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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of MoSx on TCNQ-Treated Electrode for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Molybdenum sulfide has recently attracted much attention because of its low cost and excellent catalytical effects in the application of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). To improve the HER efficiency, many researchers have extensively explored various avenues such as material modification, forming hybrid structures or modifying geometric morphology. In this work, we reported a significant enhancement in the electrocatalytic activity of the MoSx via growing on Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) treated carbon cloth, where the MoSx was synthesized by thermolysis from the ammonium tetrathiomolybdate ((NH4)2MoS4) precursor at 170 °C. The pyridinic N- and graphitic N-like species on the surface of carbon cloth arising from the TCNQ treatment facilitate the formation of Mo(5+) and S2(2-) species in the MoSx, especially with S2(2-) serving as an active site for HER. In addition, the smaller particle size of the MoSx grown on TCNQ-treated carbon cloth reveals a high ratio of edge sites relative to basal plane sites, indicating the richer effective reaction sites and superior electrocatalytic characteristics. Hence, we reported a high hydrogen evolution rate for MoSx on TCNQ-treated carbon cloth of 6408 mL g(-1) cm(-2) h(-1) (286 mmol g(-1) cm(-2) h(-1)) at an overpotential of V = 0.2 V. This study provides the fundamental concepts useful in the design and preparation of transition metal dichalcogenide catalysts, beneficial in the development in clean energy.
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Listening to Mozart K.448 decreases electroencephalography oscillatory power associated with an increase in sympathetic tone in adults: a post-intervention study.
JRSM Open
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Listening to Mozart K.448 has been demonstrated to improve spatial task scores, leading to what is known as the Mozart Effect. However, most of these reports only describe the phenomena but lack the scientific evidence needed to properly investigate the mechanism of Mozart Effect. In this study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the effects of Mozart K.448 on healthy volunteers to explore Mozart Effect.
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Multiple effects of digoxin on subsets of cancer-associated genes through the alternative splicing pathway.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The signaling characteristics of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase are distinct from its ion pumping activity. Cardiac glycosides modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein complex upon binding, activate downstream signaling pathways and increase [Ca(2+)]i. Recent studies demonstrate that the depletion of p53 and hypoxia-induced factor 1? proteins is caused by cardiac glycosides. However, the detailed mechanisms governing this process are not well known. In this study, we showed that the depletion of p53 proteins by digoxin involved not only inhibition of protein synthesis but also inhibition at the post-transcriptional level. Post-transcriptional regulation occurs via down-regulation of SRSF3, the primary splicing factor responsible for the switch from p53? to the p53? isoform. Digoxin also modulated G2/M arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis through the p53-dependent pathway in HeLa cells. In addition, digoxin was involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition progression via E-cadherin reduction and snail induction. Digoxin had similar effects to caffeine, another SRSF3-reduced agent, on the cell cycle profile and DNA damage of cells. Interestingly, combined digoxin and caffeine treatment blocked cell cycle progression and conferred resistance to cell death via snail induction. These findings demonstrate that down-regulation of splicing factor, such as SRSF3, to alter cell cycle progression, cell death and invasion is a potential target for the drug repositioning of cardiac glycosides.
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MicroRNA-182 drives metastasis of primary sarcomas by targeting multiple genes.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Metastasis causes most cancer deaths, but is incompletely understood. MicroRNAs can regulate metastasis, but it is not known whether a single miRNA can regulate metastasis in primary cancer models in vivo. We compared the expression of miRNAs in metastatic and nonmetastatic primary mouse sarcomas and found that microRNA-182 (miR-182) was markedly overexpressed in some tumors that metastasized to the lungs. By utilizing genetically engineered mice with either deletion of or overexpression of miR-182 in primary sarcomas, we discovered that deletion of miR-182 substantially decreased, while overexpression of miR-182 considerably increased, the rate of lung metastasis after amputation of the tumor-bearing limb. Additionally, deletion of miR-182 decreased circulating tumor cells (CTCs), while overexpression of miR-182 increased CTCs, suggesting that miR-182 regulates intravasation of cancer cells into the circulation. We identified 4 miR-182 targets that inhibit either the migration of tumor cells or the degradation of the extracellular matrix. Notably, restoration of any of these targets in isolation did not alter the metastatic potential of sarcoma cells injected orthotopically, but the simultaneous restoration of all 4 targets together substantially decreased the number of metastases. These results demonstrate that a single miRNA can regulate metastasis of primary tumors in vivo by coordinated regulation of multiple genes.
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SOX9 as a Predictor for Neurogenesis Potentiality of Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Preclinical studies of amniotic fluid-derived cell therapy have been successful in the research of neurodegenerative diseases, peripheral nerve injury, spinal cord injury, and brain ischemia. Transplantation of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) into rat brain ventricles has shown improvement in symptoms of Parkinson's disease and also highlighted the minimal immune rejection risk of AFSCs, even between species. Although AFSCs appeared to be a promising resource for cell-based regenerative therapy, AFSCs contain a heterogeneous pool of distinct cell types, rendering each preparation of AFSCs unique. Identification of predictive markers for neuron-prone AFSCs is necessary before such stem cell-based therapeutics can become a reality. In an attempt to identify markers of AFSCs to predict their ability for neurogenesis, we performed a two-phase study. In the discovery phase of 23 AFSCs, we tested ZNF521/Zfp521, OCT6, SOX1, SOX2, SOX3, and SOX9 as predictive markers of AFSCs for neural differentiation. In the validation phase, the efficacy of these predictive markers was tested in independent sets of 18 AFSCs and 14 dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). We found that high expression of SOX9 in AFSCs is associated with good neurogenetic ability, and these positive correlations were confirmed in independent sets of AFSCs and DPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX9 in AFSCs inhibited their neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, the discovery of SOX9 as a predictive marker for neuron-prone AFSCs could expedite the selection of useful clones for regenerative medicine, in particular, in neurological diseases and injuries.
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Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of normal spinal cord: evaluating cord visualization and conus medullaris position by T2-weighted sequences.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Prenatal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstration of the normal spinal cord and the conus medullaris location has not been well studied. We compared balanced fast field echo (bFFE) with single-shot turbo spin-echo (SSh-TSE) MR sequences for visualizing the normal spinal cord and position of conus medullaris in fetuses.
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Early prediction of medication refractoriness in children with idiopathic epilepsy based on scalp EEG analysis.
Int J Neural Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Refractory epilepsy often has deleterious effects on an individual's health and quality of life. Early identification of patients whose seizures are refractory to antiepileptic drugs is important in considering the use of alternative treatments. Although idiopathic epilepsy is regarded as having a significantly lower risk factor of developing refractory epilepsy, still a subset of patients with idiopathic epilepsy might be refractory to medical treatment. In this study, we developed an effective method to predict the refractoriness of idiopathic epilepsy. Sixteen EEG segments from 12 well-controlled patients and 14 EEG segments from 11 refractory patients were analyzed at the time of first EEG recordings before antiepileptic drug treatment. Ten crucial EEG feature descriptors were selected for classification. Three of 10 were related to decorrelation time, and four of 10 were related to relative power of delta/gamma. There were significantly higher values in these seven feature descriptors in the well-controlled group as compared to the refractory group. On the contrary, the remaining three feature descriptors related to spectral edge frequency, kurtosis, and energy of wavelet coefficients demonstrated significantly lower values in the well-controlled group as compared to the refractory group. The analyses yielded a weighted precision rate of 94.2%, and a 93.3% recall rate. Therefore, the developed method is a useful tool in identifying the possibility of developing refractory epilepsy in patients with idiopathic epilepsy.
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Monolayer MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition for fast photodetection.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has become a promising building block in optoelectronics for its high photosensitivity. However, sulfur vacancies and other defects significantly affect the electrical and optoelectronic properties of monolayer MoS2 devices. Here, highly crystalline molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) monolayers have been successfully synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Low-temperature photoluminescence comparison for MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers reveals that the MoSe2 monolayer shows a much weaker bound exciton peak; hence, the phototransistor based on MoSe2 presents a much faster response time (<25 ms) than the corresponding 30 s for the CVD MoS2 monolayer at room temperature in ambient conditions. The images obtained from transmission electron microscopy indicate that the MoSe exhibits fewer defects than MoS2. This work provides the fundamental understanding for the differences in optoelectronic behaviors between MoSe2 and MoS2 and is useful for guiding future designs in 2D material-based optoelectronic devices.
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Auricular point acupressure to manage chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) pilot study was designed to (1) assess the feasibility and tolerability of an easily administered, auricular point acupressure (APA) intervention and (2) provide an initial assessment of effect size as compared to a sham treatment. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to receive either the real or sham APA treatment. All participants were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Self-report measures were obtained at baseline, weekly during treatment, at end-of-intervention (EOI), and at a 1-month follow-up. A dropout rate of 26% in the real APA group and 50% in the sham group was observed. The reduction in worst pain from baseline to EOI was 41% for the real and 5% for the sham group with a Cohen's effect size of 1.22 (P < 0.00). Disability scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) decreased in the real group by 29% and were unchanged in the sham group (+3%) (P < 0.00). Given the high dropout rate, results must be interpreted with caution; nevertheless, our results suggest that APA may provide an inexpensive and effective complementary approach for the management of back pain in older adults, and further study is warranted.
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Efficacy of auricular therapy for pain management: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [-2.36, -0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain.
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Acute pancreatitis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism in a postpartum patient: a case report and literature review.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a rare clinical entity in reproductive women. Unusual hypercalcemia causing pancreatitis in the peripartum period carries significant morbidity to both the fetus and the mother.
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Impact of meteorological factors on the spatiotemporal patterns of dengue fever incidence.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Dengue fever is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases and has caused more than 50million infections annually over the world. For the purposes of disease prevention and climate change health impact assessment, it is crucial to understand the weather-disease associations for dengue fever. This study investigated the nonlinear delayed impact of meteorological conditions on the spatiotemporal variations of dengue fever in southern Taiwan during 1998-2011. We present a novel integration of a distributed lag nonlinear model and Markov random fields to assess the nonlinear lagged effects of weather variables on temporal dynamics of dengue fever and to account for the geographical heterogeneity. This study identified the most significant meteorological measures to dengue fever variations, i.e., weekly minimum temperature, and the weekly maximum 24-hour rainfall, by obtaining the relative risk (RR) with respect to disease counts and a continuous 20-week lagged time. Results show that RR increased as minimum temperature increased, especially for the lagged period 5-18weeks, and also suggest that the time to high disease risks can be decreased. Once the occurrence of maximum 24-hour rainfall is >50mm, an associated increased RR lasted for up to 15weeks. A temporary one-month decrease in the RR of dengue fever is noted following the extreme rain. In addition, the elevated incidence risk is identified in highly populated areas. Our results highlight the high nonlinearity of temporal lagged effects and magnitudes of temperature and rainfall on dengue fever epidemics. The results can be a practical reference for the early warning of dengue fever.
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Engineering vascular tissue with functional smooth muscle cells derived from human iPS cells and nanofibrous scaffolds.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) are promising in the replacement of diseased vascular tissues. However, it remains a great challenge to obtain a sufficient number of functional smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in a clinical setting to construct patient-specific TEBVs. In addition, it is critical to develop a scaffold to accommodate these cells and retain their functional phenotype for the regeneration of TEBVs. In this study, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were established from primary human aortic fibroblasts, and characterized with the pluripotency markers expression and cells' capabilities to differentiate into all three germ layer cells. A highly efficient method was then developed to induce these human iPSCs into proliferative SMCs. After multiple times of expansion, the expanded SMCs retained the potential to be induced into the functional contractile phenotype of mature SMCs, which was characterized by the contractile response to carbachol treatment, up-regulation of specific collagen genes under transforming growth factor ?1 treatment, and up-regulation of specific matrix metalloproteinase genes under cytokine stimulation. We also developed an advanced macroporous and nanofibrous (NF) poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with suitable pore size and interpore connectivity to seed these human iPSC-derived SMCs and maintain their differentiated phenotype. Subcutaneous implantation of the SMC-scaffold construct in nude mice demonstrated vascular tissue formation, with robust collagenous matrix deposition inside the scaffold and the maintenance of differentiated SMC phenotype. Taken together, this study established an exciting approach towards the construction of patient-specific TEBVs. We established patient-specific human iPSCs, derived proliferative SMCs for expansion, turned on their mature contractile SMC phenotype, and developed an advanced scaffold for these cells to regenerate vascular tissue in vivo.
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Reining in radiation injury: HIF2? in the gut.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Deletion of prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins or overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) in the gastrointestinal epithelium improves survival of mice after abdominal irradiation (Taniguchi et al., this issue).
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Direct imaging of band profile in single layer MoS2 on graphite: quasiparticle energy gap, metallic edge states, and edge band bending.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we probe the electronic structures of single layer MoS2 on graphite. The apparent quasiparticle energy gap of single layer MoS2 is measured to be 2.15 ± 0.06 eV at 77 K, albeit a higher second conduction band threshold at 0.2 eV above the apparent conduction band minimum is also observed. Combining it with photoluminescence studies, we deduce an exciton binding energy of 0.22 ± 0.1 eV (or 0.42 eV if the second threshold is use), a value that is lower than current theoretical predictions. Consistent with theoretical predictions, we directly observe metallic edge states of single layer MoS2. In the bulk region of MoS2, the Fermi level is located at 1.8 eV above the valence band maximum, possibly due to the formation of a graphite/MoS2 heterojunction. At the edge, however, we observe an upward band bending of 0.6 eV within a short depletion length of about 5 nm, analogous to the phenomena of Fermi level pinning of a 3D semiconductor by metallic surface states.
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Auricular point acupressure for chronic pain: a feasibility study of a 4-week treatment protocol.
Holist Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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This 1-group, 4-week observational study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting, retention, and completion of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) treatment protocol for chronic pain in adult patients and (2) assess the effects of APA in pain reduction (pain severity and pain interference) among these patients. The participants received a 4-week APA treatment protocol in weekly cycles. Each weekly cycle included 5 days with APA seeds taped onto the ear and 2 days without. Each participant was called every day to monitor adherence to the treatment protocol (the actual times the participant pressed the seeds each day and the duration of applied pressure), to answer analgesic use, and to answer the pain intensity questionnaire. Thirty participants were initially enrolled in this study, but 5 did not continue. The retention rate was 83% (n = 25). Approximately 60% of the participants (n = 15) adhered to the 4-week APA and completed all data assessments. At baseline assessment, only 40% of all participants (n = 12 of 30) were confident that APA would reduce and eliminate pain; nonetheless, all participants reported fewer episodes of pain occurrences and pain intensity with the APA treatment. For the participants who completed the 4-week APA protocol (n = 15), 96% (n = 14) decreased analgesic medication intake and 88% (n = 13) felt "much better" after the APA treatment. Participants reported an average reduction of 63% in the worst pain intensity at day 7. By the end of the 4-week APA protocol, an even greater reduction in pain intensity was reported (66%, n = 10, at day 28). The participants who did not complete the treatment protocol reported an average pain reduction of 29%, which fluctuated to 22% before they dropped out. Auricular point acupressure is feasible for patients with chronic pain. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study show a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function, which demonstrate the potential for APA as a treatment option for patients with chronic pain.
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Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 mitigates the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in mice.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit(+) Lin(-) Sca1(+) (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system.
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Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control.
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Caffeic acid phenethyl amide ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by various mechanisms including its antioxidant effect. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of a CAPE analog with more structural stability in plasma, caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA), on I/R injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats.
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Atm deletion with dual recombinase technology preferentially radiosensitizes tumor endothelium.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Cells isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia are exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Kinase inhibitors of ATM, the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia, can sensitize tumor cells to radiation therapy, but concern that inhibiting ATM in normal tissues will also increase normal tissue toxicity from radiation has limited their clinical application. Endothelial cell damage can contribute to the development of long-term side effects after radiation therapy, but the role of endothelial cell death in tumor response to radiation therapy remains controversial. Here, we developed dual recombinase technology using both FlpO and Cre recombinases to generate primary sarcomas in mice with endothelial cell-specific deletion of Atm to determine whether loss of Atm in endothelial cells sensitizes tumors and normal tissues to radiation. Although deletion of Atm in proliferating tumor endothelial cells enhanced the response of sarcomas to radiation, Atm deletion in quiescent endothelial cells of the heart did not sensitize mice to radiation-induced myocardial necrosis. Blocking cell cycle progression reversed the effect of Atm loss on tumor endothelial cell radiosensitivity. These results indicate that endothelial cells must progress through the cell cycle in order to be radiosensitized by Atm deletion.
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Human Mitochondrial NAD(P)(+)-Dependent Malic Enzyme Participates in Cutaneous Melanoma Progression and Invasion.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Cutaneous melanoma is the most life-threatening neoplasm of the skin, accounting for most of the skin cancer deaths. Accumulating evidence suggests that targeting metabolism is an appealing strategy for melanoma therapy. Mitochondrial NAD(P)(+)-dependent malic enzyme (ME2), an oxidative decarboxylase, was evaluated for its biological significance in cutaneous melanoma progression. ME2 mRNA and protein expression significantly increased during melanoma progression, as evidenced by Gene Expression Omnibus analysis and immunohistochemistry on clinically annotated tissue microarrays, respectively. In addition, ME2 knockdown attenuated melanoma cell proliferation in vitro. ME2 ablation resulted in reduced cellular ATP levels and elevated cellular reactive oxygen species production, which activated the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and inhibited acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Furthermore, ME2 expression was associated with cell migration and invasion. ME2 knockdown decreased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor cell growth in vivo. These results suggested that ME2 might be an important factor in melanoma progression and a novel biomarker of invasion.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 23 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.385.
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Progesterone increases apoptosis and inversely decreases autophagy in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH cells treated with epirubicin.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Epirubicin can induce intracellular reactive oxygen species and is widely used to treat unresectable HCC. Progesterone has been found to inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells. This study was designed to test the combined effects of epirubicin and progesterone on human hepatoma cell line, HA22T/VGH. These cells were treated with different concentrations of epirubicin with or without the coaddition of 30 ?M progesterone and then analyzed for apoptosis, autophagy, and expressions of apoptotic-related proteins and multidrug-resistant gene. Epirubicin treatment dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HA22T/VGH cells. Addition of 30 ?M progesterone, which was inactive alone, augmented the effect of epirubicin on the inhibition of growth of HA22T/VGH cells. Cotreatment with progesterone enhanced epirubicin-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by greater increase in caspase-3 activity and in the ratio of the apoptosis-regulating protein, Bax/Bcl-X(L). The combination also caused a decrease in autophagy and in the expression of multidrug resistance-related protein 1 mRNA compared to epirubicin alone. This study shows the epirubicin/progesterone combination was more effective in increasing apoptosis and inversely decreasing autophagy on HA22T/VGH cells treated with epirubicin alone, suggesting that this combination can potentially be used to treat HCC.
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Early evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness in children with epilepsy by quantitative EEG: a model of Mozart K.448 listening--a preliminary study.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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There are many treatments being developed for patients with epilepsy, including anti-epileptic drugs, ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation. To date, there is a lack of valid methods to predict at an early stage the therapeutic effects on patients with epilepsy who receive one of these treatments. Our previous studies revealed that epileptiform discharges which were observed in patients with epilepsy were significantly decreased while listening to Mozart K.448. In this study, we attempted to develop a useful marker by utilizing a quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) method in analyzing the features of EEG to early evaluate the effect of the music on children with epilepsy, even without epileptiform discharges.
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Mirror syndrome after fetoscopic laser therapy for twin-twin transfusion syndrome due to transient donor hydrops that resolved before delivery. A case report.
J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Mirror syndrome is a rare complication of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Its clinical picture includes massive edema, oliguria, and hemodilution in the context of fetal hydrops. The occurrence of mirror syndrome after fetoscopic laser therapy for TTTS has been well documented, but resolution of mirror syndrome before delivery has not been reported in the literature.
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Selective isolation of trypsin inhibitor and lectin from soybean whey by chitosan/tripolyphosphate/genipin co-crosslinked beads.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Selective isolation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and lectin from soybean whey solutions by different types of chitosan beads was investigated. The chitosan beads were co-crosslinked with tripolyphosphate/genipin in solutions at pH 5, 7 or 9 (CB5, CB7, CB9). The maximum adsorption ratios of chitosan beads to KTI and lectin were observed at pH 4.4 and 5.4, respectively; highly selective separation was also demonstrated at these pHs. The adsorption ratios increased with temperature, rising between 5 and 25 °C. CB9 produced the best adsorption ratio, followed by CB7 then CB5. The critical interaction governing absorption of chitosan beads to KTI and lectin could be hydrogen bonding. At pH 9, KTI and lectin desorbed efficiently from CB7 with desorption ratios of 80.9% and 81.4%, respectively. The desorption was most likely caused predominantly by electrostatic repulsion. KTI and lectin can effectively be selectively isolated from soybean whey using this novel separation technique.
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Shifting networks to achieve subgroup symmetry properties.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A simple method for the preparation of nanomaterials with new functionality by physical displacement of a network phase is suggested, giving a change in space group symmetry and hence properties. A double gyroid structure made by the self-assembly of block copolymers is used as a model system for the demonstration of shifting networks to achieve single gyroid-like scattering properties. Free-standing single gyroid-like network materials can be fabricated to give nanophotonic properties, similar to the photonic properties of a butterfly wing structure.
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Assessing cardiac injury in mice with dual energy-microCT, 4D-microCT, and microSPECT imaging after partial heart irradiation.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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To develop a mouse model of cardiac injury after partial heart irradiation (PHI) and to test whether dual energy (DE)-microCT and 4-dimensional (4D)-microCT can be used to assess cardiac injury after PHI to complement myocardial perfusion imaging using micro-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
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A next-generation dual-recombinase system for time- and host-specific targeting of pancreatic cancer.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have dramatically improved our understanding of tumor evolution and therapeutic resistance. However, sequential genetic manipulation of gene expression and targeting of the host is almost impossible using conventional Cre-loxP-based models. We have developed an inducible dual-recombinase system by combining flippase-FRT (Flp-FRT) and Cre-loxP recombination technologies to improve GEMMs of pancreatic cancer. This enables investigation of multistep carcinogenesis, genetic manipulation of tumor subpopulations (such as cancer stem cells), selective targeting of the tumor microenvironment and genetic validation of therapeutic targets in autochthonous tumors on a genome-wide scale. As a proof of concept, we performed tumor cell-autonomous and nonautonomous targeting, recapitulated hallmarks of human multistep carcinogenesis, validated genetic therapy by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase inactivation as well as cancer cell depletion and show that mast cells in the tumor microenvironment, which had been thought to be key oncogenic players, are dispensable for tumor formation.
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Short-term forecasting of Taiwanese earthquakes using a universal model of fusion-fission processes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow.
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Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures.
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Progesterone augments epirubicin-induced apoptosis in HA22T/VGH cells by increasing oxidative stress and upregulating Fas/FasL.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Although epirubicin, an anthracycline drug, is widely used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, its therapeutic efficacy is disappointing. Thus, the efficacy of epirubicin may be improved when combined with other drugs. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of combination of progesterone and epirubicin in the treatment of the human hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH and the possible mechanisms through which this combination might induce apoptosis.
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Acute Increase of Children's Conjunctivitis Clinic Visits by Asian Dust Storms Exposure - A Spatiotemporal Study in Taipei, Taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adverse health impacts of Asian dust storms (ADS) have been widely investigated and discussed in respiratory disease, but no study has examined the association between ADS events and their impact on eye diseases, especially in children. The impact of ADS events on the incidence of children's conjunctivitis is examined by analyzing the data from children's clinic visits registered in the 41 districts of Taipei area in Taiwan during the period 2002-2007. The structural additive regression modeling approach was used to assess the association between ADS events and clinic visits for conjunctivitis in children with consideration of day-of-the-week effects, temperature, and air quality levels. This study identifies an acute increase in the relative rate for children's conjunctivitis clinic visits during ADS periods with 1.48% (95% CI?=?0.79, 2.17) for preschool children (aged <6 years old) and 9.48% (95% CI?=?9.03, 9.93) for schoolchildren (aged ?6 years old), respectively. The relative rates during post-ADS periods were still statistically significant, but much lower than those during ADS periods. The spatial analysis presents geographic heterogeneity of children's conjunctivitis clinic visits where higher relative rates were more likely observed in the most populated districts Compared to previous ADS studies related to respiratory diseases, our results reveals significantly acute impacts on children's conjunctivitis during ADS periods, and much influence on schoolchildren. Vulnerable areas were also identified in high density population.
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A probabilistic spatial dengue Fever risk assessment by a threshold-based-quantile regression method.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Understanding the spatial characteristics of dengue fever (DF) incidences is crucial for governmental agencies to implement effective disease control strategies. We investigated the associations between environmental and socioeconomic factors and DF geographic distribution, are proposed a probabilistic risk assessment approach that uses threshold-based quantile regression to identify the significant risk factors for DF transmission and estimate the spatial distribution of DF risk regarding full probability distributions. To interpret risk, return period was also included to characterize the frequency pattern of DF geographic occurrences. The study area included old Kaohsiung City and Fongshan District, two areas in Taiwan that have been affected by severe DF infections in recent decades. Results indicated that water-related facilities, including canals and ditches, and various types of residential area, as well as the interactions between them, were significant factors that elevated DF risk. By contrast, the increase of per capita income and its associated interactions with residential areas mitigated the DF risk in the study area. Nonlinear associations between these factors and DF risk were present in various quantiles, implying that water-related factors characterized the underlying spatial patterns of DF, and high-density residential areas indicated the potential for high DF incidence (e.g., clustered infections). The spatial distributions of DF risks were assessed in terms of three distinct map presentations: expected incidence rates, incidence rates in various return periods, and return periods at distinct incidence rates. These probability-based spatial risk maps exhibited distinct DF risks associated with environmental factors, expressed as various DF magnitudes and occurrence probabilities across Kaohsiung, and can serve as a reference for local governmental agencies.
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Large-Area Synthesis of Highly Crystalline WSe2 Monolayers and Device Applications.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have recently attracted much attention owing to their potential in valleytronics, flexible and low-power electronics, and optoelectronic devices. Recent reports have demonstrated the growth of large-size two-dimensional MoS2 layers by the sulfurization of molybdenum oxides. However, the growth of a transition metal selenide monolayer has still been a challenge. Here we report that the introduction of hydrogen in the reaction chamber helps to activate the selenization of WO3, where large-size WSe2 monolayer flakes or thin films can be successfully grown. The top-gated field-effect transistors based on WSe2 monolayers using ionic gels as the dielectrics exhibit ambipolar characteristics, where the hole and electron mobility values are up to 90 and 7 cm(2)/Vs, respectively. These films can be transferred onto arbitrary substrates, which may inspire research efforts to explore their properties and applications. The resistor-loaded inverter based on a WSe2 film, with a gain of ?13, further demonstrates its applicability for logic-circuit integrations.
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Three-Dimensional Molybdenum Sulfide Sponges for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Electroactive MoSx catalysts on porous 3D sponges synthezied by a simple and scalable thermolysis process are proposed. Although no conducting materials are used to host the MoSx catalysts, they still serve as efficient electrodes for hydrogen evolution. The high current density of the MoSx-coated sponges are attributed to the large electrochemical surface area and their S-rich chemical structure.
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Significance of bladder trabeculation in postmenopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse: clinical and urodynamic assessments.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Bladder trabeculation (BT) is a secondary result of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), which may result from severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among clinical manifestations, urodynamic findings, and BT in women with severe POP.
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Field study of using naturally occurring radon to assess the dense non-aqueous phase liquid distribution in saturated zone.
J Environ Radioact
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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The concept of radon deficiency such as the ratios of radon concentrations to the maximum measured value of a sample batch was employed as the survey methodology for this study to investigate contamination sources in an industrial zone that was suspected of causing subsurface dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination. The results showed that radon concentrations in certain wells were significantly lower than that in uncontaminated regions. Radon concentrations in groundwater are influenced by the in situ bioremediation of vegetable oil, which causes abnormal reductions of the radon in groundwater because radon partitions into vegetable oil and results in more variable for the radon deficit method to showing the impacts of remediation. Six contaminated regions were identified by integrating radon concentration ratios (divided into low (L), middle (M), and high (H) levels) and DNAPL concentrations (divided into low (L) and high (H) levels). Contaminated regions in the LH, MH, and HH categories are located in the vicinity of the contamination source, and those in the HL category are located far from the source zone. The ML and LL categories indicate the involvement of unknown factors, and that additional analyses are required to uncover the facts that affect radon and DNAPL concentrations.
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Seroprevalence of influenza A H1N1 and seroconversion of mothers and infants induced by a single dose of monovalent vaccine.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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To determine the prevalence of preexisting antibodies against the pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) virus in pregnant women and to evaluate the seroprotection of the mothers and infants by a single injection of monovalent vaccine during the pandemic.
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The reprogrammed pancreatic progenitor-like intermediate state of hepatic cells is more susceptible to pancreatic beta cell differentiation.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapy. However, their low efficiency of lineage-specific differentiation and tumorigenesis severely hinder clinical translation. We hypothesized that reprogramming of somatic cells into lineage-specific progenitor cells might allow for large-scale expansion, avoiding the tumorigenesis inherent with iPSCs and simultaneously facilitating lineage-specific differentiation. Here we aimed at reprogramming rat hepatic WB cells, using four Yamanaka factors, into pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) or intermediate (IM) cells that have characteristics of PPCs. IM clones were selected based on their specific morphology and alkaline phosphatase activity and stably passaged under defined culture conditions. IM cells did not have iPSC properties, could be stably expanded in large quantity, and expressed all 14 genes that are used to define the PPC developmental stage. Directed differentiation of IM and WB cells by Pdx1-Ngn3-MafA (PNM) into pancreatic beta-like cells revealed that the IM cells are more susceptible to directed beta cell differentiation because of their open chromatin configuration, as demonstrated by expression of key pancreatic beta cell genes, secretion of insulin in response to glucose stimulation, and easy access to exogenous PNM proteins at the rat insulin 1 and Pdx1 promoters. This notion that IM cells are superior to their parental cells is further supported by the epigenetic demonstration of accessibility of Pdx1 and insulin 1 promoters. In conclusion, we have developed a strategy to derive and expand PPC cells from hepatic WB cells using conventional cell reprogramming. This proof-of-principal study may offer a novel, safe and effective way to generate autologous pancreatic beta cells for cell therapy of diabetes.
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One-Step Formation of a Single Atomic-Layer Transistor by the Selective Fluorination of a Graphene Film.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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In this study, the scalable and one-step fabrication of single atomic-layer transistors is demonstrated by the selective fluorination of graphene using a low-damage CF4 plasma treatment, where the generated F-radicals preferentially fluorinated the graphene at low temperature (<200 °C) while defect formation was suppressed by screening out the effect of ion damage. The chemical structure of the C-F bonds is well correlated with their optical and electrical properties in fluorinated graphene, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical and electrical characterizations. The electrical conductivity of the resultant fluorinated graphene (F-graphene) was demonstrated to be in the range between 1.6 k?/sq and 1 M?/sq by adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of C/F in the range between 27.4 and 5.6, respectively. Moreover, a unique heterojunction structure of semi-metal/semiconductor/insulator can be directly formed in a single layer of graphene using a one-step fluorination process by introducing a Au thin-film as a buffer layer. With this heterojunction structure, it would be possible to fabricate transistors in a single graphene film via a one-step fluorination process, in which pristine graphene, partial F-graphene, and highly F-graphene serve as the source/drain contacts, the channel, and the channel isolation in a transistor, respectively. The demonstrated graphene transistor exhibits an on-off ratio above 10, which is 3-fold higher than that of devices made from pristine graphene. This efficient transistor fabrication method produces electrical heterojunctions of graphene over a large area and with selective patterning, providing the potential for the integration of electronics down to the single atomic-layer scale.
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Bacterial etiology of acute otitis media in the era prior to universal pneumococcal vaccination in Taiwanese children.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequent bacterial infections in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are the two major bacterial pathogens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced into Taiwan in 2005 and only some children were vaccinated. This retrospective study assessed the bacterial etiology of AOM and its antimicrobial susceptibility in the era prior to universal pneumococcal vaccination in Taiwan.
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The engagement of CTLA-4 on primary melanoma cell lines induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and TNF-? production.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4) is traditionally known as a negative regulator of T cell activation. The blocking of CTLA-4 using human monoclonal antibodies, such as Ipilimumab, is currently used to relieve CTLA-4-mediated inhibition of anti-tumor immune response in metastatic melanoma. Herein, we have analyzed CTLA-4 expression and Ipilimumab reactivity on melanoma cell lines and tumor tissues from cutaneous melanoma patients. Then, we investigated whether Ipilimumab can trigger innate immunity in terms of antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-? release. Finally, a xenograft murine model was set up to determine in vivo the effects of Ipilimumab and NK cells on melanoma.
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Risk factors of progressive community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children: A prospective study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Complications regarding pneumonia occur in children during hospitalization and treatment. The objective of this study is to identify the risk factors of progressive pneumonia in order to institute early appropriate therapy.
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Circulating mononuclear progenitor cells: differential roles for subpopulations in repair of retinal vascular injury.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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We examined effect on retinal vascular homing of exogenous CD34(+) and CD14(+) progenitor cells using mouse models of chronic (streptozotocin [STZ]-induced diabetes) and acute (ischemia-reperfusion [I/R]) ocular vascular injury.
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Bioenergetic failure correlates with autophagy and apoptosis in rat liver following silver nanoparticle intraperitoneally administration.
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Deposition and accumulation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-nps) in the liver have been shown to induce hepatotoxicity in animal studies. The hepatotoxicity may include oxidative stress, abnormalities in energy metabolism, and cell death. Studies have indicated that autophagy is an intracellular event involving balance of energy, nutrients, and turnover of subcellular organelles. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that autophagy plays a role in mediating hepatotoxicity in animal after exposure to Ag-nps. Focus was placed on interrelationship between energy metabolism, autophagy, apoptosis and hepatic dysfunction.
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Tumor suppressor miR-375 regulates MYC expression via repression of CIP2A coding sequence through multiple miRNA-mRNA interactions.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes in various biological processes. In our preliminary miRNA microarray analysis, miR-375 was identified as the most underexpressed in human oral tumor versus controls. The purpose of the present study is to examine the function of miR-375 as a candidate tumor suppressor miRNA in oral cancer. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), a guardian of oncoprotein MYC, is identified as a candidate miR-375 target based on bioinformatics. Luciferase assay accompanied by target sequence mutagenesis elucidates five functional miR-375-binding sites clustered in the CIP2A coding sequence close to the C-terminal domain. Overexpression of CIP2A is clearly demonstrated in oral cancers, and inverse correlation between miR-375 and CIP2A is observed in the tumors, as well as in NCI-60 cell lines, indicating the potential generalized involvement of the miR-375-CIP2A relationship in many other cancers. Transient transfection of miR-375 in oral cancer cells reduces the expression of CIP2A, resulting in decrease of MYC protein levels and leading to reduced proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Therefore this study shows that underexpression of tumor suppressor miR-375 could lead to uncontrolled CIP2A expression and extended stability of MYC, which contributes to promoting cancerous phenotypes.
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Simvastatin induced HCT116 colorectal cancer cell apoptosis through p38MAPK-p53-survivin signaling cascade.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors with cholesterol-lowering properties, were recently shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying statin-induced cancer cell death remains to be elucidated. Elevated level of survivin is often found over-expressed in human cancers and has been implicated in the progression of tumorigenesis. Given its central role in cell division and action as an apoptosis suppressor, survivin represents a potential molecular target in cancer management.
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Biochanin a promotes osteogenic but inhibits adipogenic differentiation: evidence with primary adipose-derived stem cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Biochanin A has promising effects on bone formation in vivo, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear yet. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether biochanin A regulates osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation using primary adipose-derived stem cells. The effects of biochanin A (at a physiologically relevant concentration of 0.1-1??M) were assessed in vitro using various approaches, including Oil red O staining, Nile red staining, alizarin red S staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and western blotting. The results showed that biochanin A significantly suppressed adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by the inhibition of cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation, along with the inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR ? ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and leptin and osteopontin (OPN) mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, treatment of cells with 0.3??M biochanin A increased the mineralization and ALP activity, and stimulated the expression of the osteogenic marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). Furthermore, biochanin A induced the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) proteins. These observations suggest that biochanin A prevents adipogenesis, enhances osteoblast differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells, and has beneficial regulatory effects in bone formation.
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Self-assembly of hierarchical MoSx/CNT nanocomposites (2
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Two dimension (2D) layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has emerged as a promising candidate for the anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, 2D MoSx (2 ? x ? 3) nanosheet-coated 1D multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) nanocomposites with hierarchical architecture were synthesized via a high-throughput solvent thermal method under low temperature at 200°C. The unique hierarchical nanostructures with MWNTs backbone and nanosheets of MoSx have significantly promoted the electrode performance in LIBs. Every single MoSx nanosheet interconnect to MWNTs centers with maximized exposed electrochemical active sites, which significantly enhance ion diffusion efficiency and accommodate volume expansion during the electrochemical reaction. A remarkably high specific capacity (i.e., > 1000?mAh/g) was achieved at the current density of 50?mA g(-1), which is much higher than theoretical numbers for either MWNTs or MoS2 along (~372 and ~670?mAh/g, respectively). We anticipate 2D nanosheets/1D MWNTs nanocomposites will be promising materials in new generation practical LIBs.
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Mitochondrial activation in the growth-restricted fetus of monochorionic twins.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To study the regulatory mechanisms of selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) independent of confounding genetic factors, monochorionic (MC) twins are the ideal model, because they have identical genomic DNA. We hypothesize that the intrauterine growth restriction fetus has mitochondrial activation compared with its larger counterpart, and sought to demonstrate this using the MC twin model.
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Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to myocytes via bacterial injection of MyoD protein.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Forced exogenous gene expression has been well characterized as an effective method for directing both cellular differentiation and dedifferentiation. However, transgene expression is not amenable for therapeutic application due to potential insertional mutagenesis. Protein-based techniques provide a safe alternative, but current protein delivery methods are quite limited by labor-intensive purification processes, low protein yield, and inefficient intracellular targeting. Such limitations may be overcome by using a naturally occurring bacterial protein injection system, called the type III secretion system (T3SS), which injects bacterial proteins directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm. Using a genetically attenuated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we have previously described the ability of this system to easily deliver a high quantity of protein to both differentiated and pluripotent cells. MyoD is a key muscle regulatory factor, the overexpression of which is able to induce transdifferentiation of numerous cell types into functional myocytes. Here we demonstrate transient injection of MyoD protein by P. aeruginosa to be sufficient to induce myogenic conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In addition to clear morphological changes, muscle-specific gene expression has been observed both at mRNA and protein levels. These studies serve as a foundation for the bacterial delivery of transcription factors to efficiently modulate concentration-dependent and temporal activation of gene expression that directs cell fate without jeopardizing genomic integrity.
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Parasympathetic activation is involved in reducing epileptiform discharges when listening to Mozart music.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Listening to Mozart K.448 has been demonstrated to improve spatial task scores, leading to what is known as the Mozart effect. Our previous work revealed the positive effects of Mozart K.448 in reducing epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy. However, the mechanism remains unclear. parasympathetic activation has been shown to help seizure control in many studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of Mozart music on epileptiform discharges and autonomic activity.
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Significance of bladder trabeculation in postmenopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse: clinical and urodynamic assessments.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Bladder trabeculation (BT) is a secondary result of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), which may result from severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among clinical manifestations, urodynamic findings, and BT in women with severe POP. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with stage 3 or stage 4 POP who underwent prolapse surgical operation in a tertiary hospital between 2005 and 2011. All patients received preoperative evaluations, including urodynamic studies, cystoscopy, and a structured urogynecological questionnaire. Demographics, LUTS, pelvic floor symptoms, and urodynamic findings were compared between women with BT and women without BT. RESULTS: Of the 308 women included, 54.9% had BT and 12.7% were diagnosed with BOO (maximal flow rate <12 mL/s; detrusor pressure at maximal flow >20 cm H2O). Mean age, prevalence of urgency, urge incontinence, voiding difficulty, detrusor overactivity, and postvoid residual greater than 100 mL were significantly higher in women with BT than in women without BT. In addition, severe BT had significantly higher prevalences of detrusor overactivity, BOO, lower maximal cystometric capacity, urge incontinence, and anterior vaginal prolapse. Logistic regression demonstrated that detrusor overactivity was the only variable associated with BT. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the women with severe POP have BT, which, when compared with women without BT, indicates higher incidences of LUTS, detrusor overactivity, and urinary retention. An objective evaluation of BT should become a prerequisite examination for women with severe POP who would undergo prolapse surgical operation.
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Mozart K.448 attenuates spontaneous absence seizure and related high-voltage rhythmic spike discharges in Long Evans rats.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Recent research has revealed more evidence supporting the positive effects of music on humans and animals. However, evidence of musics effects on improving epilepsy in animals is sparse. This study aimed to clarify the influence of Mozarts music in Long Evans rats, which are characterized by spontaneous absence epilepsy (SAE) and high-voltage rhythmic spike (HVRS) discharges.
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Efficient mapping and geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality at the county-level by race and age in the U.S.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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This study identified geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality across the U.S. using kriging to overcome unavailability of data because of confidentiality and reliability concerns. A structured additive regression model was used to detect where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated across nine divisions with 3109 U.S. counties during 1982-2004. Our analysis identified at least 25.8% of counties where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated. High-risk counties compared to lower-risk counties had higher relative risks for African American women than for White women. Greater geographic disparities more likely present in African American women and younger women. To sum up, our statistical approach reduced the impact of unavailable data, and identified the number and location of counties with high breast cancer mortality risk by race and age across the U.S.
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A randomized clinical trial of auricular point acupressure for chronic low back pain: a feasibility study.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Objectives. This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) was designed to investigate the feasibility and effects of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) for chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods. Participants were randomized to either true APA (true acupoints with taped seeds on the designated ear points for CLBP) or sham APA (sham acupoints with taped seeds but on different locations than those designated for CLBP). The duration of treatment was four weeks. Participants were assessed before treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1 month following treatment. Results. Participants in the true APA group who completed the 4-week APA treatment had a 70% reduction in worst pain intensity, a 75% reduction in overall pain intensity, and a 42% improvement in disability due to back pain from baseline assessment. The reductions of worst pain and overall pain intensity in the true APA group were statistically greater than participants in the sham group (P < 0.01) at the completion of a 4-week APA and 1 month followup. Discussion. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study showed a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function suggesting that APA may be a promising treatment for patients with CLBP.
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The modifying effect of patient location on stage-specific survival following colorectal cancer using geosurvival models.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the US, and stage at diagnosis is the primary prognostic factor. To date, the interplay between geographic place and individual characteristics such as cancer stage with CRC survival is unexplored. We used a Bayesian geosurvival statistical model to evaluate whether the spatial patterns of CRC survival at the census tract level varies by stage at diagnosis (in situ/local, regional, distant), controlling for patient characteristics, surveillance test use, and treatment using linked 1991-2005 SEER-Medicare data of patients ? 66 years old in two US metropolitan areas. The spatial pattern of survival varied by stage at diagnosis for both cancer sites and registries. Significant spatial effects were identified in all census tracts for colon cancer and the majority of census tracts for rectal cancer. Geographic disparities appeared to be highest for distant-stage rectal cancer. Compared to those with in situ/local stage in the same census tracts, patients with distant-stage cancer were at most 7.73 times and 4.69 times more likely to die of colon and rectal cancer, respectively. Moreover, frailty areas for CRC at in situ/local stage more likely have a higher relative risk at regional stage, but not at distant stage. We identified geographic areas with excessive risk of CRC death and demonstrated that spatial patterns varied by both cancer type and cancer stage. More research is needed to understand the moderating pathways between geographic and individual-level factors on CRC survival.
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Spatial vulnerability under extreme events: a case of Asian dust storms effects on childrens respiratory health.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Asian dust storm (ADS) events have raised concerns regarding their adverse impact on human health. Whether ADS events can result in the heterogeneity of health impacts on children across space and time has not been studied. The goal of this study is to examine the spatial vulnerability impact of ADS events on childrens respiratory health geographically and to analyze any patterns related to ADS episodes. From 1998 to 2007, data from both preschool childrens and schoolchildrens daily respiratory clinic visits, gathered from patients located in 41 districts of Taipei City and New Taipei City, are analyzed in a Bayesian spatiotemporal model in order to investigate the interaction between spatial effects and ADS episodes. When adjusting for the temporal effect, air pollutants, and temperature, the spatial pattern explicitly varies during defined study periods: non-ADS periods, ADS periods, and post-ADS periods. Compared to non-ADS periods, the relative rate of childrens respiratory clinic visits significantly reduced 0.74 to 0.99 times in most districts during ADS periods, while the relative rate rose from 1.01 to 1.11 times in more than half of districts during post-ADS periods, especially in schoolchildren. This spatial vulnerability denotes that the significantly increased relative rate of respiratory clinic visits during post-ADS periods is primarily located in highly urbanized areas for both childrens populations. Hence, the results of this study suggest that schoolchildren are particularly more vulnerable to the health impacts of ADS exposure in terms of higher excessive risks over a larger spatial extent than preschool children, especially during post-ADS periods.
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Osteoblasts survive the arsenic trioxide treatment by activation of ATM-mediated pathway.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is widely used in tumor treatment, but excessive arsenic exposure can have adverse effects. We recently found that, in primary osteoblasts, ATO produces oxidative stress and causes DNA tailing, but does not induce apoptosis. We further examined the signaling pathway by which osteoblasts survive ATO treatment, and found that they were arrested at G2/M phase of the cell cycle at 30h and overrode the G2/M boundary at 48h. After treatment for 30h, there was increased Cdc2 phosphorylation and expression of Wee1, a Cdc2 kinase, and expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21(waf1/cip1), which interacts with Cdc2. Furthermore, levels of the phosphatase Cdc25C, which activates Cdc2, were decreased, while the ratio of its phosphorylated/inactivated form to the total amount was increased. Moreover, phosphorylation/activation of the checkpoint kinases Chk1, Chk2 and p53 levels were increased, as were levels of activated ATM and ?-H2AX. The cell viability was decreased as an ATM inhibitor was added. Additionally, these effects of ATO on ?-H2AX, Chk1, Chk2, p53, and p21(waf1/cip1) were reduced by an ATM inhibitor. These findings suggest that G2/M phase arrest of osteoblasts is mediated by Chk1/Chk2 activation via an ATM-dependent pathway by which osteoblasts survive.
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Caffeine regulates osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary adipose-derived stem cells and a bone marrow stromal cell line.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Caffeine consumption reportedly influences bone mineral density and body weight. However, the effects of caffeine on bone metabolism are still controversial, and whether the dosage of caffeine influences osteogenic differentiation is yet to be clarified. In the present study, we cultured primary adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and a bone marrow stromal cell line (M2-10B4) in osteogenic differentiation media containing varying concentrations of caffeine. Caffeine had biphasic effects: 0.1 mM caffeine significantly enhanced mineralization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Consistent with these observations, a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mM upregulated the osteogenic differentiation marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), and elevated osteoprotegerin (OPG), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) levels. However, a concentration of caffeine greater than 0.3 mM suppressed the differentiation of both the cell types. These findings indicate that caffeine has a beneficial effect on ADSCs and bone marrow stromal cells, enhancing differentiation to osteoblasts; this effect, which is mediated via RUNX2 activation at low doses is significantly suppressed at high doses.
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Assessing the radiation response of lung cancer with different gene mutations using genetically engineered mice.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are a heterogeneous group of carcinomas harboring a variety of different gene mutations. We have utilized two distinct genetically engineered mouse models of human NSCLC (adenocarcinoma) to investigate how genetic factors within tumor parenchymal cells influence the in vivo tumor growth delay after one or two fractions of radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Primary lung adenocarcinomas were generated in vivo in mice by intranasal delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase. Lung cancers expressed oncogenic Kras(G12D) and were also deficient in one of two tumor suppressor genes: p53 or Ink4a/ARF. Mice received no radiation treatment or whole lung irradiation in a single fraction (11.6?Gy) or in two 7.3?Gy fractions (14.6?Gy total) separated by 24?h. In each case, the biologically effective dose (BED) equaled 25?Gy10. Response to RT was assessed by micro-CT 2?weeks after treatment. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining were performed to assess the integrity of the p53 pathway, the G1 cell-cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis. Results: Tumor growth rates prior to RT were similar for the two genetic variants of lung adenocarcinoma. Lung cancers with wild-type (WT) p53 (LSL-Kras; Ink4a/ARF(FL/FL) mice) responded better to two daily fractions of 7.3?Gy compared to a single fraction of 11.6?Gy (P?=?0.002). There was no statistically significant difference in the response of lung cancers deficient in p53 (LSL-Kras; p53(FL/FL) mice) to a single fraction (11.6?Gy) compared to 7.3?Gy?×?2 (P?=?0.23). Expression of the p53 target genes p21 and PUMA were higher and bromodeoxyuridine uptake was lower after RT in tumors with WT p53. Conclusion: Using an in vivo model of malignant lung cancer in mice, we demonstrate that the response of primary lung cancers to one or two fractions of RT can be influenced by specific gene mutations.
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Increased autophagy in the placental territory of selective intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic twins.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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This study investigates the placental autophagic activity in growth-restricted fetuses in the monochorionic (MC) twin model.
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Generation of primary tumors with Flp recombinase in FRT-flanked p53 mice.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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The site-specific recombinases Cre and Flp can mutate genes in a spatially and temporally restricted manner in mice. Conditional recombination of the tumor suppressor gene p53 using the Cre-loxP system has led to the development of multiple genetically engineered mouse models of human cancer. However, the use of Cre recombinase to initiate tumors in mouse models limits the utilization of Cre to genetically modify other genes in tumor stromal cells in these models. To overcome this limitation, we inserted FRT (flippase recognition target) sites flanking exons 2-6 of the endogenous p53 gene in mice to generate a p53(FRT) allele that can be deleted by Flp recombinase. We show that FlpO-mediated deletion of p53 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts impairs the p53-dependent response to genotoxic stress in vitro. In addition, using FSF-Kras(G12D/+); p53(FRT/FRT) mice, we demonstrate that an adenovirus expressing FlpO recombinase can initiate primary lung cancers and sarcomas in mice. p53(FRT) mice will enable dual recombinase technology to study cancer biology because Cre is available to modify genes specifically in stromal cells to investigate their role in tumor development, progression and response to therapy.
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Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox 1 is associated with lupus susceptibility in mice and humans.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Sle1a.1 is part of the Sle1 susceptibility locus, which has the strongest association with lupus nephritis in the NZM2410 mouse model. In this study, we show that Sle1a.1 results in the production of activated and autoreactive CD4(+) T cells. Additionally, Sle1a.1 expression reduces the peripheral regulatory T cell pool, as well as induces a defective response of CD4(+) T cells to the retinoic acid expansion of TGF-?-induced regulatory T cells. At the molecular level, Sle1a.1 corresponds to an increased expression of a novel splice isoform of Pbx1, Pbx1-d. Pbx1-d overexpression is sufficient to induce an activated/inflammatory phenotype in Jurkat T cells and to decrease their apoptotic response to retinoic acid. PBX1-d is expressed more frequently in the CD4(+) T cells from lupus patients than from healthy controls, and its presence correlates with an increased central memory T cell population. These findings indicate that Pbx1 is a novel lupus susceptibility gene that regulates T cell activation and tolerance.
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p21 protects "Super p53" mice from the radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Exposure of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to high doses of radiation can lead to lethality from the GI syndrome. Although the molecular mechanism regulating the GI syndrome remains to be fully defined, we have recently demonstrated that p53 within the GI epithelial cells controls the radiation-induced GI syndrome. Mice lacking p53 in the GI epithelium were sensitized to the GI syndrome, while transgenic mice with one additional copy of p53 called "Super p53" mice were protected from the GI syndrome. Here, we crossed Super p53 mice to p21?/? mice that lack the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Super p53; p21?/? mice were sensitized to the GI syndrome compared to Super p53 mice that retain one p21 allele. In addition, mice lacking p21 were not protected from the GI syndrome with one extra copy of p53. These results suggest that p21 protects Super p53 mice from the GI syndrome.
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A highly organized structure mediating nuclear localization of a Myb2 transcription factor in the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Nuclear proteins usually contain specific peptide sequences, referred to as nuclear localization signals (NLSs), for nuclear import. These signals remain unexplored in the protozoan pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis. The nuclear import of a Myb2 transcription factor was studied here using immunodetection of a hemagglutinin-tagged Myb2 overexpressed in the parasite. The tagged Myb2 was localized to the nucleus as punctate signals. With mutations of its polybasic sequences, 48KKQK51 and 61KR62, Myb2 was localized to the nucleus, but the signal was diffusive. When fused to a C-terminal non-nuclear protein, the Myb2 sequence spanning amino acid (aa) residues 48 to 143, which is embedded within the R2R3 DNA-binding domain (aa 40 to 156), was essential and sufficient for efficient nuclear import of a bacterial tetracycline repressor (TetR), and yet the transport efficiency was reduced with an additional fusion of a firefly luciferase to TetR, while classical NLSs from the simian virus 40 T-antigen had no function in this assay system. Myb2 nuclear import and DNA-binding activity were substantially perturbed with mutation of a conserved isoleucine (I74) in helix 2 to proline that altered secondary structure and ternary folding of the R2R3 domain. Disruption of DNA-binding activity alone by point mutation of a lysine residue, K51, preceding the structural domain had little effect on Myb2 nuclear localization, suggesting that nuclear translocation of Myb2, which requires an ordered structural domain, is independent of its DNA binding activity. These findings provide useful information for testing whether myriad Mybs in the parasite use a common module to regulate nuclear import.
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The burden of obesity among adults with bipolar disorder in the United States.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Previous studies of clinical samples of adults with bipolar disorder (BD) suggest that there is increased prevalence of obesity and that obesity is associated with greater BD severity. We therefore examined this topic in a representative epidemiologic sample.
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Arecoline decreases interleukin-6 production and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human basal cell carcinoma cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Arecoline, the most abundant areca alkaloid, has been reported to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in epithelial cancer cells. Since IL-6 overexpression contributes to the tumorigenic potency of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), this study was designed to investigate whether arecoline altered IL-6 expression and its downstream regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cultured BCC-1/KMC cells. BCC-1/KMC cells and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were treated with arecoline at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100?g/ml, then IL-6 production and expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle progress-related factors were examined. After 24h exposure, arecoline inhibited BCC-1/KMC cell growth and decreased IL-6 production in terms of mRNA expression and protein secretion, but had no effect on HaCaT cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation showed that arecoline induced apoptosis of BCC-1/KMC cells in a dose-dependent manner, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, arecoline induced progressive and sustained accumulation of BCC-1/KMC cells in G2/M phase as a result of reducing checkpoint Cdc2 activity by decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase levels and increasing p53 levels. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of arecoline led to decreased BCC-1/KMC tumor growth in BALB/c mice by inducing apoptosis. This study demonstrates that arecoline has potential for preventing BCC tumorigenesis by reducing levels of the tumor cell survival factor IL-6, increasing levels of the tumor suppressor factor p53, and eliciting cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis.
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Fetal hemodynamic changes following maternal betamethasone administration in monochorionic twin pregnancies featuring one twin with selective growth restriction and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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?To evaluate fetal hemodynamic changes following maternal betamethasone administration in monochorionic twin pregnancies featuring one twin with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) and absence of end-diastolic velocity in umbilical artery (UA) Doppler.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.