them, three patients' isolates showed heteroresistance to two antibiotics. The genetic diversity of each isolate was evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR and the results showed that only 1 patient' isolate (5.3%) had a different pattern while the others showed identical or similar fingerprinting patterns. Mutations in the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance were investigated by direct sequencing and compared between strains within each pair. All 5 levofloxacin-resistant isolates had mutations in GyrA at the QRDR region (N87 or D91). Strain 1571R with clarithromycin resistance had a A2042G substitution in its 23S rRNA. There were 15 metronidazole-resistant strains (100%) with isogenic variation of RdxA, and 6 strains (40%) contained FrxA variation (excluded pair 1159). These results suggest that the treatment failure of heteroresistant H. pylori mostly develops from high genomic variation of pre-existing strains through long term evolution rather than mixed infection with different strains.
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Bioactive 9,11-secosteroids from Gorgonian Subergorgia suberosa collected from the South China sea.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Five new 9,11-secosteroids 1, 2, and 4-6, and seven known analogs, 3 and 7-12, with the same steroid skeleton, (5?H)-3?,6?,11-trihydroxy-9,11-secocholest-7-en-9-one, were isolated from the South China Sea gorgonian Subergorgia suberosa. Among them, 2/3 and 4/5 are C(24)-epimeric mixtures, and 6/7 is an (E)/(Z) mixture of (C(24)?C(28)). Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by using comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra. The absolute configuration of the steroidal nucleus was established by the modified Mosher method applied to 10 and on the basis of a common biogenesis for all of these compounds. All isolated compounds, 1-12, and five synthetic acetylated derivatives, 12a-12e, were evaluated for their cytotoxicities in vitro. Compounds 4/5, 11, 12, and 12b-12d showed cytotoxic activities against K562 cell line with the IC50 values ranging from 1.09 to 8.12??M.
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Ochracenoids A and B, guaiazulene-based analogues from gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea collected from the South China Sea.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Two new guaiazulene-based analogues, ochracenoids A (1) and B (2), along with four known analogues (3-6), were isolated from the gorgonian Anthogorgia ochracea collected from the South China Sea. The planar structures of the new compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined as 3R by the comparison of TDDFT calculated electronic circular dichroism with its experimental spectrum. Compound 1 is a rare guaiazulene-based analogue possessing a unique C?? skeleton. The possible generation process of 1 through an intermolecular one-carbon-transfer reaction was also discussed. Compound 2 was previously described as a presumed intermediate involved in the biogenesis of anthogorgienes A and I. Compound 3 exhibited antiproliferative effects on the embryo development of zebrafish Danio rerio.
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Low SOX17 expression is a prognostic factor and drives transcriptional dysregulation and esophageal cancer progression.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The transcriptional network of the SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17 (SOX17) and the prognostic impact of SOX17 protein expression in human cancers remain largely unclear. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic effect of low SOX17 protein expression and its dysregulation of transcriptional network in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Low SOX17 protein expression was found in 47.4% (73 of 154) of ESCC patients with predicted poor prognosis. Re-expression of SOX17 in ESCC cells caused reduced foci formation, cell motility, decreased ESCC xenograft growth and metastasis in animals. Knockdown of SOX17 increased foci formation in ESCC and normal esophageal cells. Notably, 489 significantly differential genes involved in cell growth and motility controls were identified by expression array upon SOX17 overexpression and 47 genes contained putative SRY element in their promoters. Using quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR and promoter activity assays, we confirmed that MACC1, MALAT1, NBN, NFAT5, CSNK1A1, FN1 and SERBP1 genes were suppressed by SOX17 via the SRY binding-mediated transcriptional regulation. Overexpression of FN1 and MACC1 abolished SOX17-mediated migration and invasion suppression. The inverse correlation between SOX17 and FN1 protein expression in ESCC clinical samples further strengthened our conclusion that FN1 is a transcriptional repression target gene of SOX17. This study provides compelling clinical evidence that low SOX17 protein expression is a prognostic biomarker and novel cell and animal data of SOX17-mediated suppression of ESCC metastasis. We establish the first transcriptional network and identify new suppressive downstream genes of SOX17 which can be potential therapeutic targets for ESCC.
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A novel mutation of KCNJ11 gene in a patient with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A 4-month-old male baby was diagnosed with Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus. We identified a novel missense heterogeneous mutation in the KCNJ11 gene at codon 167 (aTC?tTC) in a region that corresponds to a predicted intracellular gate of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel.
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Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics for comparison of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and its implications for Alzheimer's disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Findings from epidemiology, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that consumption of coffee could have beneficial effects against dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The benefits appear to come from caffeinated coffee, but not decaffeinated coffee or pure caffeine itself. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use metabolomics approach to delineate the discriminant metabolites between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, which could have contributed to the observed therapeutic benefits. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to characterize the metabolic differences between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed distinct separation between the two types of coffee (cumulative Q(2) = 0.998). A total of 69 discriminant metabolites were identified based on the OPLS-DA model, with 37 and 32 metabolites detected to be higher in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, respectively. These metabolites include several benzoate and cinnamate-derived phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids. Our study successfully established GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics approach as a highly robust tool in discriminant analysis between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee samples. Discriminant metabolites identified in this study are biologically relevant and provide valuable insights into therapeutic research of coffee against AD. Our data also hint at possible involvement of gut microbial metabolism to enhance therapeutic potential of coffee components, which represents an interesting area for future research.
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Pharmacokinetics of BPA in gliomas with ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier disruption as measured by microdialysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption.
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Prognostic CpG methylation biomarkers identified by methylation array in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. We aimed to identify a panel of CpG methylation biomarkers for prognosis prediction of ESCC patients.
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A conserved BDNF, glutamate- and GABA-enriched gene module related to human depression identified by coexpression meta-analysis and DNA variant genome-wide association studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Large scale gene expression (transcriptome) analysis and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for single nucleotide polymorphisms have generated a considerable amount of gene- and disease-related information, but heterogeneity and various sources of noise have limited the discovery of disease mechanisms. As systematic dataset integration is becoming essential, we developed methods and performed meta-clustering of gene coexpression links in 11 transcriptome studies from postmortem brains of human subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and non-psychiatric control subjects. We next sought enrichment in the top 50 meta-analyzed coexpression modules for genes otherwise identified by GWAS for various sets of disorders. One coexpression module of 88 genes was consistently and significantly associated with GWAS for MDD, other neuropsychiatric disorders and brain functions, and for medical illnesses with elevated clinical risk of depression, but not for other diseases. In support of the superior discriminative power of this novel approach, we observed no significant enrichment for GWAS-related genes in coexpression modules extracted from single studies or in meta-modules using gene expression data from non-psychiatric control subjects. Genes in the identified module encode proteins implicated in neuronal signaling and structure, including glutamate metabotropic receptors (GRM1, GRM7), GABA receptors (GABRA2, GABRA4), and neurotrophic and development-related proteins [BDNF, reelin (RELN), Ephrin receptors (EPHA3, EPHA5)]. These results are consistent with the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of MDD and provide a set of putative interacting molecular partners, potentially reflecting components of a functional module across cells and biological pathways that are synchronously recruited in MDD, other brain disorders and MDD-related illnesses. Collectively, this study demonstrates the importance of integrating transcriptome data, gene coexpression modules and GWAS results for providing novel and complementary approaches to investigate the molecular pathology of MDD and other complex brain disorders.
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Risk perception, trust, and factors related to a planned new nuclear power plant in Taiwan after the 2011 Fukushima disaster.
J Radiol Prot
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, an international review of nuclear safety indicated that two of the three nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating in Taiwan were listed as the most dangerous in the world. To understand the perception of NPP risks by the public in Taiwan and their attitudes regarding a planned fourth NPP after the Fukushima nuclear incident in 2011, a study was conducted in August 2011. A sample of 2819 individuals responded to the survey, with 66% perceiving that Taiwans safety management of NPPs was inferior to Japans, while 40% perceived a higher possibility of nuclear accidents like that in Japan. On average, a safe distance of 94 km from an NPP was expected. 56% opposed the planned fourth NPP, with females (adjusted odd ratios (aOR) 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71-2.41), residence near the planned fourth NPP (aOR/CI 13.90/7.79-24.80), distrust of safety management (aOR/CI 1.98/1.45-2.69) and emergency planning (aOR/CI 1.89/1.49-2.40) as the main determinants. Others included those who expected larger safe distances from an NPP (trend test, p < 0.001), perceived excess cancer risks of living within 30 km of an NPP (aOR/CI 2.74/2.02-3.71), and projection of no electric shortage without NPPs (aOR/CI 1.93/1.50-2.49). Given that Taiwans large population lives close to the existing NPPs and long-term concerns about the safety of these nuclear plants, the Fukushima incident in Japan likely augmented public risk perceptions on nuclear power in general and on the planned fourth NPP.
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Impact of head and neck malignancies on risk factors and survival in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with an increased risk of developing a head and neck malignancy (HNM). A history of SLE did not significantly impact the survival of our study cohort after cancer developed.
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New briarane-type diterpenoids from gorgonian Ellisella dollfusi from the South China Sea.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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Two new briarane-type diterpenoids, dollfusilin A (1) and dollfusilin B (2), along with five known briarane-type diterpenoids (3-7), were isolated from the gorgonian Ellisella dollfusi collected from the South China Sea. The structures of the two new compounds (1 and 2) were elucidated through a comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data, especially 2D NMR. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using the zebrafish toxicity model.
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Meta-analysis methods for combining multiple expression profiles: comparisons, statistical characterization and an application guideline.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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As high-throughput genomic technologies become accurate and affordable, an increasing number of data sets have been accumulated in the public domain and genomic information integration and meta-analysis have become routine in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on microarray meta-analysis, where multiple microarray studies with relevant biological hypotheses are combined in order to improve candidate marker detection. Many methods have been developed and applied in the literature, but their performance and properties have only been minimally investigated. There is currently no clear conclusion or guideline as to the proper choice of a meta-analysis method given an application; the decision essentially requires both statistical and biological considerations.
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A type III ACC synthase, ACS7, is involved in root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Ethylene is an important plant hormone that regulates developmental processes in plants. The ethylene biosynthesis pathway is a highly regulated process at both the transcriptional and post-translational level. The transcriptional regulation of these ethylene biosynthesis genes is well known. However, post-translational modifications of the key ethylene biosynthesis enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) are little understood. In vitro kinase assays were conducted on the type III ACS, AtACS7, fusion protein and peptides to determine whether the AtACS7 protein can be phosphorylated by calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). AtACS7 was phosphorylated at Ser216, Thr296, and Ser299 by AtCDPK16 in vitro. To investigate further the function of the ACS7 gene in Arabidopsis, an acs7-1 loss-of-function mutant was isolated. The acs7-1 mutant exhibited less sensitivity to the inhibition of root gravitropism by treatment with the calcium chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA). Seedlings were treated with gradient concentrations of ACC. The results showed that a certain concentration of ethylene enhanced the gravity response. Moreover, the acs7-1 mutant was less sensitive to inhibition of the gravity response by treatment with the auxin polar transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, but exogenous ACC application recovered root gravitropism. Altogether, the results indicate that AtACS7 is involved in root gravitropism in a calcium-dependent manner in Arabidopsis.
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Cinnamomum cassia essential oil inhibits ?-MSH-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in murine B16 melanoma cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Essential oils extracted from aromatic plants exhibit important biological activities and have become increasingly important for the development of aromatherapy for complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Cinnamomum cassia Presl (CC-EO) has various functional properties; however, little information is available regarding its anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities. In this study, 16 compounds in the CC-EO have been identified; the major components of this oil are cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid (43.06%) and cinnamaldehyde (42.37%). CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities; however, cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid did not demonstrate tyrosinase inhibitory activity. In murine B16 melanoma cells stimulated with ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde not only reduced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the cells but also down-regulated tyrosinase expression without exhibiting cytotoxicity. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde decreased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels and restored glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity in the ?-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. These results demonstrate that CC-EO and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, possess potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities that are coupled with antioxidant properties. Therefore, CC-EO may be a good source of skin-whitening agents and may have potential as an antioxidant in the future development of complementary and alternative medicine-based aromatherapy.
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Extrinsic sphingosine 1-phosphate activates S1P5 and induces autophagy through generating endoplasmic reticulum stress in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that binds to a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), termed S1P1-S1P5. Our previous study has reported that S1P induces autophagy in human prostate cancer PC-3 cell. In addition, S1P-induced autophagy plays a prosurvival role in PC-3 cells. Accumulating evidence has shown that the autophagy responses triggered by ER stress signaling have cytoprotective effects. Thus, we attempted to investigate whether S1P-induced autophagy is a result of triggering ER stress in PC-3 cells. By monitoring XBP-1 mRNA splicing, a characteristic of ER stress, we demonstrate that S1P triggers ER stress in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, DiH S1P, a membrane-nonpermeable S1P analog without intracellular effects also enhances ER stress. Meanwhile, we also show that S1P5 is required for S1P-induced ER stress by using RNA interference experiments. Furthermore, signaling analyses revealed that PI3K, PLC, and ROS production were involved in S1Ps effects on ER stress induction. On the other hand, knockdown of XBP-1 abolished S1P-induced autophagy. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that the extracellular S1P-triggered ER stress is responsible for autophagy induction in PC-3 cells.
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Feedback regulation of receptor-induced Ca2+ signaling mediated by E-Syt1 and Nir2 at endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions are highly conserved subcellular structures. Despite their importance in Ca(2+) signaling and lipid trafficking, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and functions of ER-PM junctions remain unclear. By developing a genetically encoded marker that selectively monitors ER-PM junctions, we found that the connection between ER and PM was dynamically regulated by Ca(2+) signaling. Elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) triggered translocation of E-Syt1 to ER-PM junctions to enhance ER-to-PM connection. This subsequently facilitated the recruitment of Nir2, a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP), to ER-PM junctions following receptor stimulation. Nir2 promoted the replenishment of PM phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) after receptor-induced hydrolysis via its PITP activity. Disruption of the enhanced ER-to-PM connection resulted in reduced PM PIP2 replenishment and defective Ca(2+) signaling. Altogether, our results suggest a feedback mechanism that replenishes PM PIP2 during receptor-induced Ca(2+) signaling via the Ca(2+) effector E-Syt1 and the PITP Nir2 at ER-PM junctions.
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Intravenous albumin shortens the duration of hospitalization for patients with hypoalbuminemia and bleeding peptic ulcers: a pilot study.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Patients with hypoalbuminemia have an increased risk of ulcer rebleeding and longer length of hospitalization.
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Tracheomediastinal Fistula Caused by Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Non-Hodgkins lymphoma involving the tracheobronchial tree is uncommon. A 60-year-old man presented with severe cough for two months. Bronchoscopy disclosed an ulcerative lesion at the lower trachea and carina with anterior tracheomediastinal fistula, and biopsy revealed tracheal wall B-cell lymphoma. After chemo-radiotherapy, the tracheomediastinal fistula healed, but eight months later, tracheal stenosis was diagnosed by bronchoscopy. A self-expansible metallic stent was placed, which successfully maintained the airway.
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A Novel mutation in the SLC26A4 gene in a Chinese family with Pendred syndrome.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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To investigate the mutations in the SLC26A4 gene in a Chinese patient with Pendred syndrome.
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Structure and absolute configuration of fumiquinazoline L, an alkaloid from a gorgonian-derived Scopulariopsis sp. fungus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Fumiquinazoline L (1), an alkaloid with a heptacyclic skeleton formed via a bridging hemiaminal linkage, was isolated from a gorgonian-derived Scopulariopsis sp. fungus. The structure and absolute configuration of the new compound were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction analysis. During acid hydrolysis of 1, the isomerization of the valine residue was observed and also studied in different conditions. Fumiquinazoline L (1) showed no cytotoxic or antibacterial activities.
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Total gastrectomy increases the incidence of grade III and IV toxicities in patients with gastric cancer receiving adjuvant TS-1 treatment.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TS-1 adjuvant chemotherapy in Taiwanese patients with gastric cancer.
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Bioactive phenylalanine derivatives and cytochalasins from the soft coral-derived fungus, Aspergillus elegans.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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One new phenylalanine derivative 4-OMe-asperphenamate (1), along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2) and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3) and cytochalasin Z24 (4), as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5-12) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfeys method. All isolated metabolites (1-12) were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 ?M. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.
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Bioactive indole alkaloids and phenyl ether derivatives from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. Fungus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Two new prenylated indole alkaloids, 17-epi-notoamides Q and M (1 and 2), and two new phenyl ether derivatives, cordyols D and E (9 and 13), together with 10 known compounds (3-8, 10-12, 14) were isolated from a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. Among them, 1/5 and 2/4 were pairs of epimers. The planar structures and absolute configurations of the new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic data as well as CD spectra. The absolute configuration of 3 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis for the first time. All isolated metabolites (1-14) and eight synthetic phenyl ether derivatives (12a, 14a-14g) were evaluated for their antibacterial activities in vitro. The polybromide phenyl ether 14g showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 0.556 ?M, stronger than that of the positive control ciprofloxacin (MIC = 3.13 ?M).
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Subwavelength confined terahertz waves on planar waveguides using metallic gratings.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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A terahertz plasmonic waveguide is experimentally demonstrated using a plastic ribbon waveguide integrated with a diffraction metal grating to approach subwavelength-scaled confinement and long-distance delivery. Appropriately adjusting the metal-thickness and the periodical slit width of a grating greatly improves both guiding ability and field confinement in the hybrid waveguide structure. The measured lateral decay length of the bound terahertz surface waves on the hybrid waveguide can be reduced to less than ?/4 after propagating a waveguide of around 50mm-long in length. The subwavelength-confined field is potentially advantageous to biomolecular sensing or membrane detection because of the long interaction length between the THz field and analytes.
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Antifouling activity of secondary metabolites isolated from chinese marine organisms.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 ?g ml(-1). Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 ?g ml(-1) and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.
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Isocoumarin derivatives and benzofurans from a sponge-derived Penicillium sp. fungus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Ten new fungal metabolites, including three hydroisocoumarins, penicimarins A-C (1-3), three isocoumarins, penicimarins D-F (6-8), and four benzofurans, penicifurans A-D (11-14), together with four known isocoumarin derivatives (4, 5, 9, 10), were obtained from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. MWZ14-4, collected from the South China Sea. Their planar structures and relative configurations were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and by comparison with related known compounds. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were assigned by the modified Moshers method and TDDFT ECD calculations together with comparison of their CD spectra. Compound 1 represents a rare naturally occurring isocoumarin derivative with 4-substitution, but no substituent at the 3-position. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Among them, penicifuran A (11) exhibited inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus albus with an MIC value of 3.13 ?M.
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(±)-Pestalachloride D, an antibacterial racemate of chlorinated benzophenone derivative from a soft coral-derived fungus Pestalotiopsis sp.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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A new antibacterial chlorinated benzophenone derivative, (±)-pestalachloride D (1), along with a related analog, (±)-pestalachloride C (2), was recently isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from Yongxing Island in the South China Sea. Both chiral HPLC analysis and single-crystal X-ray data indicated that 1 is a racemic mixture. Interestingly, 1 did not exhibit any effect in the zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay, while 2 led to abnormal growth. The potential impact on zebrafish embryo growth is discussed based on their crystal structures. The main difference of crystal structures between 1 and 2 is that the six-member non-aromatic ring (O4, C10, C9, C8, C2, and C3) in 1 exhibits a distorted chair conformation, while 2 shows a distorted boat conformation. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited moderate antibacterial activity.
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Myeloid sarcoma of the cheek and the maxillary sinus regions.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare, extramedullary malignant tumor composed of immature myeloid precursor cells and myeloblast. Most MSs occur in the subperiosteal region of the bone, with the skull, sternum, ribs, and proximal portions of the long bones being the common sites of involvement. It is thought that the MS tumor originates in the bone marrow, and traverses the Haversian canals to reach the subperiosteum. Various reports have also described the involvement of the liver, spleen, brain, heart, pharynx, uterus, vagina, skin, kidney, and other soft tissues in the formation of the tumor.
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Bioactive pregnane steroids from a South China Sea gorgonian Carijoa sp.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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A new pregnane steroid, 1, and three known analogues 2-4, have been isolated from a gorgonian Carijoa sp. collected from the South China Sea. The planar structure and relative configuration of 1 were elucidated from comprehensive spectroscopic data. Its absolute configuration was determined by application of the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against the human hepatoma cell line Bel-7402, with IC50 values of 9.33, 11.02 and 18.68 µM, respectively. Additionally, compound 1 exhibited promising antibacterial activity against Pseudomona puido, with a MIC value of 31 nM, which is approximately 5-fold more potent than ciprofloxacin (MIC = 156 nM).
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Predicting functional decline of older men living in veteran homes by minimum data set: implications for disability prevention programs in long term care settings.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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To evaluate the risk and protective factors for functional decline of veteran home residents in Taiwan to develop disability prevention programs in long term care settings.
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The Role of Genetic Sex in Affect Regulation and Expression of GABA-Related Genes Across Species.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although circulating hormones and inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related factors are known to affect mood, considerable knowledge gaps persist for biological mechanisms underlying the female bias in mood disorders. Here, we combine human and mouse studies to investigate sexual dimorphism in the GABA system in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) and then use a genetic model to dissect the role of sex-related factors in GABA-related gene expression and anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors in mice. First, using meta-analysis of gene array data in human postmortem brain (N?=?51 MDD subjects, 50 controls), we show that the previously reported down-regulation in MDD of somatostatin (SST), a marker of a GABA neuron subtype, is significantly greater in women with MDD. Second, using gene co-expression network analysis in control human subjects (N?=?214; two frontal cortex regions) and expression quantitative trait loci mapping (N?=?170 subjects), we show that expression of SST and the GABA-synthesizing enzymes glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GAD65 are tightly co-regulated and influenced by X-chromosome genetic polymorphisms. Third, using a rodent genetic model [Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice], in which genetic and gonadal sex are artificially dissociated (N???12/group), we show that genetic sex (i.e., X/Y-chromosome) influences both gene expression (lower Sst, Gad67, Gad65 in XY mice) and anxiety-like behaviors (higher in XY mice). This suggests that in an intact male animal, the observed behavior represents the outcomes of male genetic sex increasing and male-like testosterone decreasing anxiety-like behaviors. Gonadal sex was the only factor influencing depressive-like behavior (gonadal males?
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H. pylori CagL-Y58/E59 prime higher integrin ?5?1 in adverse pH condition to enhance hypochlorhydria vicious cycle for gastric carcinogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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H. pylori CagL amino acid polymorphisms such as Y58/E59 can increase integrin ?5?1 expression and gastric cancer risk. Hypochlorhydria during chronic H. pylori infection promotes gastric carcinogenesis. The study test whether CagL-Y58/E59 isolates may regulate integrin ?5?1 to translocate CagA via the type IV secretory system even under adverse pH conditions, and whether the integrin ?5?1 expression primed by H. pylori is a pH-dependent process involving hypochlorhydria in a vicious cycle to promote gastric carcinogenesis.
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Real-time electrocardiogram transmission from Mount Everest during continued ascent.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The feasibility of a real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) transmission via satellite phone from Mount Everest to determine a climbers suitability for continued ascent was examined. Four Taiwanese climbers were enrolled in the 2009 Mount Everest summit program. Physiological measurements were taken at base camp (5300 m), camp 2 (6400 m), camp 3 (7100 m), and camp 4 (7950 m) 1 hour after arrival and following a 10 minute rest period. A total of 3 out of 4 climbers were able to summit Mount Everest successfully. Overall, ECG and global positioning system (GPS) coordinates of climbers were transmitted in real-time via satellite phone successfully from base camp, camp 2, camp 3, and camp 4. At each camp, Resting Heart Rate (RHR) was transmitted and recorded: base camp (54-113 bpm), camp 2 (94-130 bpm), camp 3 (98-115 bpm), and camp 4 (93-111 bpm). Real-time ECG and GPS coordinate transmission via satellite phone is feasible for climbers on Mount Everest. Real-time RHR data can be used to evaluate a climbers physiological capacity to continue an ascent and to summit.
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Association of polymorphisms in EPHX1, UGT2B7, ABCB1, ABCC2, SCN1A and SCN2A genes with carbamazepine therapy optimization.
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impacts of polymorphisms in genes related to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of CBZ on the large interindividual variability in dosages and concentrations.
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Associations of Rsf-1 overexpression with poor therapeutic response and worse survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2011
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Deregulated chromatin remodelling often leads to aberrant gene expression in cells, thereby implicating tumour development and progression. As a subunit of remodelling and spacing factor complex, Rsf-1 (HBXAP), a novel nuclear protein with histone chaperon function, mediates ATPase-dependent chromatin remodelling and confers tumour aggressiveness in common carcinomas. However, the expression of Rsf-1 has never been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed at evaluating the expression status, associations with clincopathological variables and prognostic implications of Rsf-1 in a well-defined cohort of NPC.
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Effects of different replicons in conjugative plasmids on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression and n-butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2011
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Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 can produce butyric acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen as the main products from various carbon sources. In this study, C. tyrobutyricum was used as a host to produce n-butanol by expressing adhE2 gene under the control of a native thiolase promoter using four different conjugative plasmids (pMTL82151, 83151, 84151, and 85151) each with a different replicon (pBP1 from C. botulinum NCTC2916, pCB102 from C. butyricum, pCD6 from Clostridium difficile, and pIM13 from Bacillus subtilis). The effects of different replicons on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, adhE2 expression and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase activities, and butanol production by different mutants of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated. Among the four plasmids and replicons studied, pMTL82151 with pBP1 gave the highest transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression, and butanol biosynthesis. Butanol production from various substrates, including glucose, xylose, mannose, and mannitol were then investigated with the best mutant strain harboring adhE2 in pMTL82151. A high butanol titer of 20.5 g/L with 0.33 g/g yield and 0.32 g/L h productivity was obtained with mannitol as the substrate in batch fermentation with pH controlled at ~6.0.
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Chemical constituents of the Gorgonian Dichotella fragilis (Ridleg) from the South China Sea.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Two new steroidal glycosides, fragilioside A (1) and fragilioside B (2), along with five known compounds (3-7) were isolated from the gorgonian Dichotella fragilis (Ridleg) collected from the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds (1 and 2) were elucidated by comprehensive analysis of spectral data, especially 2D NMR. The brine shrimp lethality and antifouling activity of the isolated compounds were also evaluated.
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Morphological determination of face-centered-cubic metallic nanoparticles by X-ray diffraction.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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X-ray diffraction studies of face-centered-cubic metallic nanoparticles with different morphologies are discussed based on the experimental data and the calculation of the Debye equation with the truncated and perfect strain models. At least four basic morphologies frequently observed in face-centered-cubic metallic nanoparticles, namely sphere, cube, decahedron, and icosahedron, can be clearly distinguished from their characteristic integrated intensity ratios of the first two X-ray diffraction peaks, that is, (200) to (111).
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Cryosurgery and rhTNF-? play synergistic effects on a rat cortex C6 glioma model.
Cryobiology
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Glioma, a type of brain tumor originating from glioma cells, varies widely in aggressiveness and causes serious symptoms, but the treatments are limited. Studies have shown that cryosurgery has multiple effects on tumor treatments, and administration of human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-?) arguments the anti-tumor effect of cryotherapy in breast and prostate cancers. To test the hypothesis that cryosurgery and rhTNF-? play synergistic effects against brain tumors, we established a brain glioma model on rat cortex regions following different treatments: the G1 group was sham-operated; the G2 group was treated with cryosurgery; the G3 group was treated with rhTNF-?; and G4 group received combined treatment with cryosurgery and rhTNF-?. Tumor sizes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging; DNA fragmentation was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay); P21(WAF1/CIP1) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels were scored using immunohistochemical staining. G2 and G4 rats had significantly longer survival time than did G1 rats. Tumor sizes in each group were significantly decreased as compared with those in G1 rats. PCNA-positive cells were significantly decreased in G2, G3 and G4 rats as compared with G1 rats. In contrast, DNA fragmentation and P21(WAF1/CIP1)-positive cells were significantly increased in each treatment group. Importantly, a combined treatment enhanced the effects of cryosurgery. Combined treatment with cryosurgery and rhTNF-? may have a synergistic effect on glioma tumor therapy, enhancing the inhibition of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis.
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New bisabolane sesquiterpenoids from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Three new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoid dimers, disydonols A-C (1-3), and one known compound (S)-(+)-sydonol (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis including 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HR-ESI-MS. These compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 and Caski human tumour cell lines. Among them, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against the two cell lines.
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Association of genetic variants in six candidate genes with valproic acid therapy optimization.
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. The aim of the study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in genes related to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of VPA were associated with the large interindividual variability in dosages and concentrations.
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Diversity and antibacterial activities of fungi derived from the Gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka from the South China Sea.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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The diversity of symbiotic fungi associated with the gorgonian coral Echinogorgia rebekka from the Weizhou coral reef in the South China Sea was investigated. Combined with morphologic traits, ITS-rDNA sequences revealed 18 fungal strains from this gorgonian. All of the 18 fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and were distributed among seven genera in five orders: Eurotiales (Aspergillus and Penicillium), Pleosporales (Alternaria), Capnodiales (Cladosporium), Trichosphaeriales (Nigrospora) and Hypocreales (Hypocrea and Nectria). Antibacterial activities of these fungal strains were investigated with five pathogenic bacteria. All of the 18 fungal strains displayed different levels of antibacterial activities, most of which exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activities to the Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus tetragenus, and showed relatively low bioactivities to other three pathogenic bacteria. Several fungal strains in the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium with strong antibacterial activities provide potential for further research on isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites.
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Enhanced angular characteristics of indium tin oxide nanowhisker-coated silicon solar cells.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Omnidirectional and broadband light harvesting is critical to photovoltaics due to the suns movement and its wide spectral range of radiation. In this work, we demonstrate distinctive indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers that achieve superior angular and spectral characteristics for crystalline silicon solar cells using angle-resolved reflectance spectroscopy. The solar-spectrum weighted reflectance is well below 6% for incident angles of up to 70° and for the wavelength range between 400nm and 1000nm. As a result, the nanowhisker coated solar cell exhibits broadband quantum efficiency characteristics and enhanced short-circuit currents for large angles of incidence.
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Helicobacter pylori with stronger intensity of CagA phosphorylation lead to an increased risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia and cancer.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Nearly all Taiwanese H. pylori stains are cagA-genopositive and encode CagA protein. In this study, we evaluated whether different intensity of tyrosine phosphorylated-CagA (p-CagA) had an impact on the clinical diseases and histological outcomes in this area.
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Increased gastric osteopontin expression by Helicobacter pylori Infection can correlate with more severe gastric inflammation and intestinal metaplasia.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in the gastric cancer progression. The study validated whether OPN expressions correlate with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastric inflammation and the precancerous change as intestinal metaplasia (IM).
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Genes are differentially expressed at transcriptional level of Neocaridina denticulata following short-term exposure to nonylphenol.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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To assess the toxicity of nonylphenol towards aquatic crustaceans, Neocaridina denticulata were exposed short-term to sublethal concentration (0.001-0.5 mg/L). Following treatment, differentially expressed genes were identified using suppression subtractive hybridization on samples prepared from whole specimens. There were 20 differentially expressed sequence tags that corresponded to known genes and could be divided into six functional classes: defence, translation, metabolism, ribosomal gene expression, respiration, and genes involved in the stress response. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we found that 14 of the differentially expressed sequence tags significantly responded to nonylphenol, including six at a nominal concentration of 0.01 mg/L; among them, 12 genes were down-regulated. These results suggest that under non-lethal concentrations of nonylphenol, the polluted aquatic environment may still present a potential risk to N. denticulata.
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Calcium-dependent protein kinases from Arabidopsis show substrate specificity differences in an analysis of 103 substrates.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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The identification of substrates represents a critical challenge for understanding any protein kinase-based signal transduction pathway. In Arabidopsis, there are more than 1000 different protein kinases, 34 of which belong to a family of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs). While CPKs are implicated in regulating diverse aspects of plant biology, from ion transport to transcription, relatively little is known about isoform-specific differences in substrate specificity, or the number of phosphorylation targets. Here, in vitro kinase assays were used to compare phosphorylation targets of four CPKs from Arabidopsis (CPK1, 10, 16, and 34). Significant differences in substrate specificity for each kinase were revealed by assays using 103 different substrates. For example CPK16 phosphorylated Serine 109 in a peptide from the stress-regulated protein, Di19-2 with K(M) ?70??M, but this site was not phosphorylated significantly by CPKs 1, 10, or 34. In contrast, CPKs 1, 10, and 34 phosphorylated 93 other peptide substrates not recognized by CPK16. Examples of substrate specificity differences among all four CPKs were verified by kinetic analyses. To test the correlation between in vivo phosphorylation events and in vitro kinase activities, assays were performed with 274 synthetic peptides that contained phosphorylation sites previously mapped in proteins isolated from plants (in vivo-mapped sites). Of these, 74 (27%) were found to be phosphorylated by at least one of the four CPKs tested. This 27% success rate validates a robust strategy for linking the activities of specific kinases, such as CPKs, to the thousands of in planta phosphorylation sites that are being uncovered by emerging technologies.
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Weak up-regulation of serum response factor in gastric ulcers in patients with co-morbidities is associated with increased risk of recurrent bleeding.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Serum response factor (SRF) is crucial for gastric ulcer healing process. The study determined if gastric ulcer tissues up-regulate SRF and if such up-regulation correlated with co-morbidities and the risk of recurrent bleeding.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.